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By Walter Howchin 
Emeritus Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, 

University of Adelaide 


While engaged in geological field-work on Kangaroo Island, in 1902, the writer came 
upon evidences of a previous occupation of the island by aborigines. As it had been 
believed previously (from negative evidence) that the Australian natives had not crossed 
from the mainland to the island, it was thought worthwhile to incorporate the facts thus 
obtained with other observations made at the time. As my main object in visiting the 
island was in other directions, only such anthropological observations that came casually 
under my notice were recorded, concluding with the words, "Now that attention has been 
called to this subject it is probable that further evidences of the occupation of Kangaroo 
Island by an aboriginal population will be secured" (No. 4). Two localities were specially 
noticed. One of these was at Hawk's Nest, where the implements were formed from 
quartzite. The other was on the southern cost, at the Brecknells sand-dunes, in which 
worked stone implements were discovered ; adjacent to which were the remains of two 
heaps of broken and whole sea-shells that had the characteristics of being "kitchen 
middens" left by the aborigines. 


PAPERS (iU»),« 


I .,, ;., | | I'nii I OR DP ( rttOI 0G1 Vtftl PaI-AJ WI'OI flGI , I '*-<'■ I R > n Olf \Oi I UUI . 

Winu; enum^'d in geological field-work on Kangaroo Island, in 1902 3 tin.' writer 

Cailie upon evidences of a previous occupation of the island by aborigines. As i! 

had been believed previously (from negative evidence) thai tltt; Australian natives 
liad do1 crossed iroin the mainland to the island, it was thought worth while to 
incorporate the facts thus obtained with other observations made a1 tin* tune. As 
my mam objeel in visiting the inland was in other directions, only such ftntbropcr- 
logical Enervations that came easitaH; under my notice were recorded, conducting 
with the words', "Now thai attention has been called to this mibjeol it is probable 
Unit farther evidetie.CN of tin- occupation erf Kangaroo Inland by an aboriginal 
population will I"' fie-curcd" ('No. -I ). Two localities were specially noticed, one 
of those was at Hawk's Nest, where tin- implements were formed trom qtiprtrita 
The other was on the southern coast, fit the BreckneUs sand-dunes, in which 

.•Mirlced stone implements were discover* d ; ad.jaccnl 1o whieh were llic remains of 

two heaps of broken and whole sea-shells that bad ili< 1 characteristics of being 
"kitchen midden^' 1 h't't by the aborigines. 

In (he Record* of the South A nsi ralian Museum for 1981 I 1 '• Messrs. Tin- 
dak 1 and hfaegraith published a paper describing a visii to the island and the 
collection of further native implements. Their chief collecting gwuid waff, aa 
noted in my case, around EawVn Neat. In the preamble to their paper they state, 
i Mn the following paper the Hawk's fftesi oefiurr**nee is deserihed in detail, after 
whieh brief records of Rome other localities, seme corrections in si previous account. 
and m Lreiiernl dismission are given" (p. 276) 

The premised "corrections in a previons ftCCOnnt," which is stated to be 

r 'Howchin 7 K, " were placed under a separate heading, and included two items. 
The first of these deall with the "kitchen middens." which my critics declared 

i; "Trotiva of au Extinct Aboriginal Population 011 KVinguiou tsl.-iml," l>y X-.i-netn P.. 
r ri im(:i i- m\(\ Bi ian I r. kCacgraith. 

ii-i "Notes im the Supposed Primitive Rtorte raiplwntMitB fruiu t in- Tahtalaud Rpgtonn wf 
.n Australia," by Nttmiau B. Tin dale 

P)"A < '<.nr r ihul ion tO tin- of KuliHis; S t* oUmtv.m j ion> Oil I !»-• \;i1mril RorceH 

mi., in the eio.iiirt'mn of Flaked Stones 011 tin- (Vntrril Australian TabMnnris," h 
\\ oofl Jem. 1 - Hurl T. D. < fampbeil. 

I Records <>i the s.a. MfysEUM 

had Ihi'Ii formed, nol by human ;i<!Tiicy, hul by the action of sea-birds, or I lie 
effects of VVaVftS, which may have carried up 1 he shells from the beaeh on tn 
ihc top tff thl' dill's. The pnssihil il ies of such fi I'urt n i1 <ms origin of llie shell- 
mounds had been discussed in my paper, and a deeikion reaehed on the following 

r\ hir-hri'S : 

(w) lis height above the beaeh. My critics gave their estimate a1 6 metres; 

tny estimate was 80 feet. The cliff was verticil], with a slio'hl shelving towards 

the boaeli al its summit. 

The great extenl of ihc shell .covered area, thai weaKiired 50 yards by 

"') V.'irds. 

(r) The si/e of the mound ;iihl the great number and variety of llie shells. 
wMcll included some very large examples. The large Tii/hf fittifll incus was plen- 
tiful 1 , f hie example, that I still possess, measures 12 inches iu girth, and although 
imich weathered weighs fl.l ox. The number of (his specie* preseui may be judged 

firoiti ihc fact ih.-ii I brought away wiili me a dozen opcrcula thai belonged to 
other examples of the sani.e species and of equal size: also a Shell of the large dud 
\ri's i-ire gasteropod, Olwrmin (lamjwft) rubimn<la k which has n local distribu- 
tion and is near extinct ion. 

\f(\ Situated back fnmi thoeltffrfi vertical section of the sand-dunes, cm by 

The wind, exposed another " midden,' 1 of like kind, iu a hiyer of shells with dfifl 

sand both above and below it. This was h collection thai eould tvoi have hem 

cmsI lip by the sen. Il is significant lluit thi^ essential pari of the evidence is 

ignored in the criticism. as it proves destructive to the theory brought forward. 

(e) The fact lluit nearly thirty years had elapsed since my observations were 
made should have led the critics to exercise caution in basing an argumenl on such 

unslahle factors as a shell mound that had been exposed in the weather on a wind 
SWepI headland over so long a time. 

If this lirsi ^eorreelioji" fails to carry its point, the second is hopelessly 

HSl ray ; it calls iu quest inu I \yf \ .-il idity of my defermittftl i f, ns of | lie qinii'tx imple- 
mclits thai I obtained From llie sandhills of the same neighbourhood, and implies 
thai these Quartz specimens were there in a fortuitous wa \ . ;ind that I heir frac- 
ture was caused, not by human agency, bur by il f hernial action/' or iu oilier words. 
by SUU-flaking. The authors write: "As mentioned by llowchin. numbers of 
small quartz Hakes were found 1o be present -,1 low levels in rhe sandhills al the 
llrecknells; none of these showed aigns ol' intentional manu PaCl urc ; iu one case 
it was possible to fit several pieees together and lo see thai thermal action had 
caused the flakiiiLr. Quart/, pebbles were also found Oil llie adjacent bench. All 
of the <piart/ chipping seen bv the writers al t hi.- beach must be regarded as 


loriiK'd by the natural weathering of iptartx pebbles washed up dtiring heavy 

Wcather" i.W.. 1. p. 284). 

(a) I (Jid not mentinn any "low levels*' in my paper. As a matter of I'aet 
the implements were I'miml in the deep, wind blown hollows of Hie sandhills, TOO 
Feel or more above sea-level. In tin- same hollow I was Fortunate in finding tlU' 
bones of the 1 small extinct mini of Kangaroo Ishiml. The presents oi' these stones 

[one, ;i well-flaked <'orc. weighs 7 <>-/..) under audi elrcu instant* w is in itself a 

Sllfficieili proof of human agency, as they could not ObeilT in such a position by 
any other means. 

In a re-exandualion of 1 1n- qitarlz specimens from Ihe iSreclmclls, in my 

p<»ss.w,in),. I find they total 38 specimens, including 1 scraper, 1 ( i"i|nv. 1 awl, 
10 points, 23 flakes and chips, ami 2 cores. It is ex1 raordinary that, because 'as 

stated bj m\ aritiea) 'All of t In* quarts; dripping* seen by the writera al iliis 

beach must 1)0 regarded as Formed In- ;he nalural weather'niir of quart/, pt'hhhifi 
washed up during heavy w-eat her, ' they should make, by huplical ion. I he "cm-roe 
tinn" in my paper wilhout having seen the objects they condemn. 

i«) The winters proceed (loc, oi.) : "In one c^w it was possible to lit several 

pieces together and to Reo thai thermal actlOU hUO caused I he flaking." This is 

remarkahle, for quartz, as an hexagonal crystalline form, is a very refractory 
mineral., ;md has uo definite cleavage but a hackly, irregular Fracture. It does 
not show the same Facility of fratfiire by "thermal action" that amorphous silica 
docs, so thai for our to be able to colled and piece together such irregular i 

meats, if they had been caused by natural process would he miraculous. PHpeCJ- 

ally if lie had to colled Hie fragments from a wind-aifepl trough of shifting sands, 
As the occupation ol Kangaroo Island by aborigines was definitely proved 

hy myself in ItMK), and by Tindalc and MaegraTth nearly thirty years later, the 
scientific facta had been established quite independently of the evidences at the 

lireeknrlls. These authors ignore the time factor of an interval oi' nearly th'n -i\ 
years, omit material evidenee in the existence of a serond shell-heap, heyond till 1 
reach of 1 1n* waves, and. by implieal ion. condemn Hie validity of ;i collection of 
native implements they had never seen. 

The second paper under nolice (No. - appeared in the previous volume of 
Ihis puhlicatiou (vol. iv. L9JJ2, p. 4S:5 ) . 

In 1921 Ihe present writer described a collection of stone implements From 
(Vnlral Australia ( Xo. 5), which I'mmis an exhibit in the Soulli Australian 
Museum. Tindalc, in a criticism of my determinal ions in Ihe ptfpfcf relVrred to, 

associates his paper with another on ihe same subject, published by Professor 

4 Records or the s.a. Museum 

Wood .Jours nml T. I). Campbell i\". 8), which lie considers so conclusive that, 
in his opinion, "it wOtdd appear nlmost nmiecessnrv to Consider nn\ further the 
Validity 0$. these objects,'' mid idon offers a prescnlnl ion of "the problem ivow 
quite a different vicw-pOnrt" (Xn. 2, p. 488), li will be necessary to consider 
Wood Jones and ramphell's paper first. 

In the paper by \Yon<i Jones ami Campbell rhe authors have spenl much 
Inborn- in explaining and illustrating the phenomena of rock-splitting under 

inihind weathering, especially nndel' the slrain bronchi aboill by dillVnmt ial 
diurnal temperatures thai exist in Central Australia. Such phenomena arc a 

cuiiniionpbico io geologists, especially io A nsi m lui n geologists, and 1 bad already 

devoted three pages in i he nrliclc these authors criticised ill describing and defin- 
ing these features. I Mm quite in accord with them on tin* broad aspects of th* 1 
question w hen properly applied. 

The real object of i he paper is to associate I he specimens thai 1 have described 

;is human tools whli the naturally flaked stones of (he interior. On page 116 wo 

read : " Arc these linked slones of llie A nsl ra ! in n inblelnnd 1be work of man, ns 1ms 
heell claimed.' Ill the first pine*-, it would seem i in possible thai human agency 
eonld be invoked for the Raking of nil ihese my rinds of slones, when we consider 
that l hi' 1 barren tnblelnnds. llnring whnt we inny describe ns the life-cycle of the 
stones, I in ve been places n I toe-el her mini f rnel ive t'oi' hum nn habitation, or evil for 

human adventure/' 

On a Inter page | p. 122) 1hey repent this iden in the senlenee : '"We also C0I1 

Rider thai a hwttan origin for the countless millions of them scattered over lmn- 

• I reds of square miles of tableland eonnlry is incredible. " I quite agree. No ")i<- 

(ton Id imagine thai these l ^connlleas millions" of stones thai Eonn the stony 
deserts of Anstrnlin had been individually chipped by human hands, and yet I 
am credited with this absurd idea. The fact in that, as the result of my two exevtr 

sions into Central Anstrnlin. RtW)llg 1 hose ''countless millions" of gibbers?, I 
collected less limn fifty specimens thnt wnv considered to be <>f hnmnn workmnn 


The authors of the paper under di-enssion have greatly exaggerated the solar- 
Raking that takes pine- on these stony gibbers. The latter very commonly show 
original bedding-platen, vertical jointing, and irregular fractures, bul rarely n 

sn.CH.1h concave RUrfflOe thai might have resulted from insolation: nnd. still more 
rarely, n secondary lineal flaking, by mmur pitting*!, which lntter, when they do 
Oeeiir, enn be easily distinguished from drippings thai <"'c ennsed by design [f 
'ns suggested by these authors) these "eOnnfleSS millions 1 ' Of bat'C desert stones 

Ilowi iiin A KijiUxiJEk r»0 ;■! m Ethnological Papers 5 

bad bcwrSubjectecl tOHttch universal suii-flakinir throughout Ureii long tifo biatory 
of a 1 1 1 i 1 1 i < > i i | more or Less I years, they should all, by this time, have been reduced 

to their ultimate sumHaked ehips. 

The a'rgiunenl advanced by Wood Jones m& Ca*upMl deals exetunively with 

r;il principles, which, m i heir proper ;i .ppliea I inn. no one disputes; 1 1 m • vital 
point, however, centres in the validity 01 invalidity of certain objects as human 
loots. The (piestion rests, imt OH abstract princi pics, but with certain specified 

concrete objects, ami ilirsr jiiv tiol considered in any way by my critics. To niakj? 

(heir criticism effective they initial show one Ot other trf two things, cither thai tie- 
SO-CHJIt'd implements <lo imt give CVkleUee <>!" human workmanship Or that 1 1 m • 

flaking and uluppiiig; in each particular apecimw, can he adr<piatcl\ explaic ml 

as Me 1 result of natural causes. This the authors have nol done. They have not 
ullHlienjrcd rl single specimen, so t luit their argument is pointless and irrelevant ; 

they h i a\e the qnenfion where fchey found it. 

In ;» Further misrepresent a1 ion Wood .Jones and Campbell have credited mr 
I hi nii^honi with defining these tableland specimens a> eoliths, and it is this view 
m" Mm- -,iihj-Ti that claims their chief attent ion. 

On page 1 16 of their paper We I'cad ; -Tin -it is an extremely difficult problem 
to lace it in Australia there he, in fart, a real fcOlHluC Cltlluri', R8 h;is hrm claimed 
I i. fontnu!.' I 1 . " Ilowehin, Professor Walt er ' ' | , sum leiv. I From I he typical en I 
i tire of thi' blackfi'llow by an LHUnridgtid Cultural g^pj 1 I have never classed thr>c 
implements as •'eoliths," dpi* do I tilink thai they are such, and in only oil" 
instance have 1 used the term in connection With these objects-— and then merely 
incidentally. In my paper under ,-r it n-ism detailed descriptions arc ^iven of lb 
examples of tableland implements. In llm ease ol No, 8 specimen, anions other 
lectures described, it is casually Stated tiial it ''resembled a common eolithic 
type.* 1 Tins is 1 he oul\ place where I have used the term with reference to till' 

tableland specimens- This statemenl is moreover, governed by wbai is Maul on 

p. lllM. vi/ : "The stAge of culture, indicated by any pari ienlnr ^ronp of arte- 
facts, is determined by the highest and most rharacienstie types in Ihc^ronp." 

Types of lower cultures IVeoncnt l\ oeetlT casually awOJlg even the highest 
I'urins of stone i m i )iemeiii s, a fact well known to experienced collector, and it vra« 

in this sense that ;i passing com p arisen was made with respect tO Xo. 8 specinien. 
\n Wi.oii Jdnes and < 'ampbell Imve sei/ed no 1 his senien.-,- of five wnrds. that 
no -vneral ;i|)|>licatioji, to Indhl up their ptfeudo-eritiea] theory. The point is 
laboured LO tiU&h a degrae thai Hiey have attributed to me this theory im h^ss thin 

sixteen times, varied by sneb phraaes aft "ihe eoliths,*' the "so-eallpd eolittis. " 
ihe •'plat( k au aolithHi 11 ;ind kk ;m t*Ql3thie pnltiire elahnctj by Ilowehin, 7 ' I have 
made no sucli pretensiona, \'<>t w ith«tanding all this, Tindtde, considering that 

i Records <u the S.A. Mt^it m 

(his paper li;id dealt ;i linishine; st roke to ihe subject, stales Unit it is "almost 
unnecessary to consider further the validity of these objects." 

I i m I < fc ] * i lie heading, "Origin of the Implement*;/' I have suggested I p. 2161 

several possible theories as to their ;mf horshi p. Briefly staled, tliey were: 

[a) A local variety of implements produeed by the existing A usl ralian 

natives, modified by lie* nature Of the raw material, and h&Ving a considerable 

ant j< j i lily. 

(h) K;irl,\ aild ruder attempts al tile making pf StOtlG int plemeiits by the 

present race of -aborigines a1 h tiinw when lean developed in the art than at present. 
C I The remains of ail earlier rarr of [ttiopie, as tlie Tasmaniaris. for example, 
during a Former occupation of f-ho continent. 

The last-named seemed ihe mosi probable, otf the hiph probability (reaching 
almost a certainty) of the Taaiuanianis being the true autochthonous race oS 
Australia, This view i# atoo, apparently, confirmed from the<rrea1 similarity thai 
inany of the tableland specimens bear to the stone implement's made by the 

Tasmaniaii- . 

Some 1 ten or fifteen years ago there was a rather lively discussion among the 
archaeologists of Europe ou Hie eolithie f-jueation, which wiw referred to in my 
paper. Ln theye discussions the Ttowanians were referred to as* 'representing one 

Of the most primitive and irenoralixed types of mankind." Professor Sollas | 
whom I i|ii'ih .-d, says, "The Tasmanians, though roecnt, were ;it the same time a 
Palaeolithic, or even, it has been asserted, an ' tfolithie' raee . . . the most unprn- 

sres^ive in (Tie world, which, in the middle of the nineteenth century, was si ill 

living ity tlie dawn of Hie Palaeolit hie epoch" i ' )-. Sollas is tint expressing hi* 
own vhfWH that 1he Tasmaniaii stone implements were "eoliths/ 1 but is staling 
the virws of others. And I staled ! "The point of interest in these discussions, so 
far MS the present paper is concerned, is that several authors have drawn com- 
parisons between the TaKUUmian stone implements ami the eolithie. or prepalaeo- 
lithie. implements of Europe/ 7 TIib object of these references was purely his 

torieal, and was in no sense, either on I lit* one side or the other, an expression of 

my own views. 

There has been much contusion in Ihe discussion of ihis subject, To e,vl a 
clearer view of its hpat'ltrgH we raise the <|iieslion. What is an eolith:' Mi'. (!. (J. 
Mae( hirdy I Xo. b > , || ( c J)irec1or of Ihe American School of Prehistoric Kesearch 
hi Knn.pc. defines it as EollOWS : "Granted that there be an Eolithie Period, the 

■■"Ancient llunUM-rt, " quutnl frtoltl tllO UNI Edition, 

i i U '.vmum have been more appropriate hi us&d the words Palaeolithic culture Instead 
:i' M Palaeolithic »| ioiIi, fisj h pa-si t'poeh (ttr geological stage), when passed, can m-'ver be 

| | |M .-ll.'.l. 

Ho\\C|-MN A R KJ'UNIU -.K I" SOME Kti ] \'< U < h; n " A | PAt'M, ? 

(iriiiDt ion erf --in eolith becomes a comparatively simple matter, An eolith is ;i 
Hint (or other stone) that has been shaped or utilised by man on liis precursor 

cliu mij' i In* [geological period known as the Tertiary. ' l Mad'nnly is correct. The 

word eolith involves the faotrtr of lime, 11 i s the M iUM"ii"— the si-age m the de* 

VolopiUOUl 6f the human creature when In' first learned to shape Stones as implti 

ment£ for iisi'-;uiil. according to the evidence, this seemx to have hapjJCXicU in a 

late Tertiary Ago. Who ran imagine that humanly-worked 5>tOHCS haw lain Oil 

an exposed surface oi' Central Australia from Tertiary times J Theix* eau be only 
one "(lawn." The " edit ha M whatever they are. belong to the Tertiary Age, H 

would be as great an anachronism lo call present-day stone implements "eolithtf* 1 
as it would be to use the word Kocene (the (lawn of modern 1 1 jV .i applicable to 
any shellfish existing in present seas. The eoliths. Tasmaniap artefacts, ami table. 

lan.l implements repi'escul respective!} three independent classes, both as to lime 

and type, and miisi be jinked Oil I heir respcel ive (lietftH. 

I n my paper there are sections on "Tim Origin Of J he Implements, >7 atld also 
a "Summary and Conclusions." Had 1 really (jflJisUiercd the tableland imple- 
ments to he eoliths 1 eoiild not have a\oided stating the fact under such headings, 
hnt the word was never nient i 01 Veil. 

When discussing He Ta>.inanian i'Hif>leilUMl|>j I stated (p. 'J 111 I : "'The Stage 

of culture indicated bj any particular group of artefacts is determined by the 

hiii'liest and most eharacterist ie types! in the group. Thus the polished implement 
clearly defines I he Neolithic stage, while the relative diversity of type Tonus and 
the finish shown in tic workmanship are made the basis in distinguishing the 
respective slaves | hal preceded t he Wo| il hie si am la r*\. It is on the principles jnsl 
staled thai llie Tasmanian standard of culture, in implement making, US placed 
at about the lowest level.* 1 This does not class the Tasmanian ohjeets as oolitlw, 
which are slid in a doubtful category, and with wlttch. I'or reasons already given, 
the Tasinauian artefacts cannot be synchronized. The latter arc a very isolated 
groitp ; and are heller placed in a distinct class (or perhaps two), as suggested by 
Dr. XcM't 1 i i iu ; \o. 7) as quoted by me I p. -1!) i. The definitely shaped mi plcmenis 
Rlieh as scrapei's. he calls * ' morpholit lies' ' ; and (hove Of an irregular, 01' less 
defined kind, he calls ' fc a morphol ir lies. '' T This meels 1 he dif'tienlly of fijidiug H 
place for a vevy primitive type of implements, without huvOlvhig an inconsistency 
by callin.L' ihem eilher palaeul it h ie. pivpalaeolil hie. or •** >l i t hit-. Place 1 he Tas- 
uan ini|.lem<-ii1s where you will in ihc archaeological .scale of en It nre. t he table- 
laml specimens have an independent setting, and are loo little known a! present 
for elassilical ion, hence the absnrdhy of calling them "colli lis. " They present a 
new field for 3TC ha 00 logical investigation, and may yield IilOSl i nlcresl im_ r result s. 

8 111 COftBS Of uii. S.A. Mi mi m 

The third paper under notice is, as already stated, by Mr. X. B. Timlale u\o. 
2). Tindale, like his associates, wusl have read my paper carelessly. as he makes 
in.- responsible for statements I have not made, and which are foreign to m,\ 
true position, For example, ho opens his paper by sayingj "in 192] Howchin 
described some Hints from the plateau region of Central Australia. r ' The fact is 
thai ih.' implements concerned are mi Bints, and ihe only 'mi.- that I u«©d 1 1 m ■ 
word * l flinis in my paper was to say thai tin") ware nol Hints but deseri sand 
atone 7 * 1 1 1). 209). Neither vrere they stated to be u plat6au dint-.' Central 
Australia r;innoi he properlj called a "plateau." The ternis "tableland" and 

Mhletop" were used by rifte I'ri'in their general use. but the more appropriate 
terms, "mesas" ami " bllttefi, wmv suggested 

Tindale ban also picked up tin' l$ eolith" myth, and freely utses siteh phrases 
as " llowehin r s eoliths, " "ins eoliths/ 1 the so-called "plateau eoliths/ 1 etc., and 
in each case places the icrms under quotation marks. This, of ccntrse^ places ihe 
critic tinder the responsibility that he is represem ing the exaei words of ihe paper 
that be eritieizes, which is not the ease. 

Tindale does attempt to apply a scienl ifie test as to the validity, or 01 her\\ i»e, 
of the objects in question. Archaeologists have come to recognise certabi eharae 
teristie features in prehistoric stone-craft, which Tindale recapitulate (p, +8#)., 
brieflj put, as Follow: '-In humanly-made Mint implements the blows simek 
againsl the edge tend: (1) To be delivered al a constant angle*; (2) The flake* 

removed are not usually s<pmt. and are delaehed in sneh a manner as riOl to I 

a step ov edge al thepoim of lite final separation From the implement. (31 Ripple 
marks are seldom numerous, i I | The Secondary sears tend to he eonlined 1o one 
fare, and produre a straight cutting-edge, (5) The greatest pari of tic work has 

been done al our 1 inn 1 . 

These criteria are based on the ideal ihe perfect implement and are sub- 
ject to many limitations and exceptions. Every experienced collector knows that 
the mathematically correal implement, sueh as Tindale defines, is a very 
object. The necessary conditions would be an inherited traditional high standard 

ol stone enltnre — a highly el'fieienl workman a (law l"ss slonr 1 hat is ftomojfem 

jit composition, with a perfect coneJionlal fracture, and linally, perfect good luek 
in its manipulation throughout. 

The Aust ralian aborigine is often eareh/ss in his workmanship. I n one of my 
visit's |<> the lute 1-ariOl] LlreenweU, of Durham Cathedral (whet had our (if the 
tines! private collections of prehistnries in the Kingdom l he Lifted <'' roughly 
ehipped bill tWHIJited Australian Implement, find said. "If this had not been 
mounted no collector would have though! of putting it in his bag-" 

Speueer and G-illcn (No. S, p, bJ-ii state: "Practice at the work is of course 


essential, and thole are soni.' natives who arc more SUCC6Hs£ul Muni hIIhts, lnit 
the making o!' a really good kruEe IH, more or Le>BM, a matter o[' chance. h*1h1 tb(J 
endless nnmher ol' diseanh-d tlakes show how Ioji^ a lime is often spent hd'ore a 
writable one is struck off." In another place (No. 8, p. R41 ) the saint* authors 
state, "For ev^ry one Hake winch b* oottBidered good caioirjErh to uhp there mv. 
Ml leasl. a score discarded."' Those *pejWW ahhonodi the\ do not conform to 
the Ul-e&l standards, arc as miiv an DtPfcleUCG of limnan a-mo-v as 1 the umsi 
finished instrument. Tittdlile implies, by the use of such terms as "tend" ami 
"seldom." that Hiere may he MlW ?XCepLUW$ to bifl mathematical standards, 
lint whore does lie draw the lino hoi ween the true and the gotfnt.erfeil 

The collodion under discussion consists of 15 S]lficittH»BK. Tindale has 
selected and h'jnrcd one ot these, which he names a 'Tlatean Bolith/ 1 hoi h of 
winch tei ins I disown as not nsod l.y me and as ina ppj opriale. In his paper \\r 
snhmits tins pArtksOl&r example to " kind of micro-analysis, in whioh he stales. 
u 0f the twenty < priniaT!y' Hyke-sears examined the direetions of six emd'orm 
(Within ■'' i'.''iiiiv of Id i to i he 'normal' for humanly si rnck blow*," thus admit 
niiL' that ottl Of 'wenly shots Mind K&turP nmde six lniH\s-eyes. I submit Iha1 
is more than could he expected from ;m nimonseions a^enf. and is siiv-O-est ive Of 
design. Of Dae minor Rake tfGHTB bp slates. "ElglH il*'\ inl •• i'i-iM llu> ,uiiih' by 
between 20' and ,hY . and Ihc rest lay between !.V and ls(f. " 1"' I .. • aeimd angles 
:..•«• approx.mately:^! . Ul , 35', ») , B5 , tO , 1 30 - W , «J0\ 40\ CO ', 50 . lid ," 
This statcnicnt IH extraordinary, For an examination of the specimen shows thai 
theso minor chippillgH ai'e praelicady microscopic ;ind >\^\'\ all attempts |o lake 
measurements of iheir axes. The tests Oil which Tindale relied were not intruded 
to be hard and fast rides or to he of universal applioal ion. If such meticulous 
methods wore generally adopted half tile collodions oj Knrope would have lo be 
thrown on the wastodieap. Tho regularity of the flaking depmiuls largely mm ih<- 
homoiienoiiy of 'he stone operated upon, and llinl is the most reliable in this 

respect. The material lion i w Inch tho ( Vntral Aiist ralian implements v ••! ■ ,, 

fiiHitri'd is mostly deserl sandstone. This is a heterogeneous, elastic rook, hue to 
rn;irse in Ihe grfLCN, ami is hehl lo-'olher h\ ;i ehalcedonie base. I^lalurej in this 
malerml eannol he relied upon for exact and uniform fracture. 

With refereiirr to i he <_re o 1 1 1 1 1< • i [\ -ss of tlio lahleland implenii'iils. lun of tla-sr 
are specialized forms, while the rest show a definite and uniform style of iiianio 
fachire. Of Ihe I wo specialized examples, erne of these i M on p. lM4. pi. \i\i \h 
a lai'Lie hand -clmppej- of the CfMtf) th' poi'ttij type, worker! to a IvllQb oi one «-nd for 
• i m |o»oj'. and a siiarp end in^'-ed^e al Ihe opposite ext remity. w hich is chipped Oil 
hoth sid.>., ;is is usual with implements of t his class. The Other (16 Oil p. 21-5, 
pi. •-, .1 bicOUVtSX, MH-idi'Jile iinplenmnl, that, .'H "ic- rxn'midty, has he.o. 

I" Rim:<>ki>:~ or THE S.A. MrsrcuM 

shaped io ;in edge ami ground to a smooth surface on both sideSj corresponding 
io the so-called '"tomahawk" of the Australian aborigine, the phief difference 
between the two implements being thai while the Latter is made f.roitt basalt, the 

tableland mi pleincnt is formed from deserl sands1<>m-. no basaltic rock bcimj 
a\ ailable For ihis purpose. 

The remainder of i lie implements comprise ''mm mtr tools, scrapers of difftfrml 
types, points, ate. T6ey powNCRK certain features in common, [a) The mitral or 
under surface is invariably smooth, showing conebojda] fracture in one plane, 
and frequently a "bulh of percussion." No secondary pbippingH occur ou tins 
r.-M-r. The particular specimen selected by Trndale for analysis, is exceptional, in 
lliat its sharp edge has Suffered abrasion m on.' or I wo places, probanda received 
in i In' eOlteetor'n bag. (b) The secondary cliippingw are on [he dorsal or upper 
surface, which Tonus i he working edge of the tool; these ehippings arc marginal, 
follow the periphery^ and arc usually wry iiiiinrroiis, How is one io reconcile 
ihis Uniformity in the flaking of over 40 examples wilh a fortuitous emiso ! 
(i -i The L'eriami nous jjla/.e, which is a dtt&l'l fealure, varies in intensity and colonl' 

but is generally a deep vr<[, brown, or almost black, (d) With very few eseep- 

lions this eortlcaJ gla^e is as doepl) marked oil the chipped portions us it is on 
I he natural surfaces. Tie example figured I > \ Thulale shows the most murked 
variation, in this respect, of any in flu- group. This characteristic colouring of 

i he desert varies considerably in diflvrenl atone**, and often in different portions 

of the same stone, arising from such coin nujencies as belong to position, partial 
protect ion, varying texture of thi' stone, uud the varying siisrept ilulit y of the 
grain for absorbing 1 he l'rrnuriiious luint. 

Out of the 4") examples on exhilut Tindah' has confined he-, attention tO otic 
only, hut until lie has laken in the whole ol" the evidence his arguments are WOl'lll 
less. If this particular specimen he challenges fails to stand the irsi. (here art' 
still -1-4 others to he considered. It is a gTOUp exhibit and must lie considered as 
a whole. 

TO Obtain an independent judgment on the genuineness of these ientrul 
Australian implements. I senl a copy of my paper to Air. .1. Kohl Moir (an 
authority recognized by Tindalei for his opinion, and asking permission to 
publish his reply. In respoose I received the following fetter-: 

Ipswieh. 26tll September. ]\KV2. 
I tear lVot'.-xsor I low chin. 

Please ;ie.*ept my t hunks for your letter ami the n-priut of your interesting 
paper Oil the Aboriginal Stone Impleineuts of Centred Australia, pllldgillg Imm 

the photography of the specimens yon describe, I fee! that several of them exhibit 

ttowcHiN -A Rejoinder to some Ethnological Paters 11 

human flaking, for example, 3 and 3a., pi, xii (*) ; 1 and 2, pi. xiii; 1, pi. xv ; pi. 
xviii ; pi. xix. It is possible thai tin- others you [igure - » I ^ <> show definite evidence 
of man's work, but it would be necessary to examine the actual specimens before 
arriving al a conclusion. Some of the implements appear to ine to be of eolithie 
( [Ilarrisoman i types, while others are later. I am much interested in your views 
as to the driving out of the Tasmanians from the central tableland. You are 
quite ai liberty to make any use you wish of the remarks I have written ahoul the 
specimens illustrated in your paper* 

Willi my kind regards, 

Yours sincerely, 



1. Tindale, N. B. and Maegrail h, T>. (J. (1!):J1 ) : "Tnnts of an Bxtiud Aborigl 

mil population "'I Kangaroo Island, " Ree. 8. Ausf. ftlus., iv, No. :». pp. 

± Tindale, X. B, (1932.) : "Note* on the Supposed Primitive Stone Implements 

from 11m Tableland Regions of Central Australia, M Roe, S. Aust, Mus.. 

iv, No. i, pp. |s;}-4S8. 
:i. -Jours. F. W. and Campbell, T. 1). (1925) : "A Contribution to the Studj of 

Eoliths; Some Observations on the Natural Forces at work in the pro 

dud inn of Flaked Stones on t he ( Jen t ral Ausi raliau Tablelands, ' ' Jnurti, 

Roy. A nl li r<>i ><►!. Inst, of Ot, Britain and I inland, I v., p. 115. 
4. Jlowchin, W. (1(K).'!): ■ ' Kuri her Notes on the Geology of Kangaroo Island* 

Aboriginal Occupation oil Kangaroo Island, M Trans. Roy. Soo-. S. Ausl.. 

xxvii, p. 90. 
■ ». llowchin. \V. (1921) : "On the Occurrence of Aboriginal Stone Implements 

of Unusual Types in the Tableland Region of Centra) Australia/' Trans. 

Hoy. Soe. S. Aust. xlv., pp. 206-230, pis. xi-xxi. 
G. MaeQurdy, Q. 0. (1924): "Wha1 is .in Kolilh :'" Nat. History .lourn. of Am. 

Mus., xxiv, No. 6, pp. 656-658, 

7. Nootltflg, h\ I ,.1!MMi-7> (1908): "Notes on file Tasma n inn A inorpholil ln-s. ' ' 

Pap. and Proe, Roy, Soc. Tas., p. 30. 

8. Spencer. B. and Gillem F. .1. (1904) :" Northern Tribes of Central Australia." 

i riils is Hie iiiipiruu'iii Hint. Tiiirlyle lias figuiiid and eoncleiunod. 



By Norman B. Tindale, B.Sc, South Australian Museum 


Oncopera Walker. 

Oncopera Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus., vii, 1856, p. 1558. 
Oncoptera Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, iv (2), 1889, p. 1124. 
Oncopera Eyer and Turner, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, i, 1925, p. 272. 
Antennae of few segments, usually from fourteen to twenty, very short, less than one- 
sixth length of fore wing, almost cylindrical, either swelling gradually towards the apex to 
form a club, or filamentous ; a tuft of hairs on the basal segment projects over the eyes. 
The labial palpi only moderately developed, slender, projected straight forwards, 
concealed in dense hairs, the maxillary 1 palpi short, obsolete, and concealed. Males with 
hind tibiae with large curved tuft of hairs arising from an expansion of the margin. Veins 
R 4 and R 5 of forewings stalked either before, at, or after radio-median cross-vein. Vein 
Mj of hindwings forms a distinct Y-fork with radio-median cross-vein. 



PART 11. U) 

Bv NORMAN B.TINDALK, B.Sc, Sumn ^u*t*amak Mwum 

Fmt. 1-92. 

Oncopera Walker.. 

OnrofH r<i Walker, Lisl Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus., vii, 1R&R, p. 1558. 
Qnvopfera Meyrick, Proc, Linn, Soe. \ T .s. Wales, iv (2), 1889, p, 1124. 
(hirapprff Ever and Turner, Proc. Linn, Soc. N".S Wales, i, 1925, p. 272. 

Antennae of Tew segments, usimlly from fourteen hi twenty, very short, less 
ilmn one-sixth length of Forewing, almost cylindrical, either swelling gradually 
towards the apex to form a club, or filamentous} h tni't of hairs on the basal scg- 
men1 projects over the eyes. The lahial palpi only moderately developed, slender. 
projected straight forwards, concealed in dense hairs, the hiaxillary palpi short, 
obsolete, and concealed. Males with hind tibiae with large curved Inft of hairs 
arising from an expansion of (he margin. Veins ti { and U-, of Forewings stalked 
either before, at, or after radio-median cross-vein. Vein M, of Iiindwings Forms 
a distinct Y-l'ork with radio-median cross-vein*. 

Genotype: 0, intricaia Walker* 1856 

Members of Ibis genius are easily distinguishable from ,-dl other genera of the 
family by the short subclavate or filamentous antennae end by the tibial hair- 
flirts; ol" the males. At leasl twelve species are known. They range From Tasmania 
northward to Kuranda in North Queensland and westward ,-is far as Mount 
Gfambier in South Australia. Most of the species are grass feeders in the larval 
state and are potentially harmful to pastures. At least two species, 0, Mifod >'d 
on the Atherton Tableland and 0, intrirufa in Tasmania are major farm pests. 
Other species have been recorded as injuring gracing tends in the wetter parts 
nf Victoria 

The distribution of the members of the genus (fig, 1 ) lies entirely within the 
bell of thirty-inch annual uniform rainfall, and each species appears to be it 

(i) Pari I, published in Ree. 8. Anst. Mus.. iv, lie-, pp. -mv 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

stricted within relatively narrow general Limits of climate* That temperature is 
an important factor seems to be confirmed by the study of the range of 0, tilbo- 
</it/ta1<i which occurs nepr sea-level at Sydney at i he southern end of iis range, 
again ai some elevation in (he Dorrigo district, ghoul three hundred miles further 
north, and at 3,000 feet in the National Pari in southern Queensland, 

Pig, l. Distribution of the species of Owcopewti 

Four species appear to he present on the Atherton Tableland 3 two of them 
have been described from aniocalized specimens labelled "(\-iinis District/' hut 
It appears probable thai they were noi collected on the lowhmds. 

'The presence or absence of a sacculus in the male genitalia might he used to 
divide the genus into two seel ions, (a) a northern one embracing (>. mi'toccrfli 0. 
}><trra, (). arf/enMd and (>. braehypJiylla and (h) a southern one containing the 

Tindale — Australian Ghost Moths 


other sewn species, o. parvtt, 0. argenta1a % and 0. hnmneate are linked by the 

(Miiiimon possession of specialized white scales on the undersides of the hindwinu's. 
The I'onn of I he ei^'hl h slernilc lends to link 0. niilorera m\-d 0. brwnnectfv, Species 
oiherwise quite apart. 

R. R 2 

I A p., CUi a 

Kig. L\ Oiirojxrn fasciciildld (W.-ilkci) \ ' * • 1 1 : 1 1 "mil. m.'ilc. 

The form of the antennae provides 8 natural subdivision of the gettlift. 
Clavate antennae are characteristic of the typical atjbgenus (with (). intricate as 
type); this contains all of the southern speeies (Victoria, Tasmania and alpine 
New South Wales) 0. fasciculate, O. alpine* 0. mtricoidf-s, and 0. mfohrumea. 

The subgenus Pftroncopera aubgen. nov. (with 0. mitocern as type) contains 
the other seven species, including (). uthoyiti lain, (). bnvnneaUL 0. hrachyphylla, 
0. /xirrti, (). <ir<i< iilaia, and 0. epargyra. They are characterized by possessing 
filamentous antennae, usually clothed with large flattened senles. 

0. tillxifiisciida, m (lie sum of its characters probably stands as the most 

16 Records of the S.A. Museum 

generalized member of a specialized genus; it has links on the one hand with 
0. brachyphylla and 0. unfoo m and also, somewhat loss obviously, with the 
typical subgenus. 

Phil pott ( '-) figured as characteristic of the genus the venation of an example 
of 0. mitoecra in which li\ of forewing forks with M-, distally from the radio- 
median cross-vein. This must he exceptional even within the Kpecies, tor In 
twenty-two out of twenty-three examples examined Eor this character, ii appears 
lo branch a1 the cross-vein. The character may he a variable one for in o. alho- 
</nthila the fork may he either before, at, < >»* well after (.he cross-vein. In .-ill 
members of the typical subgenus and in 0. i>m nth rnta, however, the forking is 
well before (hat vein. 

For the detailed study of the members of this genus genitalia preparations 
arc useful. Owing to its Lower refractive index choral hydrate is preferable h 
h.-ils.-iin <\s ft temporary mounting medium. Type preparations should be sul 
s(Njneiiil\ remounted in balsam lot- permanent storage, The characters of th 
vinculum, harpe, tegumen and eighth sternite are of special importance. The 
jiixt.-i is often not well chftinijwd and is difficult to examine withoul rtwsoction 
In ft. infricoi(!(s and 0. nfohmmna it is folded down so as m appear transverse. 
in 0. ftJpina this does uo1 appear to happen. When detached ii is seen to be 
broadly concave on the posterior margin in the last-named species, with an obscure 
median notch In the (wo former species ii is (hen longer than wide, slightly 
convex on posterior margin, which bears an acute median notch. 

For material for the study of the members of this genus I am particularly 
indebted to Messrs. (i. h\ Hill and A Tonnoir, of the Entomological Division, 
I vs.i.u.. and to Mr C (r. L. Gooding, of Aloe, who made special collections, 

l\ i:v TO 'i 'in: Si -I :< ir;s of ( Kr< h -i sr \. 

based on male genitalia ) 

•i Saecid Us absent (a saeeiilar lobe sometimes present 
h. Vinculum with heavily chiiinized portion wider 

than long inlrieaia 

bb. Vinculum with heavily ehitinized portion longer 
than wide, 
c, Harpe with shnft neither diluted nor strongly 
bent mi one halt 
d. Tegumen with messal processes broadly tri- 
angular, acutely terminated, marginal 
armature abnosl obsolete .. .. faseinifata 

(a) Philpott, Trans. Enfr. s-„-., Umd., HiL'D. nl. lii. 

Tindale — Australian Ghost Moths 17 

<l'l. Tegumen with mesa! processes not broadly 
I riangular, bul blunt - pointed and 
armed with conspicuous marginal den- 

I iclcs. 
e. Drill iclcs of teglimen acute. 

t Juxta with ventral margin no1 broadly 


g. Eighth sleridte with proluberance 

obsolete ntfolmmnea 

gg, Kighth slcniilc with well-devel- 
oped protuberance .. .. mlricotfles 

IT. Juxta With ventral margin broadly 

concave . . . . . . . . alpim 

ee. Denticles of tegument rounded . . . . at-hofntittita 

cc. [Tarpe dilated and strongly bcni ai one half .. hrunneata 
a a. Sacciilus present. 

h. Sac. mlus short hnicln n >h i/lht 

lib. Sacciilus long. 

i. Tegumeil unarmed. 

j. liase of harpe slender .. .. .. paWO 

jj. Dase of harpe broad. 

k. ( 'ucullus dilated apically .. .. arfffintftta 

kk. ( bicullus not dilated apically .. ppm i (}}fra 
ii. Tegnmen armed with denticles . . . . tmtoef.ra 

K\:\ to ttje Species of Oncofera 

(based on general characters ). 

a. Forewings with an inner marginal fascia, 

b. Forewings with dull white markings forming a sub- 
reticulate pattern. 
c. Males. 

d. II indwings with ciliae not unieolorous. 

e. Abdomen and legs light fuscous , .. inlricafo 

ee. Abdomen and legs dark brown .. «. . (tlpinfl 

(\d. 1 1 indwings w it h ciliae iinicolorous .. .. inlricn'uhs 

cc. Females. 

f. Wings broad . . . . . . . . . . infriooides 

\'\'. Wings narrow* 

g. Markings obscure . . . . . . inlricaUi 

i\/r i • 11 i a i \ fdsciculafn 

Kg, Markings well defined . . . . ■ .{ , • 

I (if pvntt 

tih, Ko rewinds without dull white markings: males .. fuscicttlala 
nn Forewings wit bout inner marginal fascia, 
h. Antennae clubbed. 

i. Forewings brown ; male. . .. .. .. n< [ohm mini 

ii. Forewings grey ; female ., .. rn j'uhrv mini 

1 1 1 1 . Antennae not clubbed. 

18 Records of the S.A. Museum 

j. Mil Irs. 

k. Ilindwinirs beneath with dense silvery 
white scales OH posterior half. 
I. Forewings wit h oblique oehreous browij 

fascia I'rom apex to f wo-1 birds inner 

margin . . . . . . . . brunvmta 

II BVrewings without oblique fascia, 

in. llindwinivs above with silvevy- 

Avhite scales avffcnfvfa 

linn. HmdwiugS above withonl silvery 

white scales parva 

kk, Rindwings beneath without silvery-white 

n. Forewmgs pointed a1 apex .. ..j , /W ,. f//// „ 

1111. Fnrewmgs not pointed at apex. 

o. Forewinjjs shorl and broad . , hrafliiiplijilhi 
iki. Forewings not shorl and broad . - niitoc.era 

jj. l<Ymalrs. 

_ i \ bmnneata 

p. Expanse less man w mm. .. ... mrm 

pp. ExpailfiC greater than 45 mm. 

q. Knrewintrs with numerous obscure 

ocellate markings of small size aJbofmlttifa 
qcj, Korewinii's without nnmerons ob- 

Kuiirc ocellate markings .. miiftrwa 

()nc(ii'ki;a in Tine ata Walker. 

Fig, 3-11. 

Onropera intrieata Walker. Dial Dep. Ins. Brit. JVIns., vii } 1856, p. 1559, 
Oneopfera intrieata Mcyrick, Proc, Mnn. Soc, N.s. Wales, iv (2), 1886, p- 1124, 
Oneopern intrieata Hill, Australian Council for Sci. and Indust. Research, pam- 
phlet 11. 1929, pp. 1 }:;, 1 plate (bionomics). 

4 Antennae short, subclavate, usually of nineteen segments, club apical, 
twice as wide as shaft, yellowish-brown ; palpi with median segment relatively 
long and slender, more thai) twice as long as apical one: thorax dark fuscous ; 
head, abdomen, and le^s light Fuseous; tuft Of hairs on posterior tibiae very dense, 
light oehrt'ous-brown in colour. Forewiugs hyaline, dark greyish-brown wit It a 
conspicuous intricate pattern of irreyish-white lines ol)seured by oehreous and 
fuscous linear marks; beneath grey without pattern. Hindwings hyaline, dark 
grey, basal two-thirds of eostal margin pale oehreous; cHiae white with darker 
transverse Line, veins dark grey. Beneath with apex of wings densely, elsewhere 
more scantily pubescent, Expanse* :>7 mm. 

9 Head, thorax, and abdomen slightly more fuscous than in male. Pore 

Tindale — Australian Ghost Moths 


wings narrow and elongate, markings as in male bul somewhat obwiiired. Hind- 
wings rather uniformly dark grey*, costa very narrowly ochreous. Expanse, 
m nam. 

I. in'. Tasmania: Scottsdale 1; Hobarl t; Snug River; Launceston -. 19 
males, i) Eamales. 

Kig-. 8-6. (hneopem Mrieata (Wtflltor). Usft side: ;>. nwile L;iunr<>stwii ; t. 1'yjie, ;i male, 

I* : i v. 1 1 1 ; i it i : i mm I'.ritisli M uscum ) . Right side: 5, tVm:i If, Scot 1 s<l:i Ic ; l\ fVm.'i l<\ S.-. -i| | s.l ,-i I. •. 

The described male example (fig. 3) was tnken at Launceston (February 7, 
1902), 1 1 uranpuroN well with Walker's type example (fig, i) in the British 
Museum. The tatter came Erora Van Dioman's Laud, and is one of sixleen exam- 
ined by him. The female (SeottsdalCi January 31, 1927) described hh<1 figured 

is (»f normal form and size (fig. :>) ; I he other example is a dwarfed OU'C taken ai 
the same locality a year later -January 30, 1928). 

The nude genitalia have the vinculum wider than long, with the median pro- 
cess distinctly transverse. The 1e«4'umen has ihe caudal margin produced into a 
hrnad Fold; I lie mesal processes are armed with sharp sawdike Teeth. The harpe 
is withou.1 a sacculus, relatively broad, curved and rounded at apex; it is well 
clothed with specialized hairs, short ai apex, sloul ai has.-. The Slh sternite is 
rectangular and without a spine or protuberance. 


Records of the S.a. Museum 

The genitalia figured by Eyfer and Turner (Proe. Linn. Soc. N.s. Wales, L 
1925, pi. xxxii, fig. I) may belong to thisspeeie.% hut i ht* form Off the tegsumea ami 
the spine Like anal process ate nt*1 in close agreement \\iih any examples examined. 
T)r. Turner has been nnal>le to give rap details of the provenance of their specimen. 


lrl l. .,1.1 


Kig. 7 11. (hiro/imt iiilriniht ( Wri Iki-i) . Sml 1 s-l;i l<\ I, male U«'ii»1 :i lifl : 8-. rigllfb strnulr; 

I), : 1 1 1 1 4 - * 1 1 1 : i : 10 ll, palpi showing range of variation.. 

0. iuiriciihi is readily distinguishable Prom all the other species of the genus 

by tlio broad vinculum ol the male, with ils Iriiiisvcrst' median process, also by l he 
compactness of the lihml hair-1 n fts a nd 1 he short , broad wind's. Tin* 1'cmalcs have 

relatively long, narrow \vings bearing marked traces of lie- male wing-pattero, 

There is only one otlicr known Tasmanian species. (). ru.ftiitrioiiir<f, from 
which il is easily disl in^uishod hy its small size, shori whin's, and whitish reticu- 
lated markings. 

This species is-a serious pcsl of the grasslands of Tasmania, Oil mixed farm 
in <r land il attacks permanent sown pastures, which normally hecome available in 
the second year after plant inii, iind lTiiiiiin profitable For from e'mlil Lfl twenty 

years. Under the present conditions such pastures arc depleted of their best 

grasses in the second and third years and are destroyed in the fourth. 

The adult emerges between the hist week of January and the middle of Feb- 
ruary. The life-cycle and Hie habits of the adults have been described by HilL 
who has also published an account of experiments on met hods of eon I rol. 

Ttndale Australian Ghost Moms 


ONCOI'EIM !''Asr|<ri,ATA I Walker ) . 

Fig. i2-lf>. 

//rjtifilits fiisi'triiiiifft Walkur, Chfir, I'iuIcsc, Lrep, JlH.. 1,8ft!), p. (j8, 
<>)icoj f hni intjintla Turner, Mow. Nut, LUus, Melb s , -L 1312, p. IB. 

3 A iilciiiirir subelavafe. whlesl bofore ape\. usually of II 15 sririiH'iils. 
apieal M'?j;niciil slightly produced, palpi wilh tiietUail SOgMOJil HtOut, (tttta fll&?i IVPifcfc! 

.•is lim^ as third, apieal segment hum. Head, iliorax, abdomen, and !e#»s oehrctmK- 
Ih'owii. ForewiniSK br'igbl opwiuu oehreotis-brown with obnuurc darker infnsea 
limis; ;i s 1 1 1 1| ii ri vj. ;i i ia I while streak From near one -fifth inner maririn bordered 
above Willi nehrrniis ;i 1 1 « I below with blaek, I'oirw i 1 1 ;j* beneat Ii oehreoiis-fiiseons, 
1 1 i 1 1 < I \\ iim's opaque, u'reyisli-brown. wilh eoHttf frhlgwl oehreons from base lo tipcx* 
benenl h Fuscous. Expanse, 1 1 nun. 

Kig, 13-15. Oncope-m fatfrivulata (Walker J 

IVni;il«\ Moii\ la. lViu;ik\ (osbm-nr. 

12, male, Mooi 13. malo, UisboriU 1 .: 14. 

V Head and Uinrax grey, abdottlefl sligflltlj 1 paler. lAnvwin^s UpaTJUU, 
Mhscnrrly brownish -black wilh a >vell~develop.ed im rieate pattern of oehreuus 

marks margined whli greyitih-wllitp; a eoiispiciinus shvak al one-liflh inner mar- 
gin, as in male. 1 1 indwin^s <j;vry. Expanse, 5|) mm. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

hoc. Victoria: Moe 10: Gisbornc 10; Leongatha IO9 Caulfield; Melbourne; 

South Australia ; Vahl Paddock near Mount Ganibier !). 50 males, :;l females 

Is, I .- 1 1 > i : 1 

16-19. Oneoj ! htttciMutd (Walker). 16, male gtfuitflU«s L7. rightb Btcniito; 

p;il|>; 19. rmlcmia. 

The male and Eemale examples described and figured arc 1 both Erow Moe 
(October 9< 1929), and are typical oJElong series from the same locality. Walker's 
type, in the National Museum, which is a male (not a female as described)., agrees 
closely with the male described above, The other pair figured are From Gisbome 
(October 19, 1922, and October 11, 1895). The male is somewhat darker and 
female lighter than usual. 

The male genitalia are characterised by 1 he long, slender vinculum, somewhat 
variable, but often twice as long as wide; this hears a feebly convex median pro 

cess. The inesal f >roccsses of the te^umen an- broadly triangular and acutely 

terminated, without or at most with obsolete armature; in Lateral view the mesal 

process is broad and strongly convex on posterior margin. The harpe is simple, 
the apex slightly swollen, I nmcated, and Klib*rcetangu1ar. a slight swelling or 
carina may hi' present in the position of the saceuhis of Home other specicK of Hie 

ireuus. Thcjuxta. Usually UOt Well chitinixed, IS apparently transverse in ven 

view. The eighth sternite bears a small hollow protuberance. In two unrealized 
examples, typical in general appearance, the vinculum is as wide as in normal 
0. ruf&brunnea. 


Air. ( '. <i. L, Gooding made systematic collections Of this moth at Moe m 
October* 1929, and biiS results iruiieate t luit the firsJ examples emerged on Octo- 
ber -I Alale* were then much more abundant than females. iVlales swarmed OH 

the 7th and 9th, On the former oighl ft males were absent, or rare, but on the 9th 

they outnumbered the males. I solat r<l female rxaniplrs wvfg captured Oil 1 1 1 < * 
VJth and 1 ;""> 1 1 1 . and mah-s on tile 1blh. \?VOM 'his it appears ihal ihe rmcr^i' r m-' 

period is a limited inn 1 , At (rfetbome, in I89r>. Females emerged on October 11, En 

1922 niiili's were taken ci ly on October 19 and sparsely on 1 lie 23 I'd. 

Ohe pair of ihis species in ihe byell collection bears erroneous date labels, 
iiidiCAtmg •laiiiiiirv J5, 1920, an the time of capture, Mr, Gooding, in 1028, tfus- 
peetcd tlml lie had Made mi error in dating these, ,nnl In intensive collecting 
proved that the January form From the sauiu locality is a disrtiiet species. 

O^tJOWfiJIA Icn-nniM'NXJJA up. hoy. 

Ki-. 20-8& 

Antennae weakly siibeiavale, widesl before apex, eloihed an i 1 1 i tine, seal 
fcered, seixu-ereel bairn, usually seventeen <Krginen1ed, oehreous-brown; palpi wilh 

iuiid segmenl -slnut. third segment ovale. 1 1 r ;n !. tlmrax. ;ind ;i U< Uniti' n OulirpOilfc 

tnlvous, tibial plumes somewhat lighter. Porcwinga hyaline, broad, dull redditfh- 

hrnwn with obscure darker hlfUKCatioftS, beneath grey, llindwin^s «rrey. COSUtl 
margin rather broadl) ochreou*?. Expanse-. 47 mm. 

9 Head, thorax, and abdomen EUIyoua forewings broad, hyaline, pat her 

uniformly fulvous, with numerous small, obscure, darker marks. Uindwiugi 
hyaline, uniformly ^vry. Expanse, >u mm. 

Ltn: New South Wales: Left Crook, PXM\, 11, l'J. Aloe 1, 11. 1 1 1 i . .] a I. ua ry 

18 and 16, 1330, Q. Q, Gooding type, a male, mwl allotype female, I. 18670, in s. Mus.); [IcalesvUle 12; bcouft&tha 12; Hawthorn 11, 12; Dandenong Range 
1H: Toora 12; Clisborue 12; Geelong; Caul field; Mecriiyati _. Tasmania: Tyenna 

12; 1 lobar! 12; Maria Island 12*. 129 males. II females. 

The type pair were taken in company with mau\ others. The second pair 
inured an* from dishornc* ( -a pi u red on December lb. l!)VJ. The wings of iIm' 

(lisbonic male are more oehreous in eohmr. l he infusca! ions are less conspicuous. 
and Ihe ochreoiis COStal margin is Invade!-. The female is Lighter in colour. The 
third pair figured are Tasmanian; the male frnm llobart in December, 1927, the 
female Rrotn Tyenna, December s, 1U2& The fourth pair shown tire a xn-y dark- 
coloured male from Aloe i January 11, 1 !):»() i and a female from Ilawllmrn 
November 28, 1927). The latter pmerged, before 7.1a p.m., from a buffalo-grass 


RECOR&S OK the S.A. Mr si- im 

The riiale genitalia bavt? tiiv viugaiuin longer than witlu and posterior margin 

<\ Pilio-lv Mud rv.'lll\ cn||\r\. 'j\ *g 1 1 1 111 .'] ! Willi Ul>-S;|l | in nr.sscs I >l Ij 1 1 1 - |>oi 111 <>(| , ;| nun I 

with GQnspJGUOUfl medially dircGtarl acuta rteiilittle& fi^. *_!!)}; the Antral margin 

Pig. 21) -'7. Qiwopei '...'.■■ . • ■ r • si., imv j 1 '. i,M"'- :i 'ii. ii. Miitij 21. wale, (Hs'bocuu ; 

L'l\ m;ili\ lloh.-.i'f; I'.".. 1 1 1 : 1 1 4 , gYdS I'oliti, Mm,.; -'|. tllOtvpU h'lll.ik' Mm- : "'/•.. i'i -u i;i || !, SUUnM'I 

'Ii. I'rlU.-n'r. '!';■ illllJI J L'7. iVlllilk', 1 I |j W I jj I • I' 1 1 . 

is wiill chit inizril. Ufirpc in vuiit?al vww evenly viu'-ved, alightl;) swollen u\ api • -. 
in lateral view broadly flatttfusd buwardK haw; jinrta hnatavorae^ tiql wall i*hitiu 
izud ai lateral oiaxgixiK. Thx? eighth stiimitc Iwis [h«» margin without or at fliosl 
w n h .-m obsolete hollow protuberant 

( )ni' iilx-muit nialr twiunnlt' h&arti ;i siimll ti«tC<rldliti on OUC liiirpr ; 1 his is aliaenl 
on llif Q1 hut \ :il\ v. Tin- -•••n it ,'i i i.i hinuvd ;in i l'n»m ;jii rxmnph' i'nmi 1 loh.ui . 

TindAi.e Australian Ghost Moths 

Mr. <<. Lyell states thai males of this species occasionally eome to 1 1 l^ 1 1 1 ^ a1 

Ml gilt Tlh' specirs IM ] >1'<)1 lrjl>I \ I lie lMOSt COhlinoil OIK' 1Q <*c»s1 Ol'll VidOtVd, flllll lis 

range extends to Maria Island and Tasmania, 


l^ig. ii's 32, Onroptru nifohntiuwtt s|». iw>\ l's. rnale genitalia, LIuJ»art ; ui'. ciJjJiqnu vlt'w 

1.1 f le^nmm; 30. I'iglltfa slernit«', Mm<; 31. ;iii|ciui:i; 32. labial p.'ilp. 

Air. G. E\ Hill retired both sexes of tin- species at Leont>ai ha and llawlhorn. 
Several pupal shells have been examined bill OWUig In Hie absence (>f adequate 
comparative in atonal have not yol been described. Til? mask' may eventually be 
proved to give useful characters Tor (he separat inn of th<? pupae of the different 

OxmniKA iviKH'oim.s sp. im\ . 

Fig. 33*30, 

Antennae with clnb long compared with shal'i. a \t>\-\ sparse clothing of 

snb-erecl hairs, a basal Inft of veiy long hairs: nsnall\ composed of sixteen Keg- 
minis; apical Segment twice as long as pminltimate ; palpi moderate, third Keg 
menl lqng, truncated at apex, densely clothed with long hairs; head, 1 borax. 

abdomen, and legs dark brown, tibial hair-tufts of posterior legs paler. Fore- 
wings rather broad, opaque, dark- brown with black scalr.s. with irregular pafleni 
of orhivons scales obscurely margined with greyish-white; traces of an irregular 
l'asci;i near base of inner margin bordered posteriorly wilh black'; beneath pair 

grey without pattern. IJindwings rather uniformly dark-brown excepl near apex. 
Expanse, 42 mm. 


Records of the s.a. Museum 

9 Forcwino's rather broad, opaque., the pattern similar In male; I lie faseia 

near base of inner margin is somewhat !<>s> conspicuous, tlindwitigs greyish- 
brown, al costs narrowly yellowish; uiliac between veins tipped with dull white, 
m> dark brown, Expanse, 56 mm. 

pig, ;;:: .;<;. Qncopera ■ with sp. nuv-. B3. type, ■' ni " llr - Xl,,, ' : ''■ " |; r M " r; ' '• 
.•(ilnivjir female, Moo; :»<;. female, MToe. 

£ar. Victoria : Aloe 1, 11. L2 (December 58, 1920, C< <J. L Gooding? type n 
male, BruJ allotype female, L. L8B/X, in S. Aunt. MunO ; Uongaiha 12; Xarraean 
1 1 : I [aulfiekl ; Toora 12, 25 males, : > females: 

The male genitalia have the vinculum Longer than wide; the posterior: margin 
mvx. The beguroeu has the cm^al proeesses narrow. Long, and blunt-pointed, 
the ventral margin armed with moderately coattpinuouN aeuft? denticles; the ven- 
tral margin is well elntini/.ed. The harpe in ventral View is (ong and nan 
pather Strongly enrved and soim^vhal truncated al apex, a t'eehle ridge indiealed 
by a line of hairs from ba«0 V« two-lhirds; jnxta apparently transversa posterior 

margin with a median notch. The figure oi the genitalia is drawn from an > 
ample from Leongatha (December 15, 1827), in many examples the denticles of 

Irtrnmen jire abscnl from the margin for a short dishmer fmin I he apex. 

The type P'lir were taken together. Dates of capture of tie- series examined 
suggesl i hat this insect is most abundant heiween December 15 and 30, and thai 

Tim'.m.f Australian Ghost Moths 


its emergence is limited to a Eew suitable uighttf during thai period. Males eon 
Untie fco emerge in January, and at Moe in 1930 a scries was taken on. the 20th, 
In 1932 a male vva« captured at Moe as early as Nov<unbftr 29. 

,iii<I trull 
I ill I h Mil, 

:17 II. i'.T 3ft, (hicn/Hxi iitlriruith H sp. jh»v., malr genitalia, LUOngatlUJ 

cum; '<mk eighth sicrnit^. 40 4 1. 0. ulplM sj>. dov. iO. male genitalia; N 

, an. juxta 

, juxta und 

The .stains of this EoiMYl lias been difficult to determine, lis range extends 
Over part Of that of (). FUfObrUtMea, '• oeCJUry at about the same season oil the year 
and in the same general districts. It is mneli rarer ihaji thai species. Mr. (\ (J 
Gooding considers thai the larvae may be found lo Uirlvc under ditt'ei-cnl soil 
Conditions; he lias noticed lhat some larvae occur Oil well-drained hillsides in 
sandy soil, othms mi j he stiller soil of the valley bottoms. In general appearance 

it is tyuite distind from 0, mfobruwnca>* The abundantly marked wing!*, the sub 
marginal faweia ou hind margin of fo rewinds, ami the similarity of the sexes are 

well-marked Characters, but the male genitalia indicate rather close relationship. 
Tim presence of a marked profuberanee on the eighth slernite is a distinct differ 
eneo ; in i). rnfnhri(nn',( this is normally ahsenl, but in a Iltfig series i ntc lunula - 
lions may QCClir, EqX' there is an example in the series with a small but distinel 
process. An aberrant example from Moe (November 29, 1932) has the vinculum 

divided by a rounded anterior notch into two lobes. 

OkCOPXURA ammna sp. no\ . 

Kiy. 40-47. 

,■■; Antennae short, clnbbed, usually of fifteen segments, clubbed portion 
long, toe and a half times as widfl as shaft, apical segment small, as wide as lon</ ; 

28 Records of the s.a. Museum 

m-lnvmis. densely clothed with flatten*?*] locale-like hairs, l'alpi stoni. median 
meginenl two and a half limes ms tong as third, the latter sub-rectangular and taoJ'e 
than twice aa long aa wide, tread* 1 horn x. abijoiUun, and legw cUtt*k browix. h'-i 

winii> opmpm, dark tsroWB with darker suffusions : a well-delined, irregular pat- 
tern ol' pale OchrfeOUfi marks bordered with darker oehreons and ere;ini.\ -w hile 
M-.d'-s, Htlb-mai'ginal fascia near base of inner margin well developed. Ciliae 
oehreoiis, at veins dark brown ; wtngs beneath elolhed wifh uniform grey hair 
like scales. UindwillgS greyish-brown, cost a I'nuu base In apex pale oehremis; 
eiliae pale OClireotlS, al veins greyish-brown. Expanse, -\b nun. 

9. A nl en i me si mi hi r to male, pale oehreons; head, thorax, abdomen, and le_rs 
pale oehreous-grey. Korewi wjs dark iii-ey with greyish- while pattern similar lo 
that ol' m;de. 1 1 indw ings grey, paler near base. Expanse. i1 linn. 

/'. mbnlom form nov. Similar lo typical form. Kn re wings dull uehreons- 
brown with the markings obfcCUl'ed. 1 limlw ings as in \\ pieal form. Expanse. 
38 mm. 

Lor. XewSoiUl. W.-des: Mm. ml Koseinsko TJ ( 1 )eeemher 7, I&34 tt, M. tJoi'd 

lineb ; type, a male, in Goldfinch collection ; allotype female, al 5,000 Feel, Dee-Pin 

ber-MU, 1921, L 18672, in S. Aiist. Mn>. i. S males, 1 fmmib-. 

f, whitlow. Mount Kosciusko. 5,000 Feci, 12 (type, .1 wale, I. LtfCfftf, in S. 

Allst. Mils. L 3 amies. 

The .series examined wurc alJ taken by .Messrs. <;. m. Qoldli&cli and A. J. 
Xieholsoii at 5,000 Feel <m Mount i\r.semsko, between EJceeutbe? 3 and L0, 11)121, 
and on December 7 of the Following year* 

Associated with th«- typical examples were several males with the Eorvwing 

markings ohseured and suffused with OChreoilH brown, thus resembling in general 

appearance dwarfed examples of 0. rufoiyiwinm. In the struetnivs of the getii 
ralin rh.-y agree closely with typical 0. affitna, and can therefore be treated onlj 
as (i Fonrj or variety. 

Mr, Goldfinch writes with regard to thia»peclcs; "I have no doubl that ih«« 

various forms represent .ml y one aperies. They wnv all InkiMi a1 the Lights qu Hie 
verandah of the hotel, but I Imve I'oiind examples hiding for shelter under bark 

and logs in eold weather. Rmpty pupal ease^ which, I have little doubt, belonc 

fo thisspeeies are not infrequently seen projecting From tnl'ts Of snow g?&88.' 1 

The male genitalia Imve the vinculum longer llian wide; the posterior margin 
is 1 rans\ -i-rse or very slight \y rounded. The tegnmen has tlie ventrnl maririn un- 
Tolded and relatively lightly eliitini/.ed, the downward till Of the posin-1.,1 par 
lion, as viewed from fhe ventrnl ;isperi, eailsOft it lo appear like an anal spine or 
proeess; t he nies;d pn x«e.vsrs ;\vr hi 1 1 n 1 |>oi n 1 rd ;ind <irmrd with eonspieiioiis m;i k - 
filial .-lenlely-poinled dentieles. The Imrpe is without a s;ieeiiln> and is i-elativelv 



"null ;jik| (ivpfily curved; the HWX is slightly inflated rind truncated. The jnx1;i 
is ffH wide as lolly'; tin- bileral margins ;nv c(nir;i\i', The trnlleiim is i*< M't m 1 1 *z*i i lii i* . 

Fig. 11! 47. 4--44. OliPOlH-m nl/inni sp, now PJ. runic; L& lype, ;i. male; JL allotype 
iVrii.'ih-. 4;1 17. Q al/riita (. urbuloati form nov- 45. im m s a male-; 46-47. ttuilfEi, Mi. KoHdtusko, 

Thp genitalia figure is ilniwn from the type example. Byer HIUl Turners 

ii^'iiro (//J/ 1 c/7., pi. \ x x i t , fig. 1 i, ascribed to (). i nl rirnhi, may have been based on 
;m example of this species. The posterior portion of the lou'imien appears From 
certain aspects to be like a true anal process. Dr. Turner Inis been nnabh- to 

!r;irr dct^ilH BW 1" the lor;dily of his < | isM-rl in I sprci nicl). BO 1'h;i1 the inattrl' i> 
iiii-niiehisi\ .•. 

The species (lill'ers From 0. >>ii rirulu in \ he Forni of the Vinculum of 1 he male 
and in i he colour of the body and wings. Prom 0. rufol/nnniru if is distinguished 
by tin 1 presence of ,-i marked submargiiial t'aapia near base of inner margin. Prom 
male 0, mi liroith's it differs in the smaller size, i he varicoloured eiliae t>i hind 

wings, and I lie lorm nf the jnxla and tcgmiieii. The female () ial rivu'nli •< itf 

larger and has broader wings. 

30 Records of the S.A. Museum 

• Kroi-EKA ( l'.\i;nN< ni'ERA) AU?< h; ITI ATA S|). 1M)\' 

Kin-. 48-Ba 

QnwporA mitdeera Turner, Proc. Linn. $©c. X.s. tfales* I, 1925-, p. 272, |>1. xxxii. 
lin-. g (nee Turner, 19U (. 
3 Antennae short, not markedly el"M>fcd, brown, usually taghteen-seg- 

niriii«M.l, a long tuft of h.-iirs ;it baste. IIt';nl, thor;i\, ;iml l(>g« brown, abdomeii 
M-r-'\isli lonwi). Foivwin^s pointed, almost SuMateate, I'.'iU' brown with simill 

Pig, 4,s 5.1. Oncopcru alboputtalo sp. ao?. i8. tyi**, • ■ mate, Kiliam ; 4&. malts Kiltartii 

F>0. nuili'. ftuVUsll DchlWUS foiui, Kill:u:i; 51. MlllC, Nnliniwil i\nk, (<hir<Misl;ifi«I ; oS ;0].,t , -..• 

fi'iruilr, Killafn; 5,1 frmale, Killaia; 54. female, Killaw §S. male, National Hark, Qnr, ushn.i 

Tinpai i— ArsTKAi.iAN Ghost Morns 31 

irreeular spots of darker colour; a Lrroup Of three submar<rinal ^rryish-w bite spots 
near MiM Mni'l miim'C margin partly surrounded by black scales, a group of 1\vo 
similar cliHCOlllal spots near b«H€ of M4 ; benealh grey, I i iiulwings urev. apc\ 
broadly and uosta narrowly brown as on Porewiiigs, base white. Expanses 40 mni. 
9 Pomvitigs less acute ai apex thaw in male, termen strongly touxwledj pale 

brown with \<-\-y m-;iI icred darker Hecks. Traces of markings near one-l bird inter 
margin, also indieal ions of sublerminal and disroidal dark brown mark's. Hind 
win^s as in male. b;ise of wings dull gri yish-while. Expanse, IS nun. 

Lor. New Soulh Wales: Killara 2 i February 12. 102s. G. A. Waterhou -.,-. 
1vpe, a nude, ;ind allotype female. Kohi'iiary I'li, llrJK, |. 18674* in S. Aitsl. Mils. | ; 
Ash Island: \%pv Yale 1 ; Dorri-jo 1. 2, Queensland : National Park i ::,<>()() feel ] 
1, 12. 2:1 males, 7 females. 

The pair described above are \i<vy rypieal. IJnlli sexes are variable. Ki^. .">() 
depicts .-i male example from Killara [ February 12. 1D2S), taken with the 1 
in which I lie markings ai't 1 almost obsolete and 1 he head, thorax, ami foivwiim's are 
brighl reddish-nrhrrous. Such I'luhly examples are common ai DorrigO, In other 
male examples (fig 1 , til 1 1 he irroiiml colour remains as in the typical f«>rm. hill lie- 
while marks beenme Obsolete. Some females < f 1 *_»• . ,">;! -,"> I ) an- heavily inl"i.i^«-a1«'d ; 
in such cases I he liny tleckdike spois ma\ stand out as. dark-cent \'n\ lih.wn oeelli- 
fnrm marks. 

Male genitalia wilh vinculum longer 1 ban wide; the marginal and less heavily 
chit iui/ed pcTi-1 ion sometimes broad ; posterior margin strongly and evenly ennvex. 
Te-jumen with mesal processes blunt pointed, armed wilh conspicuous round-d 
denticles, which continue along ventral margins of IcLMimen to one-half; anal 
portion strongly chit iui/ed, appearing as a rounded prominence. Marpe Long and 
curved, outer maiLdn somewhat irregular, saceulus absent ; a well-chit inized sac- 
cular lobe at one-half, diixfa as wide as long; lateral margins concave. Eighth 
slernite longer fhfin wide, the posterior exl remity narrowed and strouvdv chitin- 
ized as a blunt process. 

The ircnilalia figure was drawn from an example taken in the Xalional Park. 
<Jucens!aml. in -lanuary. fS28, Dissections show thai the posterior margin oi' 
'he \ineiilum in fliia species is evenly ithiwx and that 1 he eighth sternilr is pen 
din-i'd into a blunt posterior process. This laller fealnre was interpreted • 
"prominent m n ■ . I i .• ( 1 . prr.cess" of llie vinculum by K.ver and r rurner (Itfr rif., p. 


The species was lakeu by Sent! at Ash Island many years ago, but the spe. 
mens remained undescrihed Dr. <J. A. Waterhmise. who captured it in his 
'-•arden at Killara -m February 12, ]!)2S, writes; '"I was out at the back of my 
lua ise just at dusk', and saw numbers of Hie Unco//,- m Plying at one spot. I caught 


Records of tiir S.A. Museum 

uu r mimI . . . saw Hurt ft was not tile common Etepialid. For tlit! nexl week I was 
not al home or ii was raining y^vy hard. . . . After I had set the others [on 
February 22 and 3G] ' caught two which I think are the females Q% the same 
species/ 1 Fn 1929 he wrote: "Last year on the day ! collected the eight speci- 
mens . . . 1 hey wore exceedingly common, and I caughl them all within a few 
minutes. . . . This year' they are almost absenl. On 17lh February, with Kohl- 
finch, we e;ot two only, and may have semi another two. On the 1!)th February, 
ihonirh I wailed from just before dusk until dark, 1 saw none. On (he 22u,d I 
caught the only two examples seen. On the *_? 1 1 h I caught one and may have aeeM 

another. They are noi <m ihe wing until ft.80 p.m., and ii becomes too dark to c*e 
ihem after 7 p.m.' 1 

Ui^. 5fi c>:\. ."><;-(;n. Qftroprta aiimttnt tula ftp. now ."><;. male genitalia, Kationftl Park, 
Queensland; .".7. juxta; 58. eighth atermtej •"►!•>. muIhuu : fit). Ia'hin.1 |«alfi. (He.:;. Onmpwti 
h rutin <vtf<i sp. nov. Ul. male genitalia, Mt, T-ttmali 02. .juxlaj 63. eighth ater iiUu. 

Turner apparently sent Queensland National Park specimens of this sppeiw 
to Eyer under the imme 0, niilocu'n. Kxaminai ion of the lype of the latter lias 
since shown that ihe present species is a distinct que, Mud lhat true 0. mil-0\ 
has a well-defined sacculus somewhat similar to that of (). < ptiVQW'W. 

In the form of the wiuji's this species is relaled to (). epdpgyra. The white 
base t" the hindwin.Lrs links i! with (). bntrhftph aihi, from which ii dit't'ei's mark- 
edly in winii'-form and in the absence of saeeulus in ihe male. By the latter 
character il is allied to the soul hern <). iiiiricuhi <rroup of species, hut differs from 

Tindalr Australian Ghost Moths 


all of them in Hie i'orm of the <>'enitalia, wiims, and antennae, The life-history is 
quite unknown. 


KIo. 61,65. 

Anlcniiae short, nol clubbed, relatively smooth, a marked lul'l of hairs 
al base.. Head and thorax greyish-brown * le^s invysh brown, posterior pair 
ornamented with tnit&of long bright ochreoiiR hair. Forewinga short, broad, K| 
and U : , branching well before radio-median cross-vein, brown with numerous 

black scales, an oblique oehreoiis-brown fascia from near apex 1o lwo-1 birds inner 
marum, obseiire pale brown markings along cosla, lermen with obscure ochreoiis 

Pig. i;i <;."-. Oncvp< rn bnttmmta sp. uov. 64 pa retype runic, Xft. TonmTi; 05, .illoi y p.- 

iVni.'ilc, K 1 

snll'iision, traces of oehreous blotches near base of winu\ beneath uniformly grey, 
Mhufwinji's rather uniformly iitcy. cosla near apC5S rather nfllTOWly barred with 
paler grey; beneath willi apical third irrey, posterior part of wing clothed \yith 
specialized silvery-while scales. Expanse, apprnx. &3 mm. 

9 Antennae as in male. Head. thorax, and legs pale e.reyi slid mown. Fore- 
wings wither long and narrow. grey with a few obscure* darker scales, no definfU' 

1 races of pattern. Iliudwiu^s unirormly ^n>y . benealh grey; im ! races of silvery 
>cales of male, Kxpanse. :;:» mm. 

I.oc. \e\\ South Willi's: Mounl Wilson 1 (type, a male, January IK 1029, 
A.J. Nicholson, I. 18675, in S. Ausl. Mus. i ; Mount Toitiah 12; EllOr 12 (Decern 
her 27. 11*11, R. -I. Tillyard. allotype female, in Kycll coll.). 2 males, 1 female. 

The dales of capture rn n^c from December 27 to January 11. The Female 
Prom Kbor is worn, and as ii was HOI trtken with the male* is associated with sonic 

34 Records OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

slight hesitation. In its diminutive size and in the form of the antennae it agrees 

ujule well w il Ii I he 01 her examples. 

The' 1 genitalia have the vinculum wider ihau longj mai'kedly X'-sh.i pt'< I, 
with the ponterlor margin somewhat concave. The tegumen haa the antral roar* 
gitt (shown in Lateral view in the figure) undulate and produced into a larjge 
roundel lobe. The bari*e is long, dilated, especially near base, sharply angled ai 
one-hall", and inflated ;it apex. The juxta is in the form of an inverted T. ami is 
loiter than wide. The eighth sternite is as long as wide, and is armed with a 
eon ;picuou« median process. 

The possession of a process on the eighth sternilo links this speciCH with 0. 

mitacepn-t from which it is otherwise distinct. The pi'esenee <>{' specialized dense 

silvery-while scales on the posterior half of Hie underside of the himlwingS allies 
if with (). </)•</( n fahi and O. pariw, from both of vvhjch it is distinct in I In- piv-. 
of an ohliipie fascia from near ape\ to two-thirds inner margin. 

Mr. (L M. (doldiineh has taken an example of this species, and has forwarded 
the following notes : '\\lounfs Wilson and Tomah . . . aiv r.nlv ;i few miles apart, 
and both are capped with hasalt. The aountify is a rain forest area. The males 
fh ai a preal rate two or three inches above Ihe ground in ihe scrub clearings, a! 
laic dusk, and are mosl difficult to see and catch. One is aware I hat something 
dark is Hying. ... I noticed thai Ihe specimen I finally caught had a definite 
track paM the base of a small I ree, and after several unsuccessful attempts 
secured it. n 

n\('iii-Ki:A i I'ak'Cimoi'khai nirAcn \ imi vm,.\ Turner. 

Pig. 6642: 

Ovciifii rn hnit'liiip/iiilht Turner, Proc. Linn. See. \.S. Wales. I, 1925, p. 278, pi. 
xxxii, i\^\ R, 

Anlennae nol clubbed, dark brown, smooth, a conspicuous I lift of hairs 
from base, apex aenie. [lead, thorax, and tttgs brown, posterior pair paler, with 
moderately developed ochroous lihlal hair-lufi; abdomen «rreyish bmwn. IToro- 
wings Short, broad, With l», and R-, branching just before radio-median enws- 
vein, brown with some scaltered black scales; an irregular white diseal mark at 
two -thirds, connected bran oblique white fascia with three-fourths inner margin.; 
m is of a snblerminal L r rcy line at one-half, inlernal to which there is an irregU- 
lar black blolch: beneath uniformly dull brown, costa narrowly t i ii^'cm I oclireons. 
llindwin^s, except at base, uniformly brown above and below, base obscured dull 
white, fijxpanse, 35 mm. 
9 Unknown, 

Tindale — Australian Ghost Moths 


hoc, Ilerherton 1. 2; Evelyn Send) 1> ; Kuranda ; CairilN district, 12 males. 
The described male example (fig. 67) Iti PJ10 l'rmn Evelyn Scrub, February, 

15)11. A Keeoud example (fig-. 66) lias the fiomvinga uniformly ocftrcous^hrowJi 
v, ill) the while markings obstiletv, in a third 1 1 1 < - white taarkingn arc also obs<h 
lete, bu1 fchc apical halt' of the wiiig is olraeuroly and irregularly blotched with 
pale? oehreous scales (fig, 68), In a fourth the groitiul-colour is paler ochreous 

brown, with a broad irregularly-defined silvery-white streak I'mm base to near 

one Jialf inner margin mid a narrow distal streak From near bane to three* fourths, 
where i1 its oxpftntlnd to form an irivgular blolehed mark (fig. B9). An example 
of i he ivpe series from Evvlyn Seruh h;is also l.ern examined. The genitalia have 

heen detached from Ihis specimen, so that il is proh.-ihly fhe 021C studied by Eyer, 

Fig. HO — 154>. Onroperii bftKhyphntlu (Turner), I5fi, mulr, [Ti)iln>rti>tt; t»7. ionic. Kveryn 

.-.,i;ih : (is, n i : j h ' , I f rrhcrt on ; fi9. in;ilr, Kur:i n< i.i . 

The nude genitalia have the vinculum long and narrow, with the thinner 

I,i1.'i-;d parts poorly developed; the posterior mare/m is slijrhlly convex, The 
fe<rumcn h;is loilg; unarmed mesal processes. The harpe is tnng and slender, has 
a narrow h;ise, ;i short blunt saceulus, and a Long eurved eueullus. The juxta is 
wider than long; the anterior margin t rans\ ersr. the other margins eoneave. The 
pighth sferuite is about as wide as Ioii«j\ with 1 lie posterior margin strouedy 


The fthort., broad wftlgH and compact form of this Hpeeles is characteristic; in 
this resped il shows some relationship to large examples pf 0, [Html and to 0, 

36 Secords of the S.A. Museum 

artjcnlafu. It also resent Mes these two species in ilm unarmed margin of the tegll- 

men with its Long mosal process, inn differs from iln-ni in possessing a reduced 
>;icciili!s. From l»ot h of them h may also be (Ifctihguished by the uniformly brown 
hind-wings and the absence of i in* specialized white scales beneath. 

The late Mr, A. M. Lea found this species flying in the twHighi of the rain 
lornsi before <hisk. The type specimens were taken by .Mr. h\ \\ Dodd hi the 
Kvi'lyn Scrub. It seems possible that the larvae recorded by Ailicrton iis Feeding 
mi fallen leaves ( see reference under o. mifoeero \ may belong to this species. lie 


'• Larvae in the rain Poresi live in burrows with unprotected entrances ttere 
they feed on Fallen leaves, in particular those of the wrangling fig (probably Finm 

WadnmonU), These fallen leaves, though yellow tO Some extent, are usually 
succulent tor some 1 imc after i hey fall to tile ground ; bit 1 <\v> IMM es ;ind even soft 
wood may hi- takcJl by lh" insect." 

<)\< nn i;\ i PAROJ i I'OJ'&OA | n\|-\ ,\ sp. now 

Pig. 7:; TO. 79-81, 

J Antennae short, slender, smooth, noi dubbed, a tuft of short hairs From 
base. I lend and thorax pale in-own. legs paler, posterior pair with long, well 
developed tibial hair-tufts. Porewings slightly pointed al apex, R , and K- 
hraiicliin«r at radio-median cross-vein, pale brown with ochreous and creamy-while 
scales Forming an obscure suffusion along costal margin and on apical third of 
wing, llfndwings greyish-brown, costa and apex rather broadly creamy-white; 
beneath with apical third dull brown, posterior two-thirds and base clothed wiih 
dull white scales. Expanse, 30 mm. 

? Antennae short, dark In-own; head, thorax, and abdomen dull fnlvon>. 
Forewiugs relatively long and na vmw , < h , II -rryislidirow n \\nh some paler scales, 

pattern obsolete, [findwings pale brown, costa narrowly cream, beneath uni- 
Eormly pale brown. Expanse, •': I mm. 

hoc. Queensland i Cairns district (A. M. Lea, type, a male, and allotype 

hnnal.\ I. 18676, W S. A list. Mus. i. S males. 1 female. 

Two males and a Female Were laken together by the laic Air. A, ML Lea. The 
lie example is rather worn. A third nude (fig. 81 I, from tllC Lower Collec- 
tion, is larger (3S mm.), and differs from the typical Form in possessing a forard 
creamy while mark parallel to hind margin and extending to one-half, also a 

narrower discs! streak from near has,- to three-fourths, and a rounded yellow spot 

ft uvn-tliinls inner margin. The posterior wind's arc similar to the typical form. 
The male genitalia haw ihe vinculum somewhni brOad and the posterior 

riNPAi.K Australian Ghost Moths 


margin convex. The tejrumen has the rnesal processes relatively long, slender, 

iiml Unarmed; in lateral view they are only slightly anejod at I heir juncture 
with main hody of lo^nmen. The harpe is long Mini nurniw al the base, tin sac 
eulus is long and aenlo, the eiieiillns strongly angled al two-! hirds. The jnxta IS 
subrectangulai' and longer than wide. 

r .. 70-78. 70-72 Onvopcm braehyphyUa (Turner)-. 70, male genitalia} 71. juxtn; 72, 
t>ightli Btcnntis 7:; 70 0< jwwva sp. aov, 73. male genitalia; 74. lateral asjiuel oi? portion wf 
tegumonj 75. l'.« 1 1-<- ; :«;. juxin. 77 7s. n. ttrffmtatn sjj. hoy, 77. lateral aspect of portion of 

fccgunioii : / 8. 1i:m [H'. 

This species resembles 0. brunneola in the underside of the hind wings and 
in the form of the wings oil (he female, but differs widely in the form of the male 
genitalia and in wing markings. From (/. hmehyphiflUi il is distinel in the Long, 
slender mesal proeosses o\' fcegUinen, tile fong saeenlns, reet an^nla r jn.xta. and in 

the presence of specialized dull while scirlew on the underside of the hijulwings. 

Prom I he next speeios ( (). m <l< nhihi i il differs in I ho prnport ions of 1 ho harpe and 

hi the absence of silvery-white scales on the base of the hindwing 

38 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Tin* exact localities of the types of 1 his and the following species were tiot 
indicated by the late Mr. A. M. I. cm. all the insect material lie collected daring his 
visil to North Queensland in the year 1912 being labelled simply "Cairns Dis- 
trict* 15 This obscures Hie rclnt ionsliip between tic warm temperate fauna of the 

highlands find the const ;i I 1 ropiral species which he then colleeled. 

The following principal collecting daten and locations may serve ultimately 

;is clues to the renl tlisl ribnl ion of sonn- of the species: 

Cairns: February 12-13 1 19-20; March 16-17, including attempts to visil 

Green Island; March 29, Very Utile collecting was done. 
Knrandn : February 1 ! ; .March 11-13; small collections only. 
Nelson: February i:> 19 ; March 1445, 18-20, 28. Large collections. 
AihciMon - February 21-26. Abundance of insects of all kinds. 
Taiga ; February 26. Brief visit; 

Malanda : February 26 1o March 1. (iood colled ting. 
Ynn^abiirra : March 2. Uriel' visil. 
( hnmbriunbra : March :5. Uriel' visit 
Peeranion : March l-o. Uriel' visil. 
Kulara : March 6-7, 9-10* Extensive colleelions 
Sharp's Siding (Yungaburra) : March 7-8. &ood colleelions. 
Harvey Creek-, at bnse of l»rlendcn Ker : March 20-27. Large collections. 
Edge Hill, near Cairns: March 30. A brief visit only. 

(Kroi'KKA I 1'AUoXeOl'EKA) ARGENT ATA sp. tm 

Fig. 77-78, 82, 

Head and thorax ochrcoiis-hro\\ ii. Ko rewinds wit h K, and K- branchim* 
jnsl before radio-median cross-vein, dull brown, costa near base pale oellTeOUH 
Willi traces of brown spots near apex, whole of disced region from base 1o three 
I'onrths clothed with specialized crcam-1 inged silvmw-w Idle scales; beneath uni- 
formly dull brown. Llindwings dull brown, apex broadly, turmun and veins 
narrowly pale ochreoiis. diseoidnl region narmwlv and base bmndly cloUied with 

silvery^vhiie scales : beneath with costal third dull brown, posterior portion dud 
white. Expanse, 36 mm, 

hoe, Queensland: Cairns district (A. M. Lea, type, I. 18677, in S. A list. 
Mils. | . 1 male. 

The mah' genitalia are somewhat similar 1o those of Q, imtVa; the liarpe lias 
I lie base vvvy hroad, the snemilns almost as long as riienllns; the CUClllIuS short, 
bent, and inflated at apex. The mesal processes of feonmen are unarmed; in 
Lateral view they ^v^ strongly angled at juncture with main body of tegunxen. 

Tinrai.e Australian Ghost Moths 


In the Form of I hi* male genitalia this speeien appear** lo be most uearlj re- 
lated to 0. ' /'iiri/ifra. but it differs from the published figure and deHeriptkyi in 
possessing an apieally dilated cueullus. The form of the median procesa of the 
tegumen also appears to be different. 

Kig; 7:> sl\ 7U 81. Oncoptrra pnrva sp. buv. 711. type, u m.-ilr. Cairns district; 80, Allotype] 
fi'Qiule, Cniriiti district; si. male, Caii'jia distiii't, 82. (/. wgcntuiu sp. nuv. rype, a luoJr, diiiijue, 

I ' .- 1 i t 1 1 r- illsj i- i < • t . 

A I first si<rht it is verv eio^i 1 tO I). pdWlt, bill the different harpc. shuil, l.rnt 
mesal process of le^umen. and the sil very-white scales on hiuthtingN ;in' dtS- 

I iiM-i ive. 

< >,\<oi'i;K\ ^PakONL'DJ'ERA) iii'AKd vi!A Turner. 

QneopvMl ipartjijrtl Turner, Prnc. Linn. Soe. X.S. Wales, 1, IDIM, p. 279, pi. xxxii. 
fig. I. 

1 \';ilves w ii h sacculus narrow and acutely pointed, .'tlinosl as long as euml 
Ins, eiieiillns less broad Hum in hr/tr/ii/ }>lt ylfu , not dilated apically ; eighth sl.-niin 
shiilllecock-shaped. upper angles project ingj vinculum broad, not emaruinah'. 
Without median procrss . audgagltN 8 somewhat oval plate/ 1, Queensland; Xalinnal Park, 8,000 feel I 12. 

This speeies was described I'rnin 1 wo examples taken in the National Park, 

Queensland. The type lias not been exd ruined, but Dr. Turner lias kindly for- 
warded the second specimen for study. This mm fori una I ely proves to belong to a 

different species (0. alhogtttidta), in which there is no uaeoulus. Kyer and Tur- 

4-0 Records of the S.A. Museum 

ner's figure and the description <>!' tlio genitalia in their key (/ae. rii., p. 272) 
should be sufficient in determine the speeies wheii further material is available, 

I >\<. oi'hk'A (ParONCOFERA) uitockka I Turner V. 

Pig, 83-52: 

QneopterQ mitovem Turner, Ann. Queensl. Mus., 1911, p. 132. 

Qncopera mitovera AiiriviHins, Arkh. I'. Zool., Stockholm, 1-! (2), 1920, p. A3. 

Onvopera miln<-<r<i nl). suffusa Aurivillins, lov, <■{(. 

Onvoptru milovtm ab. Hneatn Aurivillius. /,„■. 

Onroprra mxtocern ab. mltaiu Anrivillius. //>/•. e/7. 

Unvopem miloara Pbilpott, Trans, fsow Zeal. Ins!., 37, 1U2B, p. <-->. fig. hi 

Oneopira cpuryyru I'hilpott, Traill Bill. Sac. lamd.. 73, 1927, pi. 1. Bg. !) tgem 

talk i. 
(hwopira mifven'u Atherton, Grass prsis of the Athertui] tableland, pamphlet, 

8 pp.. Dept Agriculture. Queensland, adv., 1!»:>1. p. 3 I bioUOmi<5H) . 

Antennae short , slender, uol clubbed, clothed wit ] i (la! Scale-like hairs, a 
lull ot long hairs at base, iisimlly twenty segments. Head, thorax, and legs 
oehreous-browu, abdomen darker. Forewitigs wiili U, and I v.-, branching a1 
radio-median cross-vein; brown with obsolete traces of a subterminal oblique 
fascia from disc lo I wo-t birds inner margin. llindwings grey, apex paler, costa 
narrowly oehreous, beneath grey near apex, base and portion of posterior Iwj 1 1 of 
v\ inii' with dnll while specialized scales. Expanse, 44 nun. 

$ Head, thorax and Icirs dull achroous brown. Korew mn- s p;.,| r oehreous with 
darker brown scale* forming an obscure pattern, iLtndwiugs dull greyish-brown, 
a1 apex irregularly pater, giving a dappled effect; wings below uniformly dull 
brown. Expanse, 53 nun. 

Loo. Queensland: Ktiranda 4 (type, a male, April, i:»()7. in Turner coll. 
llerberton '2: Oairn»S. 25 males. 11 females. 

Dr. TurnerVj type example has been described and figured* The second miali 
specimen differs in possessing a dull white sxibterminal fascia somewhat expanded 

in diseoWal region, and an et|lially well defined while si peak nearly parallel to the 
inner niare-in and extending fcom the base lo the subtrrniinal fascia. The female 
described was taken by Mr. K. 1'. [>odd at the same place as the type, in April, 
1910- The second female is an example from Cairns in the MacLeay Museum, h 
is of a somewhat duller brown than the firsi one, and may possibly not belong lo 
the species; it differs in ihai \i l and R 3 branches well after Hie radio-median 


! I 

The iiialc genitalia have ihc vinculum strongly V-slmpd ; I In- thinly cbflUl 
ix«-,| marginal pjn-ts jut hro.-itl ; (In* j k >sl <-ri<n* nuir^in sli^hl \y cnucnvc Tegmnen 
with ventral margins inflated, strongly armed With denticles from jiickhI process 
nearly to anal extremity. Llarpe stout al base, wifh Long, acutely-pointed aae- 

culus presrmt : riieuilus sien<lei\ curved, sli^'lilly iiillnted al apex, Juxhi mIkiiii ;is 

wide ;is lonu'. anterior tnai^gin slightly concave, posterior notched, mdrgiut 
deeply uoneave. Eighth Hteriiite armed with a afoul Median process. 

I'"i^. •- Sit, OllCOlWM QlUuvim (Turin* I •• 33. tyjllS U mak. Kur;in<l;i ; SI. inalr, K iji<jjiiI:i 

S.">. (Vnialr. Kliramhi ; Sti. frmalc, ('aims. 

Three fornix or aberrations of the mule of this species have been described 

by Aurivillius hut lui \ • uoi y.-t been recognised aiuong$1 our material: 

l\ sii/iit.-.*/ Aiii'i\'illins. " notieae supra ockraccae Lisciis tribug irregn 

Iririlnis I'uscn-brunnejs, ad junririneni postunuii conjunclis cost am aulcin IjUUtl 

altintrenl ibus ornalae; 1'ascjac dliae primac laiae. tenia si ihmn r^i n<i 1 is aninistinr 

el prope Medium excurvata. (mnics gnftia p;n\is uixcis irregularity r eon-sp^tsae." 
t hih'tin Aurivillius. M Alae antieae mipra aufcaeQualiter fiirtco-bruMjeo-el 

oehraceo-variegatae, inter marginem po#tietiiu e1 eostani 7 linea poatdineali main 

lata uivc.'i t'usco niMi^inniM ornatac." 

f. viftfita Auri\illius. u Alae antieae Kttpra bruifneo-ochraceae vitta uiediarai 
i ' .1 Lasi ad apieem cellular e1 deinde in pla^-am magnam apiceif) ' i t an^ulum 

poaticum versus dilatata ornatae." 



These Hirer male forms wmv taken q| .Malanda. Queensland, in association 
with normal examples. I n 1 lie ahsmme O'l figures II IS nn| possible to state w Imtln : 

they are colour forms of (), miton m or separate species 

Fig. s; ■ in 1 . Giwopvra mitocFW (Turner)-, S7. mate genitalia; 88. fmxtu; 89- eighth 

slrrnitr; '.mi. j ;l i.i;tl palp, Showing rial mu'iit :ny maxi ll;i ry |Kilp; !< I. :iiiI nni.-i ; !»-. ;in ;mk'iui;il 

This hpeeies is of considerable economic importance, owing to rts depredfi 

lions, in the larval State, upon Ihe pasture ImimIs of the Atherbm Ta 1 »l«-hi 1 1. 1 in 
North Queensland. Some details of the life-history are known. According Lu 
Atherlon, who has nnnle some interesting observations, Onc-op* m moths are on the 
wiiap between January and April. Eggs are distributed freely among the grass, 

Mini larvae ma\ he collected front -Inly lo I Vermin r ; when full grown they villain 

;i Length of over 5 cm. "Pupation taken place in the larval burrow From Deeum- 
Im-i in Alai-eh at a depth ol'4 In (i inrhrs. . . . The . , . verl ieal burrows exea VHted 
by the grubs may be from less than 6 inches lo more than 15 inches in depth. I he 
ImsI :; or I inches being ttnlined with silk. The larvae may ennstriiel a ehamber 
in the buiTOW jnsl below the snrfaee ..i' the ti'roiind, which possibly faeilitab-- 
hirning when excavations are m prioress. The soil is apparently collected from 
1he base of the extending burrow and held iii the mm nit h parts as the larva hacks 
into the chamber, in whieh ii 1 urns he fore carry Lllg I lie burden oul s i < I < • . . . . It is 

commonly Eoxind thai in pasture* with a fairly long growth . . . the larva builds 

Tindale -Australian Ghost Moths 43 

a sort of anteroom over its burrow . . . brought to within I inch of the surface, 
and there flared out like the top of a test tube. Built over the top of this is a 
covering consisting of pieces of earth and dead grass. . . . The whole of the 
cavity is lined with silk, and a passage-way of similar material leads away from 
it in a horizontal direction." 

On general grounds it is tempting to disagree with Atherton's conclusions 
(not quoted here), which suggest that 0. mitocera was originally a rain-forest 
dweller, with a dead-leaf-eating larva, and that its attacks on pasture grasses are 
an induced habit brought about by the clearing of the jungle and the destruction 
of its normal food. It seems possible that the observed differences of habil 
between the grass-feeding larvae which build an ante-room to their silk-lined 
burrow, and the rain-forcst-dwelling, dead-leaf-eating larvae with an unprotected 
entrance to the burrows, are of a specific nature. 


By Bernard C. Cotton and Nelly Hooper Woods, MA. 


The two papers referred to in this article are: 

Finlay : Trans. N. Zeal. Inst, lxii, May 23, 1931, pp. 11-14. 

Iredale : Rec. Aust. Mus., xviii, No. 4, June 29, 1931, pp. 230-231. 

In these works, published within a month of each other, two leading Australasian 

conchologists express their views on the generic location of some dozen species of the 

family Harpidae. 

As we have the type specimens of ten of these comparatively rare forms, we take this 

opportunity of making clear some of the complications which have ensued. Finlay 

proposes to use three genera, Iredale four, the latter all new and three without a 

description. Finlay introduces Austroharpa, taking as type a species (Harpa pulligera 

Tate) with an extreme form of large and bulbous proto-conch. 



Fig. 1-m 

Tin: I wo papers referred to in t his art tele are : 

Finlay t Trans. N. Zeal Inst., Ixii, May 23, 1931, pp. 11-14 
Iredale: !«'<•<-, Ausi. \lu>., win. No. 4 Jtme 29, lD3t, pp. 230-231, 

I n these work's, published wii hin ;i n i < m t S I of each Other, 1 wo l.'.ul i nu' A usl r;iljisi:m 

<u M <-hn|n<_rislS .'XpiTSS llmir VH'W^i oil |||r gWlCriC loeJllioll O i' SOIIIC do/.i'll spocies of 

t ItC r.'imiK II iirpi'liic. 

As wr have 111' 1 type specimens of ten of these eoiuparal ivcly pure forms, wc 
fflkl 1 Ihis i.f)|)orliniily ol imikiim elr.'ir some of the com plicil ions which Ikiyc 

ensued. Kinhiy proposes ro use Ihjrw genera, [reclaim Four, Ihe killer all ntrw him] 
lliree Wit houl ;i description, Finhiy inl m.linrs Amiroh(irp(t y taking as type .-i 

«poci<»« (1l(ii'j)(( ptolliffwn T;ile; wilh «in -'Xlivmc form o! largo ;ind l)iill)ons prOtO 

conch. The remaining members of the genus have y protoeoneh of the same type, 
hut smaller and more depressed. For the sum' group tredale introduces Deni 
harpti wit koid a description, nun this name becomes a synonym. Similarly 
Jififlnhtfrjw was introduced wiihoni diagnosis; ho merely states: "//. lamcllifcrti 
and //. stiicosu nmy be classed together under the generic name UeflnfHtvpa. . . .' 
As Par as I he protoeoncb us concerned Hurpu ImnpUifvm Tate is ;i typical 
Hocilhiiva and TTarpti sitlevsa Tate is an Auslrtthftppri. Therefore Rt'jtnhovpa is 
;t synonym of Hoc it Intra. For Ilarptt xpirtttd Tate, Imhllp introduces 7VWiH 

harpu merely slating, "//. xpimtu is separable with the generic name TYum-i 

ihirpif." Rui we agree wiih Finlay Hun ZZrt/^ npiraia Tate is mi AwtrohurpUi 

so flml Triiuif !nir/)ti becomes a synonym, 

A ifsfrohtirjxi f«h i Kinhiy. from ; m exMinhml ion of Abattoir I-ore specimens, 

seeruH to be .-I local variety of J. suleoxa Tate. Ihe type of which is the most 
deeply sulcate of our specimens. fredale states: "Harpa parhyrltvifo can be 
eonipared with <thhr< naia," in wlial reaped he does riol say, Harpa (tbhwuialu 
lias the Aiutfroharpa type of protoconch, and so has Hurpu pachyeheilv Tate, 
though in Ihe latter species h is much smaller, WV do noi think //. pa^ht/ch&iht 
Tate and //. camnoklcm Tate are eassids, as Fiiilay simuvsts. Thev have not the 


Records of the s.a. Museum 

Fig. l-!>. r'rot.ii-nii.-hs uf Molluscs of the family Harpidac (--ill x lt>}« l. EatftMra 
!,i .■■■■liifcni ; 3. Austrokarpa sutcosa : :'. A. fspiratal I. A. cti.s.sinoiih »; 3, .1. filfithrntii: 6, I 

fdr/ii/chrihi ; 7. A. ahbr< riata ; S. A. pullif/rra: 9, .1. tenuis, 

Cotton and Woods— Remarks on New Mollusca Genera 47 

widely reflected inner lip, the dentition of the outer lip, the plication on the 
columella and the sharply recurved snout of Cassis. 

On protoconch features they should be placed in Austt^oharpa, and also the 
recenl //. punctata Verco. Iredale's new species, P. cxquisita, the type of the new 
genus Palamharpa, appears to be an Austroharpa, so that Palamharpa probably 
becomes another synonym of Austroharpa. 

Our classification then reads : 

Austroharpa Finlay, May, 1931, type //. pulligera Tate = Deniharpa, 
Tramt -harpa, and Palamharpa Credale, June, 1931. 

A. pulligera (Tate), spirata (Tate), sulcosa (Tate), tatei Finlay (1 = 
sulcosa var.), tenuis (Tate), clathrata (Tate), punctata (Verco), pachycheila 
(Tate), cassinoides (Tate), cxquisita (Ircdale), ubhreviata (Tate). 

Eocithara Fischer, 1883, type //. mufica Lamarck == Bsfluharpa Eredale, 
June, 1931, K. lamellifera (Tate). 





ByG. A. Waterhouse, D.Sc, B.E., F.E.S. 


On a recent visit to Adelaide (April, 1932), Brigadier W. H. Evans and the writer were 
granted facilities to study the Lower Collection of Hesperiidae, which had been 
purchased by the South Australian Museum. In this examination we were ably assisted by 
Mr. N. B. Tindale, of the Museum. As a number of doubtful points arose, it seemed 
desirable that they should be recorded before General Evans leaves Australia, so that he 
might concur in them ; Mr. Tindale has also seen this paper before publication. 



iiv G s \. WATi-kHorsK, n.S( . v n.i"., i'.i >. 

On a recent viml to Adelaide < April, lflS2), Brigadier \V. II. Evans and the 
writer were granted KacililicH to study the Lower Collection of llesperudae., 
which held been purchased by the South Australian Museum. In this examination 
we were ably assisted by Mr X. I». TimlaLe, of 4 1 1 * * Museum. As r number of 
doubtful points arofie, h seemed desirable that they sliould be recorded before 
General Evans leaves Australia* so that \\p might jioiumr in them; Mr, Tuidate 
has also seen 1 h is pape? before publication. 

As the Soufli Australian Museum authorities have purchased the collection 
of the late Dr. T. 1*. Lucas, of Brisbane* which euntainn several typos of Roseu- 

sloek and Miskin, and have had in their [MJSSeHSIOn for many years 1ypes of 

species described by Tepper ,-nni Guest, these also art? included. 

To make this review more comprehensive, some of the 1 types of this family 
in the otieT Australian Museums are treated ;is well. 

The [ate Mr. 0. I-. Lower was I he lirsl \uMralmn entomologist- to study 

in detail this interesting family, and all his papers on it have hetfu published in 

the Traiistirlians of Ike Royal $OvM'\i uf Sotilh A nsl nil in. The first paper ap- 
peared in 1 !)<)•_>. kwi. by Meyriek and Lower hpioled M. and L., LHTJi, and ;is 
HtOted (ui pa.ire :J!k Meyriek' drew up llie oeneric characters and identitied I lie 
species, whilst Lower w;is re^|)0tislble for ihe descripf ions. 

Lower in Ihe sanie Tni n.sdrl in, is for 1907 and 1908 (quoted Low., 1907, and 
Low,, LM).s i .lescrilo'd further tfpeeies, Hivd in 1!>11 | quoted Low.. 1!!11 | published 
his (inal revision. During ihe time Lower was preparin<r Ihis lasi revision I was 
in nmsliiiii correspondence with liinu and leiii him numbers ,)[' speeimens; 1 
bave si ill Ihr correspondence in my possession, and il has been very useful in 
"lueidalinv, several doubtful points This correspondence will he deposited in 
the Auslralian Museum. Sydney, for future reference. 

Lower party in RJD8, wrote saying In- would Lriw |he type localities, but in 
mosi cases he failed lo do SO, ;iud I have, aided hy my two friends, endeavoured 
to rectify this. All speeimens marked as ivpcs by L<ywer have l.een eareiullv 
cheeked with his deseriptions. and where no specimen was marked as l\pe on-' 

50 Records of the S.A. Museum 

has been nominated as snrh. care being taken to see thai tl was one of the original 
series and thai it agreed with the description, 

In 1914 77/r Butterflies of Australia^ by Waterhouse and Lyell, was pub- 
lished (quoted W. and L., 1914), when several changes were made in the classi- 
fication, some new species described, and nil the then known species figured. 
Almost all the specimens used to illustrate tins work are now in the A nsl ralian 
Museum. Sydney. 

The above works will be ilios<- thai are chiefly quoted, and the species will he 

listed under the names gTVftil in Lower's revision of 1*911. 

Ti;\ri;zm.s im:ti:i:o.\i A.C1 i,.\ Meyrick and Lower. 

rmpeziifs hetwomwulo M, and L„ 1902, p. 84; W, and L., 1914, p< 176, 6g< 622, 


The bolotype is a male from Cooletown (Endeavour River) in the Waclcay 
Miiscnni, University of Sjwtoey knwrr's locality, Catena (how,, 1911, p. 1*36), 

requires continuation, as I have nrxri* seen a specimen I'roni there. 

Tkapkkitks uitkts (Tepper >. 

JtempcHlh lulm Teppcr, Trans. Roy. Sor. S. Ansl., iv, 1881, p. 33, pi. It, ftg. 6. 
Trti pi :ih's I niru Low.. 11.H1, p. 137 (in pari 
Trapr^ilrs IhI, us W. and L., 191 1, p. 177, flu. 660, 74S. 

Teppcr 's holotype male is from Ardrossan, South Australia, and is now in 
very poor condition. This species nmst be very rare in South Australia, as Lower 
Only had one male from Port Lincoln and one male from Stonyt'elL and I have 
another male I'rom the latter locality, given me by Lower, Two specimens only 
are known from Victoria, both eaughl at Castlemaine in February* other speci- 
mens are known from New South Wales and South Queensland. Lower's recon! 
Of Duarinjia in 1902 I M. ami L.. p, !)1 ), but omitted in 1911 ( Low., }>• 13?) is UO 
douhl correct, ms there was an undoubted specimen with a Duai'dma label in his 
collection amongst his specimens of 7\ pvtatia. The llohart loealily refers to the 
race glawu* W, and L., I.e., 191 L p. 177. fig. 661, 739. 

Ti;aim:/.i'I!:s PUIOALIA i II«-witson ). 
Hrsp, rriu p/i itftd ,<> Ili'W,. Dcsc. Hesp.. 1868, p. 32. 

Tropezilm phillyra Miskim Proc. Roy. Soc. Qld.. vi. 1889, p. 158. 

The bolotype male phiUym Miskin. which is a synonym of phiuaiin, is in the 
South Australian Museum Collection from the Lucas Collection. In tin* Lower 
Collection are (wo males and one female labelled Cairns, Lower ColL, hul this 

locality requires confirmation. 

Waterhotjse Note on Types of IIespkuiidak 5! 

Amsvxta i'oi.yskma. (Lower). 

/Irs/irrilhi polys&mH D(JW*, 190$, p. Sll, female. 

Aiiisiiuhi ptifysemn Dow., 1911, p. 142, male'; VY. and I,.. 1914, p, is::, ftp. 745, 754. 
The holotype is n female from Pel Ford, near ( Mi il InLroi*. Qneenaland, Feb- 
ruary. 190A, and is now iii the Aust ralian Museum, Tlie allotype male is iii Ihii 
South Australian Museum, from Tort Darwin, Kehruary. 1909, and there is also 

u paratype nuili- in the Australian Mh.simhh iVoin Porl Darwin, February, 190ft. 

Other known .specimens arp from Porj Darwin, tiuil.s January and Mareh. iemale 
April. A male hom Flinders Island, Queensland, January, 1927, is in the South 
Australian Museum, and I have seen a malr from Stanley Island. Queensland, 
January, 1!>_>7 

Anisv.vta sriii:\osi;\i a j Mr\ rick and Lower), 

Tnt/H -ihs sphenmema SI and L.. 1902, p. 92. 
Trap :lfrs paraphties M. and L., 1902. p, 98 

Atnsiiiilu fjpki < imsruHi \Y. and Ij., 1914, p. 181, fig, ()4o-(i. 

Described from a single speemwri said 1o he a female, but llm specimen in 1 1 m • 
DflWftr Collecting, marked as typr female, on examination proved to be a malr. 
No. 3775, from IVrtli, Western Australia, collected in November hy F. M. Angel. 

No specimen marked a> fbe type of parapJwCs could he found, hnl (his name was 
sunk under spin tiosf piQ hy Lower i M pill, p. 14:!, and no separation under Wii'Sf 
two names was made in his collection. 

A visy vta evxoxi: | Ilewilsnii ) 

(')fr!o/>i<hs rynvne Hew., Bxot. Butt., v, 1S74, fig. 17. 

E rspcrilla (fMcilis Tepper, Trans, Roy, Soc. s. Ansr., iv, issi. p. 34, pi. ii. B#. 7. 

AmynU eynone W. and L., 1914, p. 182, fig, 761-?. 

General BvanH writes frrmi London that lie has examined TIewitson's tjrpe 
of ci/nmir in the British Museum. It was the only speeiinen Uiere, and is a malr 
labelled ''Australia." On comparing it with spt'£imyro from goutli Australia 
(tiracHis Topper) and Vietoria iqrisrn Walerhouse, Proe. 1/nm. Soe. \'.S. 
Wales. 1932, |). 220), which he had taken to London, lm linds thai the type is 
smaller (25 mm. airainst 28-30 mm/), with vringS rather more poinied, on lore- 

wing no spots in la, 4. and 5, only the cell spot, discals in 2 and 3, artd three suh 

apieal dots. Tlie hindwing helow is more groenisli-oohreous, as in </ris<<t, hnl 1 he 
iliK'cal hand is darkened, appearing W Composed of darkisli hrowu eonl igitOW 
spots; the ba«al markings tend 1o he similar, i.e.. dark and maenlar. It must lie 
regarded .'is a separale raee from some other, perhaps intermediate, locality, and 
if anything nearer griseti* 

52 K'ixords of the S.A. Museum 

Ilcwitson described the underside of eynom as u rnious-brown with several 
white spots separated by a band of black spots/ 1 The figure is of the underside, 
and is imi very satisfactory. The type Locality of cynvne for the presenl is 
unknown, mimI there will be two races, gracilis and prised. 

Mesodixa akijuoi'is Meyriek. 

UrsodiiKi aduropix Meyriek, Ent. Mo. Mag., xxxvii, 1901, P- 168; M". and L.. 

1902, p. 46; W. and L., 1914, p. 180, fig, 698-9, 

The holotype male is in Meyriek^ collection from Katoomba, New South. 
Wales, in November. This apecies is confined to the Blue Mountains, from Went 
worili Falls to Mount Victoria. 


Uesodina hdlijzm vymophmrta Low., 1911, p. 119; W. and L., 191 1, p. 180. fig. 


There were two males and two females in the Lower Collection, all I'rom 
Perth, Western Australia, but without lype labels. A male specimen was 
nominated as hoiotype* and a female, eanghl In November, 1900, as allotype. 

HksI'KKILLA Air.VIDMi \ Olliffc 
Jfrsprrilhi nciiiiion<t<f Olliff, Proe. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, IV, 1889. p. 623; Low. 

1911, p. 136, 

()nis/)htuns mnniongu W. and L.. 1914, p. 184, fiir. 670. 

Ilolotypo male and allotype female in Australian Museum, from Mount 
Koseiusk-o, March, 1889, 

IIeSPEKHjLA enui'A. r\ ( Luller). 

Tfb*lo camparin Butler, Ann. NFajr. Nat. Hist, f5) ix, 1882, p. 87. 

HrsjH rilla com /xtcl Low., 1911, p. 124. 

THspar <■<>»> /xirh, W. and L., 1914, p. 197, fig. 705-8. 

fi I, sin sr< niiraJls Rosenstoek, Ann. Mag. Nat. llisl.. (5) xvi. 1885, p. 379, pi. xi. 

Pm 2 

There is a female of sec pi teal is in the South Australian Museum Prom the 
Lueas Collection, from I Iealsvilh*. Victoria, which was no doubt seen by Roseji 
siock, but the bolotype so marked is in the British Museum, 

1 1 1'si'KKiu.A TYMnni-iiou'A (Meyriek and Lower). 

Trhsto tifhihopltoni M. and U, 1902, p, 70. 
II f spirilla I irmhoplmnt Low., 1911, ]). 124. 
Signela lymbophor* W. and L., 1914, p. 198, fig. 662-4, 

W'ATEkiioi se -Note on Types of Bbspi lriidae 53 

Holotype male from ftlouiil Kembla, NeM Noufh Wales, in the South Aus- 
tralian Museum, with allotype Female and other males labelled lymhaphom by 

Lower in Che Australian Museum from Mount Kenrbla. 

HiLsri.iMLi-A u:i( osTKiMA ( Mt\\iick ami Lower). 

1\lrslu /euros! it/nni X\ . and L,. 1JJU2, p, 73. 

Toxiilw l< ucostii/mo frurosl if/ma W ;iikI L.. 1!M I, p 191, flg. 616 7. 

The original description (1902, p. 7.'! 1 includes the 1 northern niee (parant'intt) 

as well as I he sun! hern rare, The hololype is a nuile labelled Sydney, bill Mm 
allOTlld be Moinil Kembhi, New South Wales, No Eemale ttf the sold hern r;e e 
was round in the bower Collection. In a letter to >ue, dated June 1. 1908, ht 1 
stated he had 110 females. In the Australian Museum there are <\ male and ii 
female from Mounf Kmnhla labelled as Icucosl hjtuO by Lower. 

II i:si'kkiij a u<;i T rosrioMA pakaskma Lower, 

>!■■ ;j><rill<i Uneostiyma pwawma Low., 1908, p. $12; Low., 11)11, p. 123 5 W. 

and L.. 191 I, p. 102, Q&, 637-8. 

The hololype male is the specimen from KurandM, October, mentioned in 
1902, p. 7:;. 11 was caught by \)w A. J, Turner in 1900. The allotype Eemale is 
from Kuranda. Dodd. December, 1904. Both are in the Soulh A us! ralian 


I Ji;si'i:i:iula masti;i:si Walerhouse. 

lhs}»rill<i mmttrsi Waterhouse, Proe, Linn. Soe. N. S. Whiles, wv, 1900, p. •"•!. 

pl. i. Ii-. o-S; Lou., [911, p. 1:;;,; W. and L., 1914, p. 186, fig. 650-1. 

Holotype m;de, Clil'lon. January, 1897, .- 1 1 x 1 allotype female from Mount 
Kembia, Xew Soulh Wales, in Australian Museum. An additional locality fa 
Xarrara. near Losl'onL in November and December ill. L. Moss-Robinson 1 . 

Ilr.suKiuni.A OKNATA MONoiUiKKMA (Lower). 
Ihs/.xrilhi omnia mono/ in nun Low.. 1907, p. J.69 ; Low., 191 1, p. 135; W. and L ., 

1914, p. 185, ftg. 635 6. 

The holotype is m female From Kuranda. October, 1906 (V. P. Dodd). The 
male is much hearer the typical southern race on the uppersidc. 

IlESi'EitiLLA rKVi'SAuovuA < uy ] 's.\ i;< . Y K A ( Meyrick). 
Velcsto crypmryyrtl Meyriek, Proe. Linn. Soe. X.S. Wales, ii, 1887, p. 829. 

Ihs}>< rilin wypxaryyra W. and L.. 1914, p. 186, Rg ; 600-1. 

The holotype is a male from lilaekhealh, \V\v South Wales, in Xov.-mbrp ..r 

54 Records of the S.A. Museum 

IIksi'i.k'illa civY1's.\k<;yka LiOi'gONi Waterhouse. 

tlesperMo, vrypsargyru ln>)).«>i\i Waterhousti, Proc. Linn. Soc. X.s. Wales, lii, 

1927, p. 282, pL socvi, fig, 11-12, 15-16. 

The holotype male (bred in Sydney iii October) and the allotype female, 
February, are in (he Australia]] Museum, from Barringtou Tons, NVw South 
Wnl.'s. A new locality is Qeervale, near Dorrigo, New South Wales. 

llEsi'KKiu.v moTimv (Miskin). 

Tmptmtes idothea Miskin. Proe. Key. Soe. (|hL vi. 1889, p. 152. 
Hesperillii idothea Low., 1911, p. 123; \W and L., 1914, p. 1st, !!-•. 7l«-8. 
Tnt/xuh $ dta par Kirby, Ann. Mag, Nat. His!.. (6) xii. L893, p. t"JS. 

The holotype is a Female From Yieloria, in 1 lie South Aiislralian Museum. 
from the Lucas ( 'ollee.t inn. It should be noted thai Kirby described both sexes. 
and nol only I In 1 male, as Lower 1 ,1911, |X 123) has listed. 

Ili:si'i:iiiia..\ ciiaostola (Meyrieh I. 

Tdado vhuostolu Meyrksk, Proc. Linn. Soc. X.s. Wales, ii, 1 ssy, p. 830; M. and 

U, 1!)(^. p. 65. 
IhsprriUa clmoxtoiit Low., 11)11, p. 132; W. and L., 1914, p. 187, %. 690-1, ?00. 

The holotype is a male From lUackhcath. New South Wales, m November, in 
Merrick's Collection. The specie.s is very rare in New South Wah-s, bul is more 
common in Victoria, and a very Few specimens are known from Tasmania. The 
allotype female is From lluonville, Tasmania, in December, and is in the Lyll 
Collectiou, and not in Lower '.s Collection, as stated (Low., 1911, p. 132). 

IIksi'iuulla cifVUsioKAM ma I Meyriek ami Lower;.. 

Trlcs/o arypsigrwmma VL and L., I9Q2, p. 81. 
Il<sp<rii!<t crypxiyvammu Low., 1511, p. 128, 

idia rri/psit/nnnnni W. and L., 1914, |). 190, fig. 639-40. 

The liolotype male in I he Lower Collection, from 1 lerberlun, is one of two 
speeimens caught b\ C. J . Wilde: the Other LH in the (Queensland Museum, Bris 
bane. Lower also li;i«l a male From I'uuiya Mountains, (Queensland I Xovember, 
1891, IL Tryou). There was also in the Lower Collection a female from ller- 
beiion, (Queensland (.January 1)1, 1911, V. W DodU), bill it was placed umh .•?• 
si j()wli<il(i, which was not represented in his eolleelion. 

Hl.siuiKini.A MAU\i>i:\A Lower. 
lhsf>rriU>i iimlindt ru Low,, 1911, p. 129. 

Toxidia malindeva \V. and L., 1914, p. 190, fig. 740-1, 749, 

Waterhouse — Note on Types 01 IIespekudae 55 

The hnlotype male is in fhe Lower Collection, the allotype tVniale and o 
paratype male in the Australian Museum, .-ill trom fierbertou, Queensland, in 

-January. 1910, h\ P. Podd. LoWeV akO had live males and three females from 

llerherfnn. January 31, 11)11, no etoubl added after his description was written. 

The species baa been eaughl and bred by Air. J. Maeipieen, near Uilmerran, 
South Queensland, from October to January. 

IIespkulla sknotttata ( 1 lerrich-Schaeffer ) . 

T(h sht si .njHthihi llerrich-Schael'rer. Stett. Kilt. Zeh.. [869, p. 80, pi, iii, [}g, 1(i. 

IhsfH rilhi stucifnttuiu Low., 1 1) ! 1 . p. 12CJ-, 

7W/<//7/ sc.njiilhihi W. and I,.. l!H I. p. 191, fig, 641-2. 

The holotype is ;i i'cmale, as shown by the figure, bill its whereabouts is 
unknown. The type localily is Kockhampton. II was nol represented in Lower 'h 
(Collection. Of liis loealities Rockhampton is from ilerrich-Sch.ieffcr. Uowen 
refers to a male and female in thy Queensland Museum, and Llerhertftn rvfer-n to 
the female crypdgramiuu, which he thought to be mxfjntiaia. Of this rare species 

there is a pair in the South Australian Museum from Gfrote Island and a female 
from Wiuchelsea Island. 

IIkm'kkilla r j vinnii < ( Mabille). 
Tomdn tyrrhus Mah., Oomp. Rend. Soe, But Belg*, vwv. 1891, p. I\w. 

Ihsjn rilhi liirrfms Low., 1911, p. 126. 

Tomlitt tyrrhus W. and L., 1914, p. 192, tig. 618-9, 

Trhs/o bathrophora M. and L.. 1902, p. 82. 

As stated by Lower (1911, p. 127) the hoiotype of hnrhtts, now in the 

lierlin Museum, and of which I have seen a coloured drawing sent lo Lower, is 
a female from Cooktown, and not a male, as stated by Mabille. The holotype 
male and the allotype 1'emale of hul 7/ mp/ioni from Mackay are in the South 
Australian .Museum. Miskin in his collection had this speci.'s under Ilillyzia Hew. 

lli;si'UUiLi ( ,\ mel,ania i Wat »-r house ). 

1'ihslo mektWHl Walcrhouse. xx, Viet. Xat., l!K):'>. p. o-L 
IhsjxnUa nuhntia Low., 1911, p. 126, 

Tn.rxha melama W. and L., 1914, p. 193, fit''. $87-9. 

The holotype nude and allotype female From Kur;inda, Queensland, Feb- 
ruary, 1902 (K. E. Turner, ( 'nirns dist rid. arc now in the Australian Museum, 


5b Records of mm s.A. Museum 

HlOSPKKII.LA UIIIYSUTKH IIA ( 1 1 U VS( ITRIC 1 1 A | Meyrick Jllld .Lower-. 

Trlrslo rhn/sofriclh! M. and L.. 1902; p. 59. 

fits/ rhrifsalrirlm Low.. 1911, p. 121; W. and L., 1014, p. ISA, Up. (Wt 


The liolotype is a male in Ibe Houtli Australian Museum from King George's 
Sound (Albany), Western Australia. A male vrilli the name type of printed 
label is in I he Australian Museum Eroni Hie same locality. This suggests thai h 
was caught by the Late A. s. OlKff. I was uo.1 able to see the worn female sped- 

Mini mentioned by Lower (1911. p. 122) from (ioolwa, South Australia, taken in 
March. The locality and date snggesl Ihat il i« a form of (loWiysQ rather than 
t'hi i/solncli'i, which is only a spring insect in Wesleni Australia. 

11i;si'i:kiu.a unuvsuTKiniA cyci.osi'ila ( Meyrick and Lowci 

Trhslo vycloapUa M. and L., 1902, p. 63, 

Hespcrilh vyctv&pila Low.. 1911, p, 121; W. and L., I91-t, p. lss iii, part; uol 

fig. 632), 
Ueapcrilh leucospilu Waterhousc Proe. Linn. Soe. X.s. Wales, lii, l927i l>. 2*0, 

pi. xxvi, fig. 25-28. 

This race lias caused some difficulty, M. and L. described it I'rom "1*01.1 
Lincoln, South Australia; Melbourne, Victoria; two specimens in November." 
In 1911 this is repeated withoul the number of Specimens and the addition of 
••Types in Coll. Lower." In November. 1.910, Lower lenl me three NpeeitflJfflH, 
and his letier reads l, l male*, 1 I'cmale oyelo&ptla. 1 male do.. Melbourne' Tin 
Melbourne specimen is undated, and lhe Port Lincoln specimens a*e dated 
October, The Port Lincoln male bore his type male label, bill it does not agltte 
wilh the 1902 description, in lhal it lacks the uppcrmosl silver spot on the hind 
wing beiieath, which is round in his Melbourne untie and also rareL in other 
Victorian specimens. 

Although there is no douW in m.\ mind thai ihe type Locality of Porl Lin- 
coln was intended, General Bvans, Mr. Tindale. and I decided lo remove the t\ pe 
label from his Porl Lincoln male mn\ place i1 upon his Melbourne male, as thtil 
was ihe only specimen in the collection thai agreed with the description, Tim 
Irurvspilu Waterhouse sinks as a direct synonym and Ihe type locality of V]f<Jo- 
sjxht will Ix' near Melbourne. 

MoTAsivmiA niK-riiiA TiuMArn.ATA (Tepper), 
llrspn-ilhi trimaeulata Tepper, Trans, [toy. Soc, s. Aust., iv, 1881, p. "2. pi. ii. 

fig. 1. 
Hespcrilhi <ina<lrimaculata Tepper. /,e., pi. ii, fig. 2. 

\Yait:kii«>! si Note on Types d* Hespkrueas 57 

Mohisnnjlni ditphia Low., t911 3 P< 120 (in pari ) ; AY. and li., 1914, p, 185 i 111 


llavinu seen Tepper'a types of IrinwtHtlQld, a male from MonartOi ami 
'punirtuHiciththi, a female from Ardrossan. and compared them with other Soulli 
Australian sperimcns a1 Adelaide, i am convinced that tlmsr uonstitlrtG a race 
dislinet l*n.m the typical divpllitt from Western Australia. It may be distin- 
guished by having the underside more? rvddish than grey and the silver spots 
more disl ind , 

MoTASiNGiiA atkaoua ati.wlua (Tepper). 

UcsperUla attfllhtk TeppeV, Trans. Roy. Soe. S, A list., i\. Lgglj p. S3, pi. ii, Kg, ."*. 

Moiushtyha atralbd \V. and U, 1814, p. 1 !).">, 6g. 643. 

Tin' hololypc is a Female i'rom Ardrossan, South Australia* and now .-misisls 
Of mily two ti.ivwm-'s. On a collecting trip to Port Noarlnnpi in April, VXV1, I 

found larvae and a pupa on (iiihma t&nigera (li. fe.) Bentham. The larva is 

somewhat Like thai Of J/, dirpkia, and Li pupates head downwards, Inn wiihoul 
i he silken pad. as m M< wdina. 

Sleyriek and Lower '& description ot airalba (190*2, p. 71 ) applies to 1 1 1 . * race 
from Western Australia, as amongst Other characters the stigma is stated to be 

strong and blaekiah. In typical alralbti \\ is narrow and very difjiruh to see. 

M" lAKiXMlA AVIiAU'.A l)A» "I \ 'I. IOTA ( A I ry r ii'lv ) . 

Trhs/u ihirftjliofn Aleyrick, IVoc. I/inn. goc, X.S. Wales, ii, 1887, p. 831, 

A careful comparison of tlm original description shows thai although Aie\ 
ridb gave both Month Australian and Western Australian localhies his descrip 
lion applies only lo specimens from Western Australia Type in ( 'oil. Aleynek. 

AIotasinoija dominium | IMdtx.;. 

Telestaxiumimda Plot??, Btetfc Imp. Zed.. L884, p. 379. 

Previously I had never seen any specimens as large as Ploj/Zs coloured figure 
fr<»m Tasmania, ami SO doubted that localily. Both the Australian and the South 
Australian Museums have now specimens from low elevations in Tasmania agree- 
ing in size and markings with the figure. Typical ddbtimila vvill therefore apply 
io these specimens from Tasmania, whilst draeJrmopfwra Meyriek, from Mount 

Kosciusko, is the race from Auslralia. Tim locality of .Newcastle given \>y hQWi 
(1911, 1>. 183) is erroneous, as ihe race in Australia has never been taken below 
3,0(H) Peet. Specimens from high elevations in Tasirtania are very much smaller. 

LLesTERILLA _x i r i i i i - i n ■ k \ Lower. 

J/t sfHi-illn xiphiphorii Low.. 1811, p. 130 

\< nJirs/H rilhi jfiiphtplhOfll W. and L.. 1914, p. 1!>L fig, 656, 

58 Records of the S.A. Musei m 

The holotype male is from Darwin, March. I'.H)!). allotype female From Dar- 
win, February, 1909, in tile Soiltll Australian Museum, ;m<l paralyprs m Aus- 
tralian Museum from Darwin. 

Hksi'Euilla xanthomuka ' Meyrick and Lower). 

TrUsio mnthomera M. and L., L902, p. 80. 

flisjhridii eroeeus Madriji, l*roe. Roy. Soc, Qld,, vi, L889j p, 150 (female bul liol 


Ncolmperilla mntlwmm W. and U 1914, p. 194, fig. 873-5, 

The fixation of tin- type oil this species \\m been attended with greal dii'fi 

culty. The description IS based QJ1 male 30 nun., fmnale :}(i nun.. "Brisbane Hlld 

Cairns, Queensland, two specimens in March and Sejrtwtarv" Lowers ejec- 
tion contained four specimens, all munbered 3759, which ajtreed with lus regktei'. 
The only male is from Ttiwnavilie, of 35 mm. expanse. September. 1900, the date 
bi*iug in Dr. A. J, Turner -a handwriting, This agrees will) the description, 
rx<'.-pi size and tocality, and lias been considered as the holotype. A female From 

Townsville, which had Vi veins on the left l'ure\viii»\ is mentioned in his note, bill 
ia over 36 nan. A female from Cooktown, 30 mm. in expanse, in which the fourth 
Spot is continent with the third, is mentioned as sometimes occurring in the 
description^ this specimen had a female type label, ami was recorded in the 
register as March. These three specimens must have been before Lower when he 
wrote the description, as at least two females arc indicated, The Fourth specimen 
was from Brisbane, and may possibly, though doubtfully, have been added after 
the description was -written. 

Nevertheless, taking into account Lower's carelessness in respeel of many of 
his descriptions. i1 seems obvious that the Townsville male must be considered HH 
the holotype. The species, as was well known to Lo\vei\ is much more comimm 
in Urisbaue lhan elsewhere in Queensland. 

UlliLA AMSOMUKI'llA Lo\\er. 

Bihhi vanisfrnwrpha Low.. 11)11, p. Mb; male. 

Taracirovevii tiwisomvrpha W. and L., 1914, p. 201, fig. 883-4, 

Lower's holotype is a male from Port Darwin, March, 1909; the specimen 
he had labelled as the female is also from Porl Darwin, but Ls the male of a very 
distinct species, Tuntrt 'rort m >"<t Walerhnuse. This is a rai'e species: in the 
South Australian Museum il is also from Uoper River, Kortesciie River, and 

0-aVndah, I have it also j'rom Maekayaud Westwood, near Roekhainpton. 


T.\i;A(TK'()<'i:r;A i\a Waterhouse. 

Vunfalroc&m hilt, PrOe. Linn. Sue. X.S. Wales. Ivii. L332, p. i )b Js. 

The fiolotype <>f lliis »pt*eiea is a iimle in the South Australian Musriim, ( iml 
is i lie specimen which Lower marked as his type female of Biblu umsopiorplw, 


QcybatMstes hypomelomu Low.. 1911, p. 162". 

Pudnwna hypomeloma W. and L.. LH L p, 20-£, tig, 384, 87&- 1. 

Lower described bollb Sfe&es, hut his locality note is badly piuict ii;i1 c<i. and 

should r.'iul : fterberton and Kuramia, Queensland in March, inn- female i Dbdd ) ; 

Roweville, wear Sydney. two male specimens in April ( Walcrhousc : , Lower 
add^d thai ill' 1 types wcit in his rolled inn. On rxaiuinal ion il was round that ho 
bad a Female from Kuranda, March, 1W)7. with a lahel in his hamlwril in-. 
"hypomdvnui type female." lie also had a male from Uerherlon. .January :)l. 
1911, hut it was not marked as the type male, nor did h auree witli his descrip- 
t ion, and was without doubt added to his colled ion al'ler his description was 

written, The difficulty regarding his type male was settled by a speehnen in ttiy 

collection from Kosevilie. April 4, 1H0I. hearing in Lower's handwriting a lahel, 
"hypt/MVlvtlLH l.vpe imile LQWer," I had this speeimou with me in Adelaide, and 
il ,-i-reed with the description in having the Upper I.Wfl of the live sp..ts (rf (he 
tlisral baud of the forewin^' half tin- si;-;.- of the remaining three and the small 
s.mirwhal ovoid spot lying On vein (', of hiudWJUg well separated from the < > } > I i , , , ( , • 
band, I!' further proof were wanting il is supplied by a Letter from Lower to me 
dated April 20', 1011, in which he say.s : "I am sending the female hypotHCloniit 
I have no male, so that your male will b(! the type male, in\ female Hie ot Imr se\. 
You will perceive that Ibe female came from Dodd/' 

The holotype male is without ctoilbl i he specimen marked as type male \>y 
Lower from Kosevilie. near Sydney, and is now in the Australian Museum. 
Sydney, and the type locality will he Sydney. 

< >< \i;\oi<ll< WALKKKI I IV I »QC 1 1 1 .OK A Low er. 

(h't/hinlish s WalkeH kffpovhluru Low.. l!lll, p. 141). 

OcybudfatM ftwwitMa hypochtora W. and L., 1914, p. 2(14, llg, 860, 867. 

The holotype male and the allotypr female are from Parksidr, Adelaide. Ii 
has been shown (\V. and L., 1 fM I . p. 2031 thdil the flame (htrorilfaht musl he 
applied to the nmiiiioii small orange and hrown Jlespcriid found at Sydney, and 
not to (t{fraul,ia Ilewitnon From Western Australia, as Lower has done. Mr. 
N. 1), Riley (Trans. But. 8oe, Loud., 1926, p< 2^U) confirms this. 

60 Records of the S.A. Museum 

PADRAONA HETEKOr.ATllKA I. bowel 1 \. 

Apaustus heterobathra Low., 1908, p. 816, 

Padraona heterobathra Low.. 1911, p. 154; W. and L.. 19] I. p. 202, fig. 872. 

Llolotype male is from Kurauda, April. 1907, allotype female, Knranda. March, 
1907, in South Australian Museum. Sonera! Evans has pointed on1 to rue that 

tins Species, though Wlthoul a sex brand, lias SOS scales over vein 1, on either 
side of vein -. and holow vein '\. and also thai il iimsl be placed as a race ol' anh'i 
Bcthiine-]iakcr. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) 18, 1906, |>. B4tf. 

1'ADRAuNA UASl'IVlA l 1 H-sciist ock ) . 

Pamphila lascivla liosenstock. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.. (5), \\i, l>.sr>. p. :;ys. pi i 

fig, 1. 
Apaustus hiscn'ia M. ami L., 1902, p. 100. 
Padraona luscivia, Low., 1911, p. 153; W. and L., 1914, p. 202, fig, 587-8. 

The holotype is a male from Beaconsfield 3 Victoria, in (he South Australian 
Museum, from Hie Lucas Collection. In Lhe paper in which ihis species and 
Telesto scepticalis are described, Koscnstock stales Chat lhe specimens were from 
South Australia, received Erom Dr. Lucas, or Melbourne. This is another instance 

Of the confusum of South Australia with southern Australia. 


Telicota augias mesoptis Low.. 1911, p. 157. 

The holotype male and allotype female are from Knranda, April, l!i()7. A 
discussion on tin- a/UgiasAike species mus1 awail further investigation, as there 
are probably three or more different species passing under this name in Aus- 
tralia, and descriptions under at least five different names have been given Of 
Australian specimens. 

Telicota anhsodb^ma Lower. 

Telicota anisodesma Low., 1911, p. 157. 

The holotypo is a male from Lallina, Richmond River, caughi by myself, ami 

is ;il Adelaide. I have similar specimens from lhe same locality and also from 
South Queensland. 

Ti.ueoT \ i;i Rl i ITLOKA Lower, 

Tetwohi eurychlom Low- 1908, p. !}14; \V. and L.. 1914, p. 210, fig. 692-8, 861. 

The holotype male and allotype female I'rom Lallina. Richmond River, Feb- 
ruary, 1898, are in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Tri.iri'TA BRAOU VDESMA Lowe]-. 

Telicota brackydemn Low., L>os. p. 312; Low.. 1911, p. 159; W. and L.. L914, 
p. 20!i. fig. 071 -2, 878-9. 

w ATiRimi si< Note on Types of Hesperuoae 6] 

The lit.lofypr maid and alfni\-pr female (Tom flooktowu, labelled so iii Lower'* 

liandw riling ;n-r in the Australian Museum, Sydney, [.owcr's nOt« ( 1908, j>. 314) 

is eorred ihai the types were in Coll. Waterhouse, and incorrect (1911, p, 139) 

when he said that lliey were in Colls. Lower and Waierhonse. 


I-JriiHuis trirhopepla Low., 1908* p. 315. 

Erynnw fxilnumvm M. and I,., (*w Moore), 1902. p. 110. 

Fephrvnex Irictinpepla \V. and L., 191 1, p. 207. fig:. 676-7. 

The holotype is m male from Rlaekay in the South Australian Museum. 
General EvanN considers thai this may have had a common origin with ptilmdnm 

Moore, bill is sufficiently distinct to nmk as a species. 

Hasoka alkxis ro\"n::virTA lIMol/j, 
Isim n< o>»lnui)ln \ > \\\\/,. Stett. EM. Zeit, 1884, p. 5.6. 

Pttraia rfiramw M. and L. (nee Oram), Low,, 1911, p, 169. 

fsmmf htcsmts Inicas, IYnc. LlOV. Kn<\ Qld,, jSf)<). p. IMS. 

Partita rltroiiiiK rmih ninhi \V. and L., 1914, p. 217, fig. 729-30. 

The holotype male and allotype female of /. lucexcem are in the Soiilli Aus- 
tralian Museum From South Queensland ex Lucas Collection. General Evans lias 
shown that ulc.ris Kahr. is the name i)f the typical race of this species, and thai 

after examining fhe long series in the Lower Collection a! Adelaide lie is con- 
vinced lhal thev are all the same, and that Lower had no just iliealion in malting 
i wo. if not three, species Prom Ins series. 


Anderson and Spry (1894) : "Victorian ESutterfties/' pi. 2, 1894, pp. 79-129. 
Bntler, A. (;. (1882) ■: On a small collection of Lepidoptera from Melbourne. 

Ann, M<i>.t. \<t/,, (5), ix, 1882, pp. 84-87, 
Ilewitst.n, W. (\ { 1(467-8 ) : Descriptions of one hundred new species of flus- 

peridac. pt . 1, 1867, pp. MM: pt. '1. 1868, pp. 2f)-56. 
Ilewitson. W. <\ (1874) i Exotie Butterflies, vol. v.. plate Cycltipiih's and Bts- 
pmlla. 1874. 

Kirhy. W. K (1893): Description* of new Australian llespcriidae. Ann. MtftJ 

\<tl. Hikl , i(ii, xii. IS!);!. p P 434-8. 
Lower, o. \\. (1908) : Descriptions of mwv Australian Hesperiadae. Tram Ron 

Snr. S. A,ts!.. xxxii, 1908, pp. :;il-7. 
Lower, <>. 15. Mini): IvYvisinn of the Australian 1 1 esperiadae. Tnms. Hon. Soe. 

s. A, is/., xxxv. 1911, pp. 112-172. 

62 Records of the S.A. Museum 

M,il>ill<\ P.: Genera I nseetorxiiH Fasteule 17. Qesperidae, 1903 I. 

Mcyrirk, E. (1887); I Vscript ions of ihmn Australian Kliopalo<vra. Pi+m\ inm. 

Sac, X.s. Wnhs, (2), ii. 1887, pp. 827*834. 
Afr\rick and Lower (1002) i fevisioji of the Australian Lfaftpo*iir<lat». Tmn& 

Hay. Sor. ft Anst., xxvi, 11)012, pp. 38-129. 
."Uiskin. \V. If. (18B9) i Descriptions of some new spocirs of Australian M<>< 

peridae. Prat, R&iJ. flfofc Qld.* vi. 1889, pp. 1 16-134. 
Atiskin. W. If. (1891) : Synonymieal Catalogue* ButterflieR of Auatralia, 4imn/.s 

QumisttmS Mits<ittn, No. 1. 1891* pp. 1-88, and supplement. 
Olliir, A, S< (1889) : On Khopalocfrra from Mounl ECoKciuKko, N.s. Wales. /',•,«•. 

fttna, &w, AX lH//r.v, (2), ii. 1889, pp. 619-624, 
Tint/. (\ (1883): Dir II('spci'iiiirii-(!al!iiii«: llrsprrni Anl. i.iud lltrt* Artel] 

gtm. Ent Zni., 1883; pp. 26-64, pp. 19&-233, 
Plata, 0. 'Issh Die ]tetip*ri|Ae&~(}attun£ Apamim Elub. iind. ihr<< Arton. 

N7r//. ff**. %eii., 1884, pp 151-166 
Plots; (\ (1884) j Die fteaperiinefrGsttuiig tsmiw 8w« nnd tore Arim. N7r/>. 

tf/W. //•//., 1884, pp. 51-66; 
Plot?,, C. (1884) : Die [Teaperimen-Gattung Tefesto BM. ami tore Artm. n'M/. 

B»/. /r/7., 1884, pp. 376 384, 
Hosriisfork. B. (1885); NotCH Oil Australian hepicloptera VVltTl doM-ripl'ions ni' 

nrw s|»rrirs. Ann. Mqsj. \ilt. Ifist .. (5), xvi, 1885. pp. 3.764)85. 
Steite, A. (1927) : The Mn^rolepidoptera of tin* World, vol. ix, llcsprridar, by A. 

Soitz. 1027, pp, 1027-1107, plates clxiii-rlwv. English edition* 

Topper, J. (i. 0. (1882) ; The 1 'n i>il ion i< 1m4« of South Australia. Trim* Roy* X<>r. 

S. Anst.. vol. iv. for 1880-1, pp, 25r36, plates ii, iii, pnhlished -1;ui., 1882. 
Wnh-rhuiisc. ({. A. (1927] ! Australian teespeiuular, pi. 1. Prov, Linn. Roe. A>\ 

Wales, lii, 1927, pp. 27ff~283, plate xxvi. 
Wniorlionso, (J. A. (1932) : Australian [tespcriid^, p1. 2. Prod Linn. R/tf. Y,S, 

U ///r.v, Ivii. 10:52. pp. 218-2U8, 2 t^xt-ti^invs. 
W.iirrliousr. <;. A. (1903): Descriptions ami boMss of Australian Hespertdae, 

chieffy Victorian. Wrt, A 7 <r£.. xx. 1903, pp. 52*7. 

W;i1(t1iousc. (\. A. (1932).: New (icn.-ra of AnsI ralian I lrsp<-riida«- and a new 

subspecies. Anst. Zaolaiiist, vii, (3), pp. 198-201. 

Waterhonse nnd byvM i1!M2:- I )rscrip1 ions of find kiot-68 OH some Anst ralian 

ll,->peridae. !'/W. A7//.. xxviii, 1012, pp. 223-8. 
Waterlioiise and Lyell | 1!>1 [) - The Butterflies of Australia. 101 L ELospcricla^ 

pp, 172-224, All Australian species figured, ftome in colour. 

W'.iici-lioiisc rind Tui-ncr (1904 I : Xo1<«s on Il.-sprn«|ac drscrilicd hy MabiUe and 
ivpnted to be Austniiian. Virf, Xaf., xxi. 1904, pp. 100 110. 


By Herbert M. Hale (Director) and Norman B. Tindale, B.Sc. 



In December, 1926, the Board of Governors of the South Australian Museum sent the 
writers to Southern Cape York Peninsula, North Queensland, with the object of 
elaborating the hitherto meagre Museum collections from this locality. 
January and February, 1927, were spent at Hinders and Stanley Islands, Bathurst Head, 
Stewart River and Silver Plains, and on the shores of Princess Charlotte Bay. 
Our first station was on Hinders Island, where a small hut had been erected to 
accommodate stores required by trepang and pearling fleets working on the Great Barrier 
Reef. The fortnight set aside for marine work at this island was extended to five weeks, 
owing to the detention of our cutter by cyclonic weather near Cooktown. Fortunately, 
natives of several tribes visited the island, while the extended stay permitted visits to 
many nearby places of interest. A shortage of food necessitated journeys to other islands 
and to the adjoining mainland in order to obtain dugong, kangaroos, shell fish, and other 
native delicacies to eke out our depleted supplies. 


I'.-. HERBERT M. HALE (Director) and NORMAN B. TINDALE, B.Sc. 

(Ethnologist) . 


I. IlltlodllH Jon , . . . . . . . . . . , . 4 r,;; 

II. Geographical Peacripl ion of Princess Charlotte Bny District .. v>\ 

III. Names . . , . . . . . . . . + t , <;c, 

IV- T '- il ^ .. 07 

V, Types of Natives .. ,. .. .. .. ., ., 7] 

VI. Mutilations . . . . . . . , . . . . . . _ 7,; 

V 1 1. Populal ion ........ 77 

\'\\\, Socinl ( )rn;ini/.'il ions ;md Totems r . .. .. 7«> 

IX. Marriage Qustoma .. .. .. ., .. tm *;! 

X. I nit i : 1 1 ion . . . . . , . . . . . , t t _ S ;; 

X 1. Ceremonial Life . . . . . . . , . . s~> 

XII. Personal Names . . ., .. .. .. , . . + <in 

Xnr. Magic 

■\ I V» Dreams 

XV. Death, Mourning, and Burial . .. .. .. .. .. i'i 

X\'l. Fighting and Weapons .. .. .. .. .. .. as 

XVII. Hunting and Pishing; Collr.-tm- Preparation of Foods .. 107 


In December, W2B S the Board of Governors Of the South Australian Museum smt 
ili-' writers to Southern Cape York Peninsula, North Queensland, with the obj.PCl 
of elaborating the hitherto meagre Museum collections from this locality. 

January and February, 1927, were »pen1 at Flinders and Stanley [glands, 
Ba.1 Imrst Head, Sfowari River and Silver Plains, and on the shores of Princess 
Charlotte Bay, 

Our first station was on Minders Island, where a small hut had been erected 
to accommodate stores required by trepang and pearling fleets working on the 
Croat Barrier Reef. The fortnight set aside for marine work at this island was 
extended 1o five weeks, owing 1o the delenfion of OUT Gutter by eyelonie weather 
near Cooktown. Fori unately, natives of several tribes visited the island. While 


64 Records of the S.A. Museum 

the extended stay permitted visit-, to many nearhy plaeQH of interi'st A shortage 

of food necessitated journeys !«. other islands and lo the adjoining niaiulaud in 
order to ohtain dugapft kamraroos. slmll lish, and oilier native delicacies to ata 1 
out our depleted supplies. 

When llie cutler returned we visited 1 he Stewart Kiver districl, and spenl 
several weeks at the mouth of the Stewari and at Siher Piaina, some tive miles 
inland. A few days were spent at Flinders Island on the return journey, and. 
after a protracted delay in (/aims, due to the passage nf the Willis cyclone, we 
left North Queensland for Adelaide in April. 

The following notes were gathered in the intervals of marine and general 
zoological researcli. which fact serves as ;m excuse for, and an e\ pla nat ion of. 
t heir incompleteness. 


Princess Charlotte Bay is a large, nort h\\ ardly-diroeted indentation in tlh 1 
tjasl OOllSt Of Southern Cape Vork Peninsula. It is everywhere shallow and 
muddy and, ftXCOpI at its sandy western extremity, is lined with a dous<- PringO 
of mangroves. Several large rivers flow into the liay from the south and south- 
wesl. and Iheir deltas form extensive aveaa of swampland, lagoon, and mud flat. 
The country east of Princess Charlotte P.ay is a gently rifling plain extending' to 
llie .Main Cape Vork Dividing h'au-e; it is covered with open forest, swamps, and 
in isolated places with dense riverine jungle and tropicftl rain forest. 

The country east of the Wu\ between l.athurs.t Head and Cape Melville is a 
dissected plateau of horizontally bedded sandstone of Triassie age, resting On a 

■merit of massive granite, and eiilminat inc. in the rather inaccessihle Allan 
moid Range, over 2,(100 feet in height*. 

The Flinders Islands, to the norlh of Pnthurst Head, are outliers of this dis- 
s.M-led plateau- they rise in steep n-d sandstmm eliffs on almost all sides, and 
crwing to the sterility of ihoir scant soil vegetation is sparse. The highesi peak on 
Flinders Island is 1,051 feel in height. There are several small depression* mi 
its bMi'c sides which contain poekefs of soil, wherein \ams find other plains may 
oTiiw, otherwise the whole aspecl is one of infertility and aridity, The relative 
drv ni'ss of the island climate may he judged h\ thefaet ihal in the wettest mouths 
.»f i he rainy season < .January dAmruary ) less than an i nidi of rain fell, although 
during' the same period some thirty inches were recorded at Stewart River. Tin- 
may he accounted feu* by (ha fael that during the OOrth west monsoon this group 
is on the lee of the ('ape York fVmnsula. Minders Ishind is skirted by numher 

Halk and Tindale Aborigines of Noktii (H^enslani) 65 


Pitf. 1. 

66 i\'H<>ki>> of nih S.A. Museum 

less coral reefs and islets of the Greal Barrier Reef. Bach affords ;i variety of 
marine foods For the tiatfve inhabitants. 

Drinking-water is scarce, although a Few permanent native wells e*ftrt, uiwl 
there is stated to be a submariiu* Fresh-watey spring oil* Denham Island. 

The Flinders ({roups and vicinity were firsl noticed by King ( 1 ) ? who made 
ii. . fewer than three visits to Princess Charlotte Bay. His description is sum- 
: "Cape Flinders ... is ihe extremity of a group of wlatuia of high and 
mgged character forming the western head of liathnrst Bay J' King saw evidence 
i»r tlie presenee of natives on Stanley Inland, and in several places mentions 
having seen natives, or evidences of recenl cainp*, there. 

Remains of early shipwrecks occur on the coasts of 1 1n? island, and have pro 
vided the unlives with a supply of iron for several 'jenera lions, Therefore no 
evidence of ihc use of stone tools remains. 

Despite its stern appearances the Flinders (iroup has been visited by sever;. I 

exploring vessels. The ship Fly was there in 1843; ihe ship Bvotnble eruised for 
ten days in the Bay in Augusl 1838* while waiting for the explorer Kennedy, who. 
during his overland trip to Cape York, was apparently Ihe GrHl lo examine Ihe 

interior of the country. Ilann explored the coast a1 stcwari River 111 1872. 

Roth visited Princess Charlotte 1 > r i \ , hut as far as can he ascertained I'roiii his 
writings the greater pari bf his notcti refer to ihc natives of the mainland trih 
The ships Alert* Ii<ii1fcsiNil,< . and Dart also engaged in zoological and ol her re- 
searches along this coast. 

Furopean occupation was stimulated by the discovery of extensive goldfittlds 
in the Focji dislriel. bill since the exhaustion of the richest alluvial claims the 

coimiry has been largely abandoned. The natives were early affected by Furo- 
pean conlacts, hut have in part reverted to their former state. This is especially 
true of the inhabitants of the Less inviting coastal areas. 


Place names vary From tribe to tribe. Roth <-) has recorded naineM tot some 
of ihe geographical Features of the Princeus Charlotte Bay area in the language 

of Ihe Koko-warra. an inland tribe. This nomenclature is dissimilar to thai 
ii 1 ployed by the coast t t'ibea Tor placets wil bin their own bounds. The names on 1 he 

accompanying maps (fig. 1-2) are in etery case diose applied bj local members 

nf i he t ribal group. 

(J i Kin.^ Philip, Sm-vev of A Ltsj i ;i lin, i, [$%7 3 p, 230. 

I-} Rotll, RttC Aust. Mus., \i.i. line, p. 94. 

Hale and Tindalk Aborigines or North (Queensland 



Natives of six tribes were met frith, ; 1 1 1 < 1 random notes relating to Othtl'N 

wtit gathered* Our principal contacts were with natives of the Muhmiui, 
Walmbaria, Kokolamalama. and Harun^uan tribes*. The accompanying sketch 
map (fig. 1) iii(li<*;iiis ihe ti'cinM-al <list ribution of the tribes. Definite bound- 
aries eat) not be marked off by mean* of lines; if the map were coloured il would. 

Fig. 2. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

QHti r 1 1 h • he nree.ssnry to run 1 1 1 1 • colours I into R/IOftH?! L11 order to mdicftiv 

s\ mho]i<-;dly I In' indelinile <I i \isions between lhf peoples. 

The M lit 1 1 1 a u i puOpli*, iii 1 1 n • soni h-efislcrn pari l]¥ 1 1 n * area under considera- 
tion, are shore dwellers, i' im • » j 1 1 « • i 1 1 inn 1 1 he Rffasttfl plain tlrfwCBN Murdoch I'oinl ;ind 
I'.dhnrsi r>;iy. IUhtow Point ;nnl 1 Vriwinkle Civck are Ritio-lig their chief" camp- 
ilig places. The tribe is divided into seVCTfll small Iocr] groups or clans, each of 
which claims one or ;i pair of totems. Bach chin or totem kin may In* rel'orr<'< !0 
oilier by ihi' name Q$ 1 h * ■ ehfef locality or. not so frequent ly, by the name of tilt! 
priimipjd 1<»li>iii. I5rt<?ll Ot 1 1 1 < *^« • chin.^ speaks a sli^hlly different dialed ol' the 
-•;inir hinun.iL'V, (;ttUod Elbol'e ( Klmli' or Pipeline This name is also ;i))prn'd in 

Hie form Eibole t<> one of l bo Kim [vine rIiiiis. 

Hi 4 r 1 ^B : ^l ""'• ' 

• ' ' ■■.."'-'■:.'::'■: y i'-.' : ". 

■ ■ 


**? 'il VHH^^^H 

V Iks ■■'•'' ■ v.* V: (j; 

p M 



■Um4 - 1 ' *r^^w w^m^SBSKKaKBSSsKBSBSS^SK^ 

>^H 1 1 



i ij '. X;it ;■ ■ : I'Hwoafi i liai lol ■'• l'.;<\ . 

The < >iojA\ar;i < - 1 ; m j ramp is principally at Mark River, the Yinini at Cape 
Melville, I ho Pibnle nt Harrow Point. <>1her 'groups, members of wlmm wo did 
not meet. are staled to ncnir h1 Xohle Island, ttlfi Wnrknldi. and B1 Slarkr Kiwr. 
where the language was s;iid M change ^. **r \ mucin 

TJUP Yinini clan fCat*' Melville i are known to tlm Kokohimala ma people as 
I -.Jin'ohi nr. arenn I in» to one old man w lio Inn I a pecol itfr mi 1 1 m- i.i I ion. RfUtttlOm I. 
The Mnlnnmi ;ire essent lally ;i coastal prn|.lr. and OIlTv visit Hie snndstonr l;.M 

Ham \\n TindaiJ' ABORIGINES OS Noktii QUEENSLAND 69 

land miinirv to .gather honey and haul opossums and rock wallabies, Their naiiw 
tracks or pails extend everywhere along the coast, turning inland only when 
necessary in avoid rocky cliffs (Ho-. :; ), Their water supplies are obtained Hiietly 
in lit lie soaks along the beaches*. 

The Qngwara section (jjt the MuttiirtUi people, who live in the country near 
and behind Bathurst Hay. refer to the Vinini as 'aliV or saltwater. They apph 
the same term to the W&imbaria. 

A Knkoyimidir woman, from near C00fct?0WJ4, knew (lie lerm Koknnc^odi i.of 
Uolh) as one applied to the MiMiunui by the Cooktovvii people^ ii is m>1 known 
in t he MiiMinnii themselves. 

The Flinders islands and Bathnrst Head are occupied by the Waimhavia 

tribe, which is divided into tWO principal dans, the Wnreimiu who Livi" on Ihc 
islands, and the Tarlali. of I'.athnrst Head. The snip hern boundary of (he tribe 
lies between Aluiaukun in l>allmrsl liay and the eastern extremity of 

Charlotte Bay. Their language in (sailed falgq-wava, and the Natives dikHnyitfoli 
a Tarlali dialect used only by (he mainland section of the tribe. Names applied 
by others to this tribe are Wonkayi, Ketjringa, and Mba. The two lasi named 
are Kokolarualajiia teriua. The Walmbaria are ;i tiuhinjt people, living principally 
mi shore lislio, molluscs, creslaceans. n 1 1 . 1 occasional dugongs and turtles. Vege- 
table I" Is tire relatively scarce, and the consequent carbohydrate lumber |jt a a t tn 

litem to conakler such food the greater of huoirfe& 

Denham Ishiud i I hnanini j was once inhabited b\ a sj M' group of W'iiliu 
haria natives who are now extinct. There was an i IttpOi 1 ! anl eampini: place 
Wokannka beach, on 1 he northern Bide, Water is found al Omanini Point ; * In • 
natives tell of h f rcsb-wal er spring helow sea level. At high tide they dive down 
Itfttl drink" ; at oilier limes they Iq\\£V shell bud-;Hs in!.. I In- sea to obtain supplies. 

Blackwood Island iWakcivi) wa> never penui utly inhabited, bid iherr is 

a lai'.L'-i.' camping place a1 tin/ northern end. which is used when fishing excursions 
are made to the ishind. 

The Kokolninalaina are inhabitants r.l' l he hanks of Ihc Xormaubv and NoHh 
Kennedy Rivers, Their coastline is swampy and mangrove lined, so that they are 
largob ;MI inland peoi>le, bul they do not extend beyond the tidal limbs <»f the 

The term Knkolaiualama is really the name applied io (hem by a more south 

crn tribe; 1 hey call themselves Bakananibia aild Wanbara. Those who live near 
•hue' Table Hill, and who are in close conlacl with Waimharia people, sometimes 
call themselves Walumhana or Mhaw almbaria. To the south west they are in 
BOntael With the Koko rarmul people described by Roth. 

The Kokowarra tribe Of Kol h was know n by conlacr to members of I he Koko 

70 Records of the S,A. Musi - 

lamalama, with whom we Conversed nt I mi hurst Head. They w.ti' said to live 
OH Ehe upper wafers ot" the Xnrmanby Rivet and to extend as far as Laura. Their 
main camp was ;il ;j place called A T>;mhin," which the authors have since recog- 
nized as hehig the Deiphlon River. This is probably the Vl I ia n ra I ><'iLilit<io ' ' tribe, 
whose brass "-king plate"' wa?i accidentally kicked irp nut of ihe sand b,v one of 

II- <»u a beach at Flinders Island, 

Thr Yrtteneru tribe five fiT«1 of 'he Koknlamahuna. along the Saltwater 
< 1 ivck and Annie River. They arc tilled thr > 4 ,sall fan bWWellQIVfl" by natives 
speaking Gnglifch, and use a dialectic variation of Kokolamalanm. They are nearly 
pxliirci, Ullfy niw old man and five women remaining nlivo in 1!»^7. There Were 
1wn Hans, one on the seashore and one inland, bill lillh' COTlW bp learned aboul 

The Imruimuan Iribe extends abm<r tie- euasl frfl\r\ Kuuniu- I V"ek in lie' 
•"Mih nearly to ('ape Direction. Kokolamalama names I'm- the tribe B-fe Baa ami 
Ranjiimam. Tin- Karnyu, an inland people, eall them Imka. There are at least 
live loeal groups or elans who claim this tribal uaiim. The froMhernmoff! is the 
Yuinbata, who faeqitetll the connlry south of Stewart River, on thr southern hank 
of the mouth of which they make their northernmost camp. Their main ramps 
iirr ot\ Rak'lutha Oreelc, 

The Enljin^a live along 1 1 1 . • hanks at the Stewart Kiver. Urn mouth of which 
is also known as Knljin^a. Formerly they ramred iidand. in search nl' h<m«\ and 
small <ramc, for some thirty miles, hut since llie slocking of ihe main rau<>v wilh 
cattle (hey hav<* been compelled to coufiuc ihemselves to the relul ively infertile 
sand beaches, coastal swamps, and mangrove-lined foi'f»Khctre& Ai Kiitjiiijrn r hoy 
camp only on the northern haul; of the river. 

The Apowuna (also called Konanunuma ) clan have their main camps ahum 
Masscy River. In recent y.-at-s they have become <ire;illy diminished in numbers. 
and have linked themselves with the Ehltjijipfl survivors, although they still keep 
their camps about fifty yards aparl. 

The Ompeila ran ire from WfHSky River | '< MnpeiuLranama I uorlhward to Ihe 
Xishel River, Some Ol! their main camps arc on the Koekv River, and a perma- 
nent hm'omi one mile norih of f he month of ihe river is also an important camping 

Dialectic variations occur iu ihe bnjw&peft'of these clans. Thus the Yitiu- 
bata word Por water is 'ctpola, 1 ihe Bntjinga fs IpC and ihe Ompeila is 'piiy 

North of the Ompeila is \\w "Nigbl Island" group, atari which litvle was 
learned, excepi that Ihey intermarry with the Other clans of the Haruniruan and 
Spetffc practically the same dialed as tlm Ompeda. North of ihe Xiirht Island 
people were Other tribes, ihe Lttnguafr' W which was not known in the informaul. 
a Xi'j'hl Island woman named Oreji. who was married to an Kntjiima man. 

Half and Tlvdale — Aborigines of North Queensland 71 

The Karnyu ikarnju, Karim. Karntju | tribe is ;ui inland group belonging 
to the main dividing range country between Coon, the headwaters of the Archer 
River, and the sources of (he Lockhari. They were formerly .-it enmity with the 
coast tribes on both sides of the Peninsula. Our acquaintance with them is slight 
and based on brief conversations with a man al Ktewarl River. A few examples 
of their vocabulary recorded in the word lists, and some other facts, indicate the 
possibility of a definite break in type- of social structure and relationships between 
these two groups, 


The coastal natives of Princess Charlotte Bay and Flinders Island are of 
medium stature, seldom afta Suing •"> ft. 7 in. in height. Many of them are rela- 
tively small, with statures of 5 fi. l iii. lo .*) ft. 2 in. No detailed measurements 

were secured. 

Their bodies are stout and muscular, but*, as is usual in Australian tribes, 
the thighs and legs arc relatively thin, The body colour may be of two distuiel 
shades of hrown. either \c\-y dark or a lighter shade. Body hair varies from 
scani (the usual condition) lo a Par rarer moderately hairy condition. 

The head hair varies from low waves (kyraatotrieh) fro spiralled (nlotriehi, 
the inland and southern people possessing on the average Straighter hair than 
thoSD <>n tie- coast. A dark' skin and ulolriehous hair is very characteristic of I he 
Walmharia survivor.-, as well as some of the Princess Charlotte Bay peoples. 

Among the thirty-four people with imtriinmed hair al IHinders Island 

icoaslal Walmharia, Knkolamalama , and Mutumui tribes) I he estimated pro- 
portion of hair types according to Martin's scheme ( ?i ) was as follows: 

Ky ma tot rich 

















Pig, i-T show full fa<-<- and profile views of two Walmharia men. Wondal, 

the last adult male survivor of the Stanley Island group {$\g. 4-o) has ulolriehous 
hair of the type h. His skin was of the darker shade and his body was relatively 
hairy. Further north on (/ape York an even greater proportion of the natives 
have frizzy hair. Pig. 4f> depicts four men of the upper Archer River whom we 
met. Three of them have markedly ulolriehous hair. 

<:•! M.-irtiii, IL, Ih'I.iImh-Ii iler Anthropologic, I92H, \ol. I. p. -J 14, fig. 79, 


Recoups <h the S.A. Mi/si u m 

t- r 





Records df the S,A. Museum 

Fig, :$4-42 depict Wglttibaria women. Where the hair ivmains um-ut it is 
usually deeply w&vetl oil thu border of ulotvfcrhy. In later life, after continued 

Rllltinp;^ il appears In be less (Mirli'cL 

Koknlamalaina limn are depicted in fig, S-11. Mulmmti iimmi ate slmw n in 
iii: 12-lfl. woittWl in fi#, 24-33* and children in 44. F\\s. 30-23 fttuw full-far.' ami 

i i 20—21. I'.n iini^iuin liKiii, .-niil (iff, 22— 2tf, ll;i i'uiii,ni:i]i woukim (luitli Ktowflfl U'iut) 



I 1 '.-, I .;.;. .Miilminii wmni'ii. ('24 _7, f','il*f M * ■ ! \ i I h ■ ; L's :; 1 i jiju ftuttrfii; 82— tiK, l'-.-nruu 

I'uinl .. 

Ffcr. -I 4H. WalmTlnria wiwjm i - 1 B9« I limlwrti i-in-i; :'i \--. Bntlm»'s1 m 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

pi'olilr vii'ws nl' n BarungTLan himii and woitiatf from StewaH Iiiwr; 1 1 1 < • womett 
shown in tig. 4o'-47 and 50 and tli" children in tiir. 1!> fire from the sauu* locality. 

STarked assyinetry pf the breasts was n uoticeable feature among the women 
of the Bamnguan group; m all the cases observed the left breast was of small 
dimensions as compared with ih< k right. Pig. 50 depicts one of ilm less [Marked 

Fjff. 44. Mulmnui ..•liiKlrcn. 

Ti-. n". Mm i'loiii l 'iM'i' 1 A iHhm i 
i ii h v Im'vi ni' 1 L'kvdl.v ulol rithoua huh'. 


Tooth evulsion is practised anvong the Waliubaria and Bnrnn^uan, cither the 
i'loiii or lot'1 upper central incisor bein# removed in .'ill members of both se i 
Pig. 47 depicts a Barnnguan youug woman Willi the righ] upp«.*j' central missing. 

A broad short transverse cicatrice is generally exit ow the upper ehe&l of 
Walinharia males; this may be Followed by ;i second or third, in recent year 
ih«' practice has tended to Lapse. 

Lmmi!'. ihin, transverse abdominal cicatrices were the Fashion ul Stanley 
Isl.'iinl. <is well as numerous short vevtieal marks tin the upper and outer pari of 
each arm; typical examples are shown in fig. 4-5. 

The I»m l-n ni>j inn of both sexes commonly cu1 transverse scars "ii the lower 
part of the chest; as well as one or more cows of vertical cicatrices on the upper 

Hale and Ttndale— Aborigines of North Queensland 


.•inns. Also I bey somet ones pierce tbe lobes of their e;irs, ;nnl keep them (lis- 

l ended with pieces of wood, but the practice was never universal, and has been 

Largely ;ibjiinlone<| by fh<- yniin^vr general ion. 

Alnhimui. \V<ilmb;irm, and B&rUttgU&U people pierce tllC n;is;il septum, nml 
coiimionly wear short, transverse^ wooden nose-plugs or longer curved shell oriia- 
riients [(trough Hie dole. The effecl of ibis mutilation is seen in 6g. 46 tend is 

rirrinneisnni is mil kllOWll Or practised ;nnonir <\1Y\? of the irihes niel with ;il 
I'rineess Charlotte K.iy, and UO operation is practised on mlolescent u'i rls. 


In L926 there were no living children of Hie WalmbarUJ tribe, th<- youngest 
person tben being a youth aboul flighteen years of ago. Sonio ten ttialea \\n(\ 

Fifteen I'enniles survived, fl iVyv mi the isbmd find ibe Others fl.1 Ibilbui-sl llr,i«l. 
Till 1 N)ta] aiVfl of llieir eonnl ry \v;| ( s litlle more tluili 30 Hijtl&rc miles (of whlcll 

10 miles was included in the islands, the rent being on the mainland). 

i-'i : m. in. i in i uiigiiiVi] woitifi h, showing 

|)2i • (ttMJ M.'isnl ><'| ii ; I'l, N!r\v:i |«i 

Fig, 17. I'.;m ii 1 1 i_i i j .- 1 n WMiii:n>. vvitli IMcisoi 
I'noth I - C(1 ; I'l . Stcvwirt. 

Genealogies show thai in previous generatioiin the average number of chil- 
dren per Eainfly reaching their majority was ■>■- (average of seven Families), In 

two families there were five surviving ehildren. 

Indications suggesl thai the tribal boundary has remained constant within 
the memory of the present natives, bin ilmi the population lias decreased. The 
family lista show thai two generations ago there were lirtwirn thirty and fortv 


Records of the S.A, Museum 

people on the islands and aboui thirty at U-itluirst Head, the larger number uu 
the island being determined primarily by the greater available area of food- 
providing coast and reef- The population, two pep square mile, was dense, cmi- 
sidcring the sterility of the wandstonc tableland, w hicb constitutes the major pari 
pf tlie area. 

Pig. 48. \\ ; woman with wooden now peg; PliurUra Island 

The depletion of the tribe in the present generation has been partly obscured 
by a northward drifl ofadiill Mutumiu people accompanied by two children* The 
country of these people has been adversely affected by Hie advance of cattle 
stal ions in the south. 

hi a Kokohmiaiania camp ai Princess Charlotte Bay only few children were 

Fig. 4<». li;milltfli:.Ul,) pell, St< 

Fig, 50, B&rtmguati woman, Stewart 

Hale and Tindale— Aborigines or North Queensland 79 

Ai Stewarl River few opportunities for study of the population occurred. 
The Yetteneru tribe is almosl extinct, and the survivors could give us little idea 
of iis former numbers. 

Several children were prcseni in the Baruuguan camp, bui only one family 
had more than two, Ai lr;ist eigh.1 women of ehild-be&ring age had no surviving 
children, although they had had numerous pregnancies. No estimate of the pre 
seni or former population can be given. 


Walmbaria Tribe. 

Uriel' observations made on Flinders Island su.wsl that the Imsis ol' I he social 
organization in the Walmbaria tribe is a two-elass sysleiu, either degenerate or 
imperfectly developed, and now Calling into disuse. 

The two classes are now always reierred to by the mimes applied also to IJie 
principal totems*, namely : 

a. Owaimini. 
I). Unpawn. 

One suspects thai formerly other names were known ; in the Barmiguan tribe 

the terms Kar])ia and Koiana are still used. This dieholomous organization is 
associated with patrilineal deseenl and patriloe&l marriage. 

As in some other areas where only moeities and totems occur, the reckoning 

of deseenl is simple, the Child (male or female) taking the moeity, llie totem, and 

the totem country of iis father. The totem kins are strongly localised and are 

The totems are comparatively few in number in each of the Iribes under 
consideration, and each lends to be strictly Localized in some particular part of 
the tribal area. Tin- following ocelli' in the Walmbaria trili 

Class 4. Class B. 

Owaimini (kangaroo) ; [Tjagawq (native companion 

Stanley Island and Flinders Island. Bathnrsl Head. 

Arkeita (whale) : Kokalu (red kangaroo) : 

Flinders Island. Denham Island. 

The Kokalu people ol" Denham Island are exlinct. Some of the people claim 

both kangaroo and whale totems; they regard Owaimini as being more importaul 

to them than Arkeita. An emu totem alse, formerly existed on Flinders Islaml. 
but details were not obtained. 

80 Krcokds of the S.A. Museum 

Flinders Islam! men and women talk freely of Owaimini as their totexn, and 
it is only on (di)Ki? tjuesrtaoning thai the subsidiary totem 'arkeita' will be men- 

lioned. Tliis subsidiary totem is possessed by all individuals. There is one 
woman who claimed 1o be arkeita alone but Ibis was not supported by otlmr 
members of her tribe. Stricl prohibition of the eating of lb'' kangaroo exists 

aHlOng fllJ lln'se people, but docs not extend lo tbe wliale totem; ii" one of these 
^ianl mammals wen- stranded, everyone would eat of it. At Kathurst Head the 
nat i\e eompaiiion is not eaten. 

In the Walmbaria tribe a man was permitted to marry bis mother's brother's 
daughter or ;i person who stood in ilie same relationship, and tbe former normal 
method of marriage was for two men suitably related to exchange sisters. These 
noles disagree with Kol h i '). who stairs that I hronedioiil \orlh Queensland 
mother's brother's daughter, and father's sister's daughter, are prohibited mar- 
riages. Since the breakin*r-up of the tribe organization, and the deeimation of 
the tribe, this practice has been praelieally abandoned in favour of more indis 
eriminate unions with individuals of remote tribes. Tin- wife of one Flinders 
Island native is from Cook-town, another woman is from Xio-hl Island, a third 
from Saltwater Creek 

The kinship system, unlike thai of the Kokoyimidir recorded by Roth (•"•), 
makes no distinction between younger and older brol hers and sisters and between 
moiher's yniiimm- ami older brothers and sister. A brother <'ind sister apply the 
same terms, k amlnii" and 'arwui. ' to a sifter's children. There are four terms for 
the seeoml ascending genera t ion. The same terms probably apply to the second 
deseendinii' ^'em-rat ion. bill are not shown in any of the u'en calories we obtained. 

In i be accompanying diagram (he Walmbaria terms, so fur as known, have been 

set out on ihe franc-work (irst devised by kVy t' 'm durum 1 an Ant hrnpoloL'C'al 
!•'. ••. fir. Mi ion in (. "nit ral Australia in 1929, 

The list of kinship terms i.s not exhaust ive, and one or two of them are Open 
1o criticism. The term 'kauai.' obtained for both mother's and father's broiler, 
may be in cor reel in so far as it applies to father's brol be r. 'J* be bit hi li;is RliotheJ 
term, 'oayi,' which is probably the more eorrcd one. One female informant 
apparently gave us the terms 'ambui' i son i and 'nnviii' (daughter) willi ihe 
meanings t ransposed ; this ma\ be due to a misunderstanding or to a i-hn .-I 
error. The term 'puru^ai' was given to us mice as being applied to brother's 
children, but ibis usage was not confirmed 

(4) Koti., Rec. Aust. r viii, rinn, p. U)2, 

i;m footh, Xoi'tli QTfl. Ethnography ii, 1001; p. In. 

;<•) Prv,Truns, Key. Sn,-.. s. Ausi., Iv, l!t:;i. r . 17, 

Hale and Tindale — Aborigines of North Queensland 




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qn - 

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bd <! <H 







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8 ! 

Records of the S.A. Museum 

The obtaining of detailed genealogies was laborious, owing to the marked 
reluctance with which the natives spoke of the dead. This Caetor, and the rapid 
degeneration of native custom which has occurred since European contact, indi- 
cate that only a limited time remains for useful work in this field of study. 

Other Tribes. 

In the Mutuinui tribe there appears to be a similar social organization to 
thai of the Flinders Island people. There are no less than six localized totem 

groups, each of which may have a suhsidiary totem. Our information is insulli- 

eienl to explain the details, hut the following is a list of the totems obtained : 

\Viyar;i (dllgong) : 

Cape Melville. 
YViyara f-fKaruyen, Frilled lizard) : 

Cape Melville. 
Wiyara (+N#apoyi, leathery turtle) « 

( \-ipe liowen. 

Arayil (loggerhead turtle I 

N'ohle Island. 
Yerkunguni (emu ) ; 
Mack River. 

Karuyen (frilled lizard) : 
Inland from Harrow Point, 

Tukanha ( black kangaroo) ; 
Maek River. 

Tnkanba if Arumli. white pigeon) : 
Eaa1 of Mack River, 

Tallica (shell turtle) J 

1 )ape Melville. 

In addition there was one totem about which our informants were themselves 
in doubt, namely, \Mlpon<|ora ' (pelican), from Yokowara, east of l.athurst Head. 
Marriage is patriioeal, and the children inherit the totem and totem place of the 
father. The Totem animal is never eaten. 

The only Kokolamalama totems which we are able to record are: 


Alpnt;i (dugong) : 




Kurkur (native companion 
Jane Table Hill, 

There is a prohibition against rating the totem animal. The count ry of the 
dugOng people extends someuhal I'urt her inland than lhal of the native com- 
panion people, so ihai i heir temptation to indulge is lessened by their lack of 
opport unity. 

Our stay at Stewart River yielded few opportunities for enquiries into social 



At Pari Stewart the people of the Entjinga and Ytrinbata Local groups wciv 
found in inourinnu'. for recently an old man of the letter group bad been buried. 
Their han- had remained uncut for several months, and they were wearing numer- 
ous objects of mourning, including pendants and wooden tablets. Shortly after 
oar arrival a brief ceremony was held, at which the principal event was the put- 
ting off of the hair of all the individuals in mourning; this was followed by ;i 
feast, for which food had been accumulated for several days. The objects of 

mourning Were fehen desl roved or discarded, except by the widow, who slid wore 

them when the writers left Port Stewart, Daring a period of general mourning 
no marriages lake place, but the ban is lifted after the hair-cutting ceremony. 

In I he Mutuiiiui tribe a woman whose husbnnd dies becomes ihe wife of her 
former husband's brother, ;md if she pro\'es unsatisfactory m;iy be passed by him 
to a father's brother's son. The wife leaves the tribe in which she was born and 
eiders that of her hiisb;ind ; children alwaj-S belong U) the tribe of the fall in-. 

If a Yeileneru man deserts his wife she may reliiim 1o her tribe, and may 
temporarily succeed in keeping the children; the sister of the former husband, 
however, may become? largely responsible Hor seen ring food for them. 

Tooih evulsion is practised b\ the \V;dinbaria and liarun-iiau ( fig. ITi, and 
it ik considered pfcbpgvthat aTl men and wonitfn should have parted with an upper 
incisor before marriaev takes place. 

In ihe Bantngtiao tribua man is compelled to provide frequent cont i-ibiit ions 
of animal food for his wife's mother, with whom he is not permitted to bave any 
direct cmil;icl or conversation. 

A Wahnbaria man paints the body of his future mot her-iuda w with ochre a« 
a Wgll Of betrothal 1o the daughter, h'roni I Ins lime on he provides food for Ihe 
(UlU£htPTj and after the mftrriftgc continues to contribute food io his Wife's father 

and mother ,-is well. 

If a child is horn after its mother has been travelling in Ihe country of some 

group or tribe o1 her than thai of I lie father, ihe child may be wGngnifced as belong- 
ing to that country, for the molher remembers the lime when the child suddenly 
entered her. M w;is asserted too that ii would also receive the totem of thai 
eounlrw In I he mily cniii'ivtv example provided the Contrary was the rase, for ;i 
Flinders Isbiud boy, whose country was Mack River, retained Ihe owaimini 



The first step in the Initiation of the adolescent Wfilmbaria lad lakes pbice 
;ii the age of about eleven or twelve \ ears. I p to this time lie haw bad much \'m' 


Rfxorps of the S.A. Ml -si AW 

dnm of association wilh his sisters, his mother, and other individuals of 1 he oppo- 
site sex. The advent of initiation in marked by a stfricft -of -i^veiits of great dramatic 
force, which appear to impress on the child the beginning of a new life period. 
The ceremony commeners when be is suddenly a«crt>tcd in a mangrove swamp, or 
in ;i bole in the forks, by a group pf women, who stand guard ovn' llu- apftl, and 
fry by various subici'fu'^vs, such us erasing his footprints, to diagtiise his hiding 
place. A body of men Hum appear. They an 1 (h^ratGd with pipe-clay sprinkled 
in ihe hair, broad tranaverae bands of colon* on the chesi. and long: curved tu»se- 

bones and Feather p]nm«-s : armed Willi newly-painted fighting Spoars, ihcy rnsli 

i.i the s|»oi and forcibly remove the child, ot children, amid the screams and mock 
heroics of the wOmen-folk. 

pig, 51-54, Dei* orated turtle skulls; Wulmbnriti tribe, Stanley \- aud. 

I , . ;"."• .".«;. W.m.-I.-ii • ' »;iin ni.'ikri-s' ' ; MuHimui tiilir. Unrruw IVini. 

The child now boromes ;ii 1 ;i«-hrd io afl individna I. usually a father's broiler 
('oayi'}, Who instructs him in 1 he various arts of manhood. Kor some months 
he is forbidden to speak to the >\ omen -folk of the camp, and is thus subject to a 
>vn.'s of i-M 1m S of ceremonial avoidance. Km- instance, in walking in the buah he 

mnsl not follow the tracks of miy women, even if ihey be old. Ilia ears amy be 
pierced, and one Of his upper incisOlVS is removed; as before mentioned, rirciim- 

ci.sion is noi practised. When he i« of age, he is given a wife, for whom he has 
promised, or given in c&change, a sister, oi' >• father^ brother's sister. The girl 
he obtains is usually about his o\\ n agC, or somewhat younger. The understand- 
ing whereby he has obtained her may be of old standing; .-it Stewart Riv^r the 

Half, and Tindall .\i;<>kh;ini-:s m North QuEBNSLAfcfj 83 

iMr-'iiir> ma\ arrange ;i enndh innal marriage Lor their in t*an1 son durum- Ihe 
pregnancy of a mother, Oil Hi-- ehaSHtf thai Hie unborn infant is a ll ill. 

The principal evenl in [he Lrfe of the ymmg Walmbarm ocnirs \vlie41 
Lie has so fai' profited by MiO instructions of his onyi that, unaidnl, Ik* has I, i 1 1 ■ -. J 

his firs! turtle or dupmig witli harpoon mid liw» The animal so obtain is eatci] 

• II a ri-iTiiioiiia! feast ijoad I'venimj'. the I.'hI iK'iiiir ^iiily painted ami ihe centre of 
^traction at the accompanying dance. The skull of the turtle or lower jaw of 
the rtllgOSg is painted )>y the initial.'. ;iml n is 1 1n 1 1 sccivtrd in g hole or imwkt 
a! the back of a rock-shelter, -where i{ rests in company with numerous similar 

j%. Si depicts llic tlirtlO skull decorated by YYom:;d 'thelasl of 1 he St anley 
Island males i whvti he was an initiate. M was shown h, j he wrhers when exam- 
ining a lar-v shelter at Kinhien, and was preserved in a narrow crevice, It was 

associated wilh in alier fainted turllc skulls and seven flugfittg lower jaws, all 

Of which were brought out and displayed lor the purpose ol' a pholo-raph. 

Kig. 52-53 represent <>l«l«i skulls, (he colour patterns ol which wen- ivviwd 
by Wmidal; i\u\ a | shows an ancient example preserved in its natural slnle. 


Reference i» made above to the huntine; feast which is held when a youth 
kills his first turtle, and variola olher phases of ceremonial life ;ire described 
under the heading l>f trading customs, and death and burial rituals. It is la-re 
possible to record only a few e.-renionials and dances of the loss serious type. 
These performances, however, play an extraordinarily important pail in the 
everyday life of the natives, their frequence heiuir an index of the physical and 
Mental Well-being of I he community. 

The advent of the pearling and treptiHg fisheries on (he (Jrcat Harrier Kerf. 
ami the consequent employment of the majorily of the yoiltlgW men as divers ami 
hands on the boats, struck a deep blow at ihe whole social fabric of llic 
nativm The older peojrte, deprived (if their fn^d L .;ii hirers, and ravaged by 
uitroducod epidemic diseases, are dying 0U1 rapidly, while I ht prolonged absences 
Df ihe potential fathers of 1 he eomhm' -i-iicnit am has no doubt assisted in reduc- 
ing the bin 1 1 rah- almost io vanishing poim. I'uder smdi conditions the intensity 
Of iln'ir ceremonial life has miturally yreatly diminished, and iiiiiiiy of Ihe more 
important phases will shorlly entirely disappear. 

In gpod :>< , .-isfnis. when food is abundant, dances are held almost nightly in 
a cleared space within ihe precincts of the camp. At A pa, on Flinders Island, 
this dancing areg was so situated (%, $7) thai the wet -season huis of the various 

families were placed around it. each group Oil the side nearest to its home count r\ . 


Records of the S,A. Museum 

|?ig« 57, Plan of native camp at A|.i;i. Flinders Island, during north west monsoon season, 
January, 1027, a. Camp of Stanley Island natives. 1>, Flinders and Bathursl Eeacl campa, 
, . Kokolamalama camps. .1, Dancing ground. <\ Aim where eevemonia] receptions Of visitors 
• , , ,, hri.i, r, 1 * i I < ■ <>f ilugong hours, g, ;\:uisr well, sole water supply on Island li, Canou 
Ur.-u-h. i, Ap.-i mangrove swamp* .i, Small area with wild yams, k, ('amp of Museum expedition, 

[itilH in fathoms; contours at CO foOl intcivals). 

On (.no occasion when sueh a dance was held each man was decorated as 
follows. The lunr was combed out into a mop and dilated with pipeclay, While 
rings were painted around each eye, so thai they joined upon the nose, and a 
white streak ran across his forehead. The side of the nook and the anus were 
decorated with vertical stripes, there was a while ring around the shoulders, two 
broad stripes eroded the chest obliquely, and three bands of the same colour were 
painted around each leg, 

Half, and Tindale— Aborigines of North Queensland 87 

The women had their limbs decorated iw «i similar manner, Iml their fact* 
utiv marked in one of two ways. In the front there was a forehead baud and fl 
broad apol of while on each check; i 1 1 the other a pyrifonu design was Formed Uj 

a stripe passing down between Hie eyes and nose, aeross Ihe cheeks, 1o meel in 
fellow on the ehin. An nhliipie forehead stripe eomplelcd the design. 

The old men sat in a group and sang in lii«ili-pitclicd voices. Several oi! Ihem 
aeeompanied ihe tanging by bc&tblg pairs ol* tapping si iek.> ; Ihe women sa! to- 
gether in a group a! the opposite end ol' the eleared space, and also heat lim.- h\ 
Striking Iheir cupped hands against Ihe upper and bluer parts of ilnir thighs. 
hYom time lo lime one oT Ihem msr and placed branches of 1 i*ees and bundles ol' 
gratttt upon llie lire to provide added illnminalion lo ihe scene. 

Seagull Dance. 

The \arwora, 1 or seai-'idl dance of X^oromo i Clack Island) was perforiiied, 
Tlie refrain oi I his danee A\as as follows: 

"Won^al niranjai nnbarworolor ' ; repeat. 

The performers Avere plaeed in three semieirenlar lines, with Ihe coneaAc 
sidr Facing Ihe old men. The two front rows eonsisled of men, Ihe hindermosl ol' 
WOlDen. Tlie men stood with arms and leo\s nnlsl reTehed ajid rigid, and took llivr- 

shuffling hops, iirsi to tlie right and then bad* ko the Left, bending their bodies 

somewhal in lie- direction of progress. At Hie commencement of fhe danee the 
mi'ii simnltaneonsly uttei-ed a series of loud exclamations 4 T.jer! T.jer!' after 
which lln-y continued i<> grunt loudly throughout the performance*, whieli con- 
tinued, wilh pauses for breath, for aJKWl half an hour. The women performers 
stood upright in the background, with their t>eit close together, and shuffled side- 
ways by moving alternately on then- heels ami then on iheir toes. At first their 

prom-ess was towards the left, hot when the men changed direclion they returned 
towards the right. 

Ancestral and Other Dances. 

Another dunce described tlie way in which ;inci i sir;il beings cleared a track 
throiigh «i big Scrub or jungle on Ihe mainland. Tic "track" appears 1<> be 

similar to Ihose periodically cut through the forests of North Queensland In 


Tim older men sangj "AtugentUga tnailgar manrali man^ala manji-ala." 
The mm kni'lt down in a Irtltg line in Ihe foreground, while ihe women per 

Fori I Ihe same evolnlion as in the preceding dance, grunting londl\ all the 

lime. The kneeling performers swepl the ground before Ihem with twigs held n, 

88 Records of tMe S.A. IMuseum 

the rigid hand, swaying Erqjq side to side, twitching their bodies, and grunting as 
they did so. 

No name was given to the following dance, in which the men stood in a line 
and stamped vigorously; theft' legs were wide apart, aud they held leafy twigs in 
tin 'ir hands, which they fit'fcl displayed high abovi j their heads, and thou suddenly 
with a jerking movement withdrew behind their backs* only to raise them again 
equally suddenly a few momenta later, These alternating movements wcrr kept 
up for nearly an hour, during which the women shaffled as before, in the tnaclc- 
ground. The old iik'ii «ang the following song: 

"Ac mangala mangala a a la la mantzala mangala ' ' ; repeat. 

Al | he conclusion of this performance I he men simultaneously gave an un 
usually loud grunt as they raised Hicir rigid hands above the lead and another 
as Ihey .jerked Ihcin suddenly down. 

In another dance (vaguely describe*] as bping the attempts of two ancestral 
beings to cohalritj two men stood back lo hack-, with their legs apart ami their 
hands linked together. They stamped dn the ground, making a show of great 
■ Tfort as they lifted their feel aud brougfal Ihem down. The right foot of the Ol'HJ 
performer and the left foot of the other wen* lifted simultaneously. The women 
continued their usual shuffling dance afid iheir grunting, while the bid men sang 
the same soim 1 as in the previous dance. 

Closely following On this dance was one in which both sexes performed like 
movements. The performers look their places in two semi-circles, as in the 
Arwora dance, Hie men in front, the w'iih'ii behind. Holding a leafy bnncli 
rigidly before himself with outstretched arms, each performer moved sideways 
with the shut'tle practised by the women in previous dances. A slight variation 
in the method of movement enabled each performer to gradually move forward 
towards the centre (instead Of sideways ). so that the whole Iroupe of dancers 
eventually came together in a closely-packed bunch. They then worked gradu- 
ally backwards until they reached their former positions. The % 'Ae mangala 
mantra la "suii<!' was sung t hroughnul this dance, and ihe inlensilical ion of excile- 
mmii t hroiighoiit it was indicated by the vigour of t he gruiil ing and t he s1 renuniis. 
though restrained, movements of the performers. The dance was continued t(\V 
perhaps half an hour, and was concluded with two very loud grunts, as before. 

This performance was the climax of the evening, and at a signal from the 
Old mm tin- proceedings concluded, h being then midnight. An occasional sound 
of excited Laughter and brief snatches of various songs drifted over from ihe 
din'oreni camp-fires for an hour or mure before silence prevailed. 

Hale and Ti^q ale— Aborigines of North Queensland 89 

Women's Dances. 

Some Walmharia tribe (Unices are performed Largely by \\ rnnrn, (lit 1 men 
being present chiefly us spectators or as singers and I ime -ljCHteh*, 

Tli.- Women are dtteorated with pipe-clay (from a depotiil on the south side 
of Minders Inland) tm, more rarely with yellow ochre. Usually a bifflftij while 
baud is painted across i:he forehead, and a line? runs down flie middle of the nose; 

ftUU yOilllg unmarried n-irl had broad while lUHrfe painted on each temple, bill 
w.-is nni mi iirrv, isr ornamented. The bodies are marked with broad ti^UBvtifsu 
biUnkof pipe-clay, which are im>I conlinm-d on ihe back. 

In on.- such .Inner observed hy ns several men kepi time hy clapping hands, 

another beat time on s paper-bark bundle or Lui^hiVui inkm Eroni a eauor, while 
yei another struck a metal tin -ohtfpned Crow ourcarhp, one man sang the whole 

time the familiar, hilt appa rent ly now largely men n big less, word recorded pfauve 
'•A<* lutttlgalit. 1 etc). The Othet^ joined in at intervals lo cpjieve Of aftuti liim. 

In iln' firs! clanee tttt women look their pomtion*i in Iw.i I rausverse lines 
facing the men. wlm were .jnmprd together «l thr northern rm\ of the daneiim 
-round, and shnliled snh wa\s in Hie usual manner, putting gteaj efforts inlo ihe 
da nee and grunting loudly. 

This preliminary uiovemtWI was followed inmtediaMj by the 'Topanpo,' or 

cassowary dance, in whieh a Npenr was driven npriglll into the ground, and the 
women p<Tln n .irrs enmped themselves around i1 in a hal I' .-in-le al a dislanrr of 
perhaps five yards. One man tOOk pail in Ihis danee. Ue took his posh ion at 
the rie;hi end of the semi-circle, hnl only a couple of \ard> from the spear, and 
ftlOVed '-oiinter clock wise in a eirele. Tin- women also mnvol \cr\ slowly in a 
eoiinler cltTOk w ise direction ;is i he .Ijiii.t pr. -leeedeth and slowly closed m mi tllC 
man, so that eventuaUy all were crowded elosely together agaiuxl the wear. 

Kaeh performer danced in a crouched position, with 1he fjght hand raised up lo 
simidalr a hird \ head, and Ihe left raih'Cd to tin 1 shoulder. 

In a second movemenl Oi this dance the spear was removed, and tin- man 
stood upright in its place, with feel Widely apart, and holding hunches of leaves 
in Ids hands, which were held apart a1 arm's length. The man's parr in lie- pre- 
vious (lance was now taken hy a small boy ol' some eleven years, who imitated The 
man's aelions re" the cassowary throughout. Each danee took only ahonl one 
minntr lo perform. al'lor which Ihcre was a pause of r'rom len to thirty seeonds. 
during which the performers ivlnmed to Iheir former positions. After perhaps 
liffeen minnt.'s the first rUOVenienl wns replaced by He- scemd, which continued 
for a similar period. Excitement hecanm intensified as the performers reached 
thr rliniax of ihe dance, after which they hurriedly departed for Iheir respective 

90 Records of the S.A. Musi i m 


No restrictions arc placed on the nsr of personal naim's. hut in briiiurarj n»n- 
vn-s.iiir.n kinship terms are frequently employed <" referring to individuals awl 

in addressing them individually. Nicknames arc no! COIftlhOil, but a person amy 

bear three or even more nffltifea. Two or marts plated adults may have the 

same individual Uame, and this tends to prove perplexing a1 first ; as exani|)les 
il may he mentioned thai two Mutumui half si-H-r- by Ihe same mother (tic 
fathers were brother*) bear the name Atenmale. and that f.WO Walmbaia;i full 
brothers bear (lie nam.' Womlal. 

Frequently a you is given the nanm of .-i father or father's father, and a 
daughter amy be named after its father's sister. Others arc named after Real- 
ities, e.g., Womlal is ;i mountain peak on Uathnrst Head, and Ukan.jin (a 
woman's name) is a place name in the same district. Kndaen is t lie name of lie 
principal ea.Ve of the Stanley Island aborigines, as well as the name of a faller 

and son belonging to that place. 

Tw<> liarun^iian gfirltf, ahotll ttfll »11CJ twelve years of age, were both known 
Dj their molhcr's name. OpQJB OS Opoji They had a yotfilg married sister, pre, 
viously also known as Qpojffc wlm had been uiven a further name (Motjatqwa) 
just before marr'ui-e. This custom of naming H girJ after Us molher is in marked 
,-Mnirast to that of 1hc Lurit.ja tribe of Central Australia, among whom it is the 
grave*) of all insults to call a person either by his mother's or his father's name. 

Children are frequently without names. Two Mutumui ehildren at FlitlfUuw 
Island (a l)oy ami a gM aged about six and nine) wnv nameless at Ihe time of 

our visit. Our interested enquiries led the toother to send a menage stick (with 
a verbal message} to the father, who was absent on the mainland. Ills reply was 

received about a month later, and ihe names of hi> choosing Were immcdialeh 
adopted, Iv another ease the father's brother bestow. I tin- nana' borne by a boy. 


The writers were anxious !o secur-- as many hair samples as possible. bu1 
were successful in only a score of casa% The Walmbaria and l'»arun«>uan people 
are averse to allowing another to oblain port ion of their hair, believing ,,l '* ,t 1hr 
possession of this gives an enemy the power to "'wish" harm, or even death, NJ 
the man from whom it was taken, a belief which, in various forms, is world wide, 
h, nil the Princess Charlotte Ray tribes, when a man trims his hair he is careful, 
therefore, that no one shall pick il up with nefarious purpose, ;uid if near the 
coast may even g$ on to a re.'f, so thai lie' Ci.itti.hgB will be carried away Wl the 

flAl.h AND TlNlMT.h AliORtfllNES OK NoKTH Q\ I -;i NSLAND 


Tin- Waliuhai'ia peoplf believe thai, in reriain riivnnista juts, (he death of ;i 
man may l.<- lir.niL'ht abaul by the painting of IflHgical Bgliri . s. If a man steals ,i 
woman, and rsrapes with \\rv 1o the maiidand. tin- old men visit Claek Island 

and paia1 the figure of a man on ihe i-oeks ; j tie geduoer soou siekens, and &veiittL- 

cillv « lies. 

I ' 58. furl lr hicrt'&SU rliarni; Walill 
Imm:i I l- i 1 1* ■ . i:;»lJi|irs| \ir;n\. 

Pig. Eg), l>isr;i!flc<l lirlmiHJii^s of < 
givi; \\ ';ilii)li:jri;j tribe, I>;iiluii-s1 llr.vl. 

Some old heliefs are carried down in the Corai of legends; apparently some 

of lh.' sfnrirs have been Ol'Igi nated 1o explain natural features of their eotmtiw. 
Par inslciiH.T, lilaekwood Island rWakayT). when viewed iVom I ><rt luirst Head, 
iv.M'inbles a jvriimbeul iiuiji ; Irom lids cii'enmsfamT has arisen Ihe story of a 
byirnne warrior Vtf&Q wms blijpied there on his back. 

When the Flinders Islanders intend to visit the mainland the old men, hv 
fiirhtin^ a fire and 'sumom/' ean make line winds emue, and Ihns ensure a safe 
pass,.-.' I'nr f heir en noes. The latter ale ihen paddled along the eoasf to dear 

Tilpatiga 1 im. 2) 3 where a pointed cylindrical stone projects above a pile of rocks. 
This is said to bavo been ereeted long atyn, and marks the spot froiu which cauoea 

mnsl leave the island i. fm; 61), 

Tim women, when searching for food, sing in order thai abundanl supplies 
shall be i'oriheomini:. Thr free translation of the scmg oi" a girl looking I'm* 
oysters on a reef ttl Iia1 hurst Head is as Follows \ Alter findin- mi oyster she sang. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

"1 have "iir. -why have I not two?" ("1 find him one* why im more I find him 
iuo.'">; finding a second one, she said, ,4 I havte iwo, why have I not three?'*; 
this was repeated until n third was Eoitnd. Apparently after the fourth oyster 
tyat* discovered the song began afresh. 

•••"••". .-^i.iV -....• " : ' •.-•-• : - ':':■■:■,•■:'■■-> 

' :: •'■'' ' 


^r, :::::: 


iTig, 60. Dugong increase charm; Wnlmbaris tribe, Plludera Isl.-nnl. 
Fig. 01. ( 1 vliiKli-i<'jj| stone marking point from which eanoes must leave Flinders island 

Hale and Tindalk Aborigines of North Queensland 93 

Of similar import wan th« Walmbaria iitjtinctiou anng to the piece of yam 

vine thrown Lack info tire hole after recovery of the yam: "(Jn back, make a 

IllLi 1 0110." 

Magical objecls are sinnH imes associated with invocations. When the watm' 
holes arc drying and Ihc men are "sunging" rain, additional assistance is 
al'fnnl.'d by lmii»;iii«r'',mn makers" in the trees. These ennsisl of tlat ivmanji'iilar 
pieces of wood, painted with red ochre and pipe-cUy, which ;n-e siring by a Imm'lh 
of l.irislmnt-Whvr twine, so that they wiil twisl about in the breeze, (Pig. o.Vmi. | 
Winn ihese ohjcrls roiah- in the wind. is sure to come within a short time. 

M' ,-i good catch of ionics is made in a particular tocalily ihe Walmbaria 
people p^inl the head* n t' iheir caplures ami place llmni in trees in the vicinity 
In ensure furthm good supplies (fig. .>; , . Captain I'hillip |\ Kin^ , r^ v , |, ,, 
\isilin- tie- Flinders Islands in 1ST!), remarked on turtle heads treated in this 
Way- Ke Kffrt'Cd: "Ofl the l>r#Tjch Of a tree near at band were three turtles' 
heads; and since they had been placed there the youno- branches had expanded, 
causing us to wonder al first how Ihe hejuls could have passed over them . . , wo 
haw since freoueully noticed the same thine,', which could only have been lel'i le, 
i he natives. " 

V*QT the ftaiUe reason Ihe Walmbaria uat ivos colh-et fhe bOlWM of du<vone.\s after 
fcaslino- ,;(in'. 60) and pile them together. We saw many of these heaps, of 
various si/es, both oil Ihe islands mid ou the mainland of Princess ( narlmir Raj : 
some included Ihe bones of Oflly oim or (WO nnimals, but one we examined near 
fl Wtiip M Ioilhurst Head was six i'eei in length, three beet in widih, and abottl 
iluve \\>rl in height, All the major bones of the mammals were present, but doptf 
had chewed av;iy all Ihe thinner portions of the skulls. 


Some little difficulty was experienced in explainine; to the Walmbaria and 
Muluinui natives .just what we meani by ' 'drcaminc;, M hut Olieij they compre- 
hended informal ion was forthcoming. The natives often divnm. and the follow- 
in- experiences are lypieal. 

One imin several limes dreamt that he .saw dend people, <«r a dead person. 
vnme oul of ihr -round and walk about ; on these occasions he tried to run, but 
his knees doubled up, ami he could only crawl xcv\\ very slowlw 

A man sleeping: with a friend during a hunting expedition dreamt that he 
was dead; he awoke and told his compmiiom and they both laughed. Others 
dream they are chased by hi- savage fellows, and lhai they eannol run avav, 

(") Kine;, survov o...-isrs Arisr., i. L&27, p« l*::! 


Records of tiif S.A. Museum 

because their tegs refuse office; thay commonly dream of everyday occuvrciuw, 
hunting dugong; turtle, etd pf wallabies in the poelwi and kangaroo^ in the scrub. 
The natives are afraid of the dark, and the wpfoen in particular hesitate to 
rtiake pven ahorl journeys away from ihe lighl of the eamp-fnvs. 


Death among the Walmbaria natives is not attributed to natural anises, bin 
io magrio; and in earlier times., before native troopers and white men had broken 

down some of the old customs, tribal lights succeeded the decease of a man. Sonic 
time after the funeral ceremonies (apparently about two months after | the Walm 
baria people sallied Eorth and attacked one of the neighbouring tribes. They 
fought on open, sandy beaches for preference; spears were used, and sometimes 
the combat lasted all ni-ht, considerable damage being iu flirted, fho l>alliursi 
Head and Flinders Islands groups of the tribe often eombine<l with the Koko- 
iamalama to attack the natives of Barrow Point, Cape Melville, Cajw Boyue, 
Starke Kiver, and Mack River At limes, however, the Flinders Islands people 
heeame unfriendly with 1 he -lane Table Hill people, am! lights look place between 
them. Some of the older men point with pride to the sc;i rs left by stingray spears 
as a result of these combats. 

Kig, 62 <;:; and <>7 !><•. Wooden mourtiiog tablets; (62 fi3„ Wftlfitlmns tribe, Bathursl 

llc,-t(l ; 07 'is. W;ilmh;iri;i triln\ Flinders Island, fiistiicn-tl i'v("\\ sjh'.'m- -.mi.ot Imts of llie <h'- 
• -I; 15!}, Rimirigttail tribe, Pi. SIi-u-mi-t '). pig, fi4 r»U. Mourning [iiwtailt'N , i ■ !' htllTIHii Uwlr] 

Mil, Walmbmia bib*, BaMtursl fiend; G5-G&, Baniugtian tribe, Pt, H+ewart), 



When a lUan dies the body is whipped in bark ; a mourning (vrciiioiiy is 
performed, al which there is much ritual, wailinir, and cutting of I he body with 
sheik and Mi'' corpse is then lni rirM L 1'siially ihe bones are disinterred later, 
wrapped in p&iftfed bark, and the bundle is placed in a live. Sonict iint-s a long 
period elapses before this happens, sometimes only a few days, and in a tew casCfl 
Hi'' buried body is left undisturbed 

Pig. 70. Bnrtmgunn irtati witli Di#iirtirhj> 
Atlil1g$; Sffuvrirl Rjyer, 

Pijgi i 1. Bnmngmui roan n h h mowirLiig 

pcmlrnit lit' li.-iir .-ovi'-mI witli !mvsw;ix; 
Stewnil 'Hivcr. 

Sonir special objects are USfid al !he burial and during mourning, and sp.- pi .il 
customs ;ire observed. U'.m-i ;t n-n In r tablets, known as 4 «>painaka ' (fig, h'lMi:;-.. 
painled with fed ochre and white! pipe-elay, arc placed in branches of t r"cs ;il 
Ihe place of Hie inviiiony, Thps<> are usually made by 1 he men, and vary in 
number according t0 'I"' im porl mice pf the deceased : in some e;ises lln-y are 
fashioned From ihr spear-smnot hers of fl dead man ( fijr. (>7-KS). The hair of Hit 1 
Corpse is enl Off, and bound over with I.irishnm twine tp Potffi sausage shaped 
or cylindrical bundles ( hy. 64-65), which are tiling nr.mii.l the necks of mourners 
as a sie;n of grief; Often ihese pendants are covered wit h beeswax so .-is in wlmdy 
conceal !hc underlying 1 1 ; i i i * nnd string (fig, <;<;. T 1 If available, a ceremonial 
net dress riyawur\) nnd cap ( l ;ik\v;nii;M, toAflc I'roni Balling nets used by the 
deceased are worn, the relatives takincc 1 1 irws in the \\e;irin«r of tins costume 


Records of the s.a. Mgssum 

during ihe wailing; crying, and dancing. The dresses and caps appear tfl he raro, 
inn we were able to fcueitre iwu ancient examples (fig, 78), Painted wooden 

staves ii-' 74-75] or- ' l w fiilirm-sl icks. M iiw to seven fed in Length, Mild with H 
lump of «_► 1 1 1 1 i af one end, are used a1 111-' ceremony and elsewhere, and afterwards 
.in' placed on the temporary grave oi the departed, whose possessions are hum-' 
upon them; in some Bases two sneh slicks are held, perpendicularly, one in each 

I'iU. 7l\ I)cltMi;l-| I ,1 : Imm;: , , f \V J I 1 111 1 ).'| II i I 

mm I Imm| oi lu$hhlg ;i BOjfpgl t" ;< plllt! to 


Pig. 7M. Mmii-iiin^ ;i]«|>rn«'| Prom 

lisliinw n,.ts of l |r.:.-,-is.-i|. I''!iii<li'rs InIjiimI. 

hnnd, In ;i relative during wailing. If ;i good limit or dies the pming men senile- 
rimes eul mil llie ulna from both ;irms. Mild t lie lioncs are :»l't erv\ ards used for 

making the heads oi turtle spe.-ns. During the oiaiitfuug pcriml following the 

burial a w idow phtsters horsed I" with mud. both head aiid hody, mid limy also wear 
a painted wooden pendant ;irmiii(! the neck, plaited sti'UIgS wound around the 
arms and sometimes round 1 he neek mIso. When r hese siriues nir removed EroiM 
lie- nocks of wciiini they aiv rewound mihI worn by male mourners; in thfi latter 
<-,i>i' the loop of flue ehain-striuirs is passed over the head ami under one Mrm. so 
IliMt it extends diagonally aer<)S?i Che Chest ami hack; o-euerMlly two sets of strings 
are thus worn, as shown in ftg. 70, Hair pendants are also worn by mourning 
relatives, who do not rrim their hair for months. Mild, in the ease of men, allow 
the beard to grow nueheeked. 

Half and Tindaie —Aborigines of Nokth Queensland 


The Following is ;i description of a grave which we opened at Bathur$1 Head 
Tor Hi.- purpose of s<#uri$ig the akclefofl o[ Wapinarinji. oire of the Walnibtfria 

natives. A semicircular hut of slicks and bark, about seven feel in diameter, 

and similjir h. those nsed in (em porary beach camps, had hem erected OV(?r th« 

grave* which was situated amone; grns^grown sandhills near the beach, The 
boily wan tied in a stakp in n erouch«jd, sin in- position, with 1 1n* head talU«n 
forward; in iliis posture it had bw'ij wrapped in a hark package and buried in 
the semi-creel attitude. There was a large sheet of bark pvjir the head, which 
was no more than (wo feel below Ih'' surface of (ho uroimd. Knnan, son ol' Wapin- 
arinji, posed, as shown in fig, 7'_\ in ihe approximate position in which his father 
had been interred. 

Pig. 71 7.1. Mourning st;iv«- ; W.-ilnikoi.-i tribe, FjintU'i's Islnu.l. Fig, £(J, Ihlgojig Ii;ii'[mm^ 

Iu'.-kI; Muiiiimii tfibe, Borrow Point. Pig. 17. Woman's digging stit-Jc; Bar-un^tisiii friby, Pi, 
Stewart. Fig. W '"'.». ('.Miirs pr«]M)ri«<1 for honey collecting; B-mnngUflTi fcriliv, l't. Ntewtirt, 

Kg. SO SI. l^irrstirKs wit I) ilrcor.-n <l shcjillis; Pat'UllgUilil tithe, i't. Strvv;ii-t. 

In oldfin limes the dead were somel iinos buried in Ihe extended position, flat 

on the back; other* in flic squatting pc&tufe, lashed to a stake. Somei inn's, especi- 
ally in Ihe Jailer method, Ihe faee was (timed up to the sky. hnl in other ca^-s 
(he head was allowed to Fall forward. 

Al Walaeimini, on liathtirst [lead, W accidentally noticed a heap of dis- 
carded native materials beside the ruins of a temporary lint at a place \\ hmv a 

98 Rmcokds of nn. s..\. Museum 

mourning toremony fey a yotmg g^' ! Yerknuear, emu totwu, oi blinders Island ) 
1,m,i bcKn held (fig. 50). The obje.-ts, which ware in a perished condition, con- 
sisted Of dilly-ba^s. e snuill pubic tassel, wooden tablets ropamaka") similar to 

those already referred fco, and a mouwrrmg piaidanl of iiuinap hair hutig mj a 
I'm |.;,-(1 stick. This girl, we wrrt' tafurmedj had pinny of Kair, enough to make 
many mourning pendants, one of which had be^Ji discarded by a passing relative, 

who had considered his moiirnin.Lr complete. A ball of human hair was also pre 
sent, but this had belonejM.l tna man who had died at about the same lime. 

At Stewarl liiver the mourning lablels an- muir (lldllgatt! (%. 69)-, btll the 
burial and mournin<: customs of the Barmmuan tribe are apparently similar in 
respects lo those of 1hc Walmbarta. The My IS buried for a variable 
period, exhumed, ami the ilesh then picked off ihe bones, which are carried aboui 
tor ;is long a« tWO years; there is then a big ceremony, at which ihe person 
accused of causing the death ifi punished. The bones are transported to and 
iinally buried at, the birthplace of tie- deceased; mourners, who have been wear- 
ing tljtell' hair locttg, trim N al*ter this " finish-up' 1 ceremony. The Uarmmuau 
people also use the painted wailin^-st icks, A U;inmirimn woman havinir died. 
Ihe husband obtained one of the objects. He held the stick horizoulally helucni 
ins upraised hands, and at intervals benl his body and arms to the ground, wad 
im_i' loudly the while, cont inuinii' these actions PcfC several hours. When a strange 
native dies al Stewart Wivcr. or in the neighbourhood, the Imrunji'uan people 
bury him in a sand-bank in the bod of the river, in the hope thai the next Hood 
will wash his hones away; Iheii his, spirit will not walk about unhappy H3 6 strange 
plaerand trouble the Pmrun^'uan people, 


It has already been meniinicd thai inbal lights at one tine/ followed a de;iili. 
Although these were more n,- less in the nature nt: ceremonial affrays, t hey often 
developed into serious bailies. When tin- Bat& Head people anticipated 
hostilities they kept watch a1 Ab-ltjelin, COT Bathursl Head, from which place 
they coidd see eastward along tin. mast. When their enemies appeared they 
prepared t r or battle by fr-shly painting iheir sp.-ars and hastily splashing while 
luiiiit over their bodies. m> as to make an impivssive show I ' lit*. 82). 

The spear is the usual Vte&pOJJ of combat, and men's fighting spears. Iik<' 
innsi Dthca' kinds, are almost always thrown with the aid of the throw in^-sl ick. 

The writers witnessed a ceremonial tiuh! on blinders Island. One afternoon 
a small party of Kokolamalaiim native* from Ihe mainland reaehod the island. 
Tim liarune-uan wife. Mini, of Awudn ;Walmbaria tribe?) was in the Flitldew 

Hale and TiKdat.e — Aborigines of North Queensland 


Island em&p with her husband ; she had been previously speared in the shoulder 
by one of <he new arrivals, and ibis was a rankling ^rievanee. The men arranged 
themselves into two parties, each man ('{irryin^ spears and Speftr-thrOWel', They 
fitted their spears into tltcir spear-1 lingers, and made passes ms they walked 
Innards each 01 her. lowering their weapons when within striking distance? the 

Fi-. S-. Methiiii uf fcoltling -^prai aiul spear-thrcwer; WfttnuWia rrii.e. Mimics isl.-md 

walk w;is a half slinill*', in which dtiRl whs kicked up in n cloud. The woman 
Mini also carried a spear, which she brandished; after a great deal of talk she 

retreated some distance, and pretended to throw the fcpi?a/ a1 the? mainland party. 

During this affair the men touted $i eaeli oiher in hi<ih-|)iicln-d voices, and others 

Rallg a sone/. while women who wnv UOl directly concerned talked excitedly. 
Several men look no inleresl whoever in the happening, which was apparent ly 
in the nature of a threat to the delinquent. 

The method of holding tbp spear and spear-thrower (%. %2) is very similar 

to thai illustrated by one of the writers in a pretfiatia paper dealing with Groote 

Uylandt natives i \i . The spear-t hrowors are cut from hardwood tree-, 1 (in. ,s I I , 
and are tl;d and usually father wide; a hardwood peg (wilh a nick to receive the 
slightly hollowed end Of Ihe tmtl Cli! the spear) is fastened agaiimt one end with 
•-rum and iwine, while at the oppowte end is a rather large haier shell ornament, 
the making of which occupies considerable time. Two pieces of shell miv rouirhly 
ehippod to shape (fig. 90), and arc then ground fu an oval form on sfones. sand 
and vyatcr assisting the operation fttg. 914)3); next the convex Ollter face is 
polished on a smooth rock (fig. 83), Using finer sand as an abrasive, until it is 
pure white. The shells are then placed, one on each side and with the coneave .,,- 
inside faces Opposed, Ml the i \«rrip ,? m-l of (he thro\vin<>--st iek, and fastened will. 
beeswax, which fills tlm gap between them. A charm is frequently concealed 

- Tiinl:Hr, \. |»... U ( v. S. AllSt, Mi.v., m, tp20, p. PU, fig, fa~ 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

within Hue adhesive between tbe No shells. The Ihitt "grip' 1 portion " rJir 1,lr ' 

slirll nrnanionl is eOAted with WpoiJwt)Od RUlllj »nc3 soim-t inn-- als,. humid with 
giving. The shell nrnamcnl may also be baUTlll ft&tyiffl with wallaby or kaligarofl 
sinews i liu. !».">. 5)7). During boiubal the piptffr-tlmrtVer is used 10 diverl. OT parry 
ihrown spears, the flat of the implement gUidillg the ftpear fg 01M side l>r «▼£* thfl 


-:;. i{]-iii.liii>: li:il..-r slu'll i.i-ti:ihi('!i1 Pol 
sp.'.-ir lluouvi ; \\';ilin!.:iri;i \y\)».\ FUltfllMrs 

Fig. 84. Pelted free, with Bpcni ••i-in-owns 
in <ln- mniungi Walmbami rribe. B;it1|«js1 

This lype -I spr ; ,r-ihn.\vei- (fig. B6) is made by nil lie- PriflW« < 1 hnrlnt1e 
liny tribes; fhOKC iwd at JatlO TaBfc Hill l»> II"' Knkohimnhmui (fi£. 87) are 
more slender than l hose of HlR WMnibarfa Irib,- (fi£ sS .; -. $01116 of ft* b'pe«T 
fhn.urrs of Mi" CoaMaJ n-ihr- near Cairns are simdar (fig; 89 ) , but lark (he baler 
Shell ornnmeni and the gum mid htshin^ at the grip cud : these ppopk, &QVB 
11-' shields. The Princess Vh&tiOtU Rftj pebple depend only (.11 their tlmrwin- 
Sticks ta protect themselves from spears, and 1 1 1 « • baler Shell ornament is s;iid in 
svenl it from slipping 0U< of the hand whefl ihus used. 
The aiva within which these baler shell spear thmwer ornaments arc made is 

Hale and Tindalf— Aborigines of North Queensland 


limited to Cape York. Inn the shell discs Attached from the throwers ;ire articles 
Of trade (o southern inland peoples. By slow degrefcH they iiimv puss sonlh-eMst as 

Ear m Cooper Creels in South Australia, when; they ,-nv highly prized as Meek 
orriMinents to be worn by voting male indiales. The Yendrnwnnla of Cooper 
rreek li.-ive no knowledge of their origin, save that they come from ihe north. 

pig. 85. Throwing stirk in th.- touree oi? roaimfartnre; Walmbufia Mh* % B&tfrciial Head 

s<;-si> Tvpcs rf til rawing Rticka; (8(3, Barungtuan trihr, Pt, Stewart; S7, Kokalamalanui 

Nihu, Jano Tabic il.ll; 88, WahnhaHe trtli^ t Stanly Inland; 89; flilemyu tribe, Hona-mmm, 

Atliert-tm). Pig. '.hi n;;. Stages in making of bafer-shal] antament for throwing sii<k. \Y:iliui>nn:i 

Iribe, Milliters Man, I. Fig, !M. Kllfifl Ij pi us yum foT lifting spettVa ! I Sfl iim- ii;i n tribe, I'!. 

Stewart. Fig. 05. Sinews as drawn out trmn tail Of Agile Walla lev, tail lip , i . I ,,,-i „ VI ; fcii'tw [i 

'i ihe, Pi. Stewart. F4g. 96. Wallaby sinews pT<n*aml for use; ' ftaronguflii tribe, l'i. si, . 
Kit*-. 97- sinews of lauge grey kangaroo: Waltnhsma tribe, Bathiirst He-el. 

Spears with a bamboo shaft and a plain hardwood poinl were iis.-d at the 
ceremonial fi^hl noted above, spears barbed &T tipped with the s|)ines of 
stingrays and Of the stone fish iS</„<tHcrj(i) are the real fighting wea|)ons of the 
WaJmharia. MiK nmiii, and BarUAgJUan. The authors obtained a eonple of dozen 
of these spears, which show some variation in the arrangement of ihe sliiiirniy 
spines. In one Uarnn^iian type a single larj^e spine forms the point of the spear 
i'- 98) j it lias a spine fastened into a piece of palmwood twenty inches in 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

length, which is itself joined to a five-foot hardwood shaft, to the base of which is 
spliced a further two-fool length of light, soft wood, forming the butt. Additions 
of this sort (due either to the weapons having been damaged or to the desire to 
have the head of the spear heavier than the shaft) are quite common, and repre- 
sent a distinct advance upon the single-piece spears met with further south. 
Pig. &9-103 show spears with a cluster of small stingray spines at the apex, lashed 
on in groups with wallaby sinews. In another type (tig. 104-106) small spines 
are tied on to a palmwood head so ns to form barbs; often a dozen or more spines 
are thus arranged. 




"' <*•-'- > ' 


Fig. 08-106, Stingray spear heads from Princess Charlotte Bay (98, Tipped with a single 

spine; Bnrunguan tribe, Pt. Stewart, 99-103, Tipped with a cluster of small spines; Barunguan 
tribe?, Po ri Stcvvart-99-101 ; Mutumui tribe. Cape Melville-1 02- ; and Walml.aria tribe, Si;m!ev 
tsland-103-104— 106, With a series of spines arranged as barbs j BariingtiaD tribe, Pt. Stewart 
-104-lor.-; and Walmbaria tribe, Flinders Island— 106-) . 

Fighting spears are always painted with vwl ochre and white pipe-clay, the 
spines being coloured as well as the head and butt. The Walmbaria people some- 
limes anoint the barbs with a vegetable poison obtained on the mainland, and say 
that a man dies quickly when wounded by them ; a native who gave ns two prized 
spears made at Bathlirsl Head warned us thai the spines were thus poisoned. 
One of the very lew other records of poisoned weapons amongst Australian abnr- 



igines is thjri furnished by (Tiatlield f'V). who, writ ino- of the \atal Downs 
(Qhuunahind) natives, Kt&tipi thai nnbarbrd ppears of these people "are covered 

with the gum of the gidyah-free, which is suppose! |o aggravate the wound." 

*' 'g< !(l ' t08. i"'i»n (i"i') and hi'&d |HiiiiiniM»r woman's fighting spears; BmiHitguHn ti'ilns 

l'i. S|.'\v;ii!. Pig, lll'l 11(1, U;ir(l\v»M)«l lirrnts of small hunting .spears uscl l.v wmnni .-mil 

riiiWnaij Bai'uugttttn tribe, Pt. Ktrwuri. Pig. J 11-112. Three mid Four pronged fishing *,„;,,*; 
1:;inil, ^" ;i " ti'-S^M", I'"- Rtewurt. !?%. ii.".. Four [iroflgt'd fishing snea^ Mniimmi irii.,-.' Barron 
I'oinl . 

Two women sometimes settle a ojiarrcl by actual (ighling. Their weapons 

are either heavy yam slicks (with which seven' sealp wounds are inflicted I 

hardwood javelins made in one pure, and used for women's lights only. When 
Lining the spears the women sland a short distance apai% and jab al each other 
will) He- pomird ends. Two of these women's Ashling javelins are shown (fig;. 
107-108), They are miieh ihieker and heavier than tin- other types, one of thos<« 
illustrated weighing 32 ounces, the other K) ounces. They arc decorated Willi 
bands ol' ivd ochre, which in tin- photograph a re scarcely visible on the red hard 
wood. Almost all oilier 1yp.- s (rf spears are made in from two to four pieces, a 
shaft oil bamboo, softwood, or hardwood, and a hardwood head, which is nsnall.\ 
about one-fourth as long as (lie shaft. Somelimes a spear is made from a single 
piece Of hardwood ten feet or so in length, and a short basal part of bamboo only 
aboiil a P001 in length; in this type the hardwood is shaped so that the head is 
thicker and heavier than the basal half. The KUim chiefly used for ioiniii"' or 
morticing lengths of wood to form the shaft, and for fastening the head to the 

{'■') Ohatficld, in urn-. The Australian Km-*, ii. ism;, j>, 17:;. 


Records of the S.A. Musrtm 

shaft is flu* exudate Of Eb« biooflWOOd ( Eucuhjptus), which the Walmbaria 

peopbs Gall r otava'; it is obtained from the mainland, the main supply (fig; 94) 
being Secured ihrough trade trow starke River, where the fcwfc is common, The 
jouif is bound with twine or sinews, and is smoothed with a flal piece of wood 
fijx. 114-121), shaped Eor the purpose aiid hatted with gum. A perfectly Pa- 

[Shed SpliCG exhibits a shellacdike glO&H erf glassy smoothness. During the A \ork 

a man tli-xi.-iT.usly rotates ihr spear with one hand, at ihe same time applying the 

Fig, 11.4 121. spriir sn-MiotliiTN ; flie e x i i i fl \ 1 1 1 1 sbtfwti in ii^ r . 120 is alati n» gvaw ili-i, I1 - 1 
-I m.i iL-n, BonmguaM tribe, Pi Stewart; U5-0J.5, Walmbafcia tribe, PHnclt&rfl Inland; IWi il^ 

ttUil LSI, Mutuniiii <iilu\ BfllWW Print, ami I 1 S only. < 'aj- M-i,',H,. ; , 

Splice in the Ua1 rtffbd smoother (which is held in the Other hand) will) consider- 
able tore,., -ashmaUy ;i hand is drawn across the 1'orchead to collect sweat and 

■■r. use. which is applied to ihe splice, ajid assists in obtaining the desired resuil. 
One of llie spear-smnnthers illusl rated has a small spike at our end; to Ihis pro 
jectiou Die iiH-.sni- tooth o !' a wallaby is fixed, tO be lifted as ;i graver. KMftfper, or 
cutter (fig; 120). Two of llie s).i.Ma)i.-rs>hown (lie-. US ami 121) differ in having 
ihe end Opposite tie- gummed portion not thin-edged or pointed, but thick and 

plentifully smeared with £uim, The end P"E ftiia type is used to press melted gum 
into or against a splier. 

A form pi scraper or chisel commonly used in the manufacture of spears and 
throwing! M'ks by Ihe liarunguan natives, and less commonly by the Walmbana, 

Hale and Tindale- Aborigines of North Queensland 


consists simply of one of the lower jaws of aw agilu wallaby (fig. 122423). From 
time to time the tooth is broken across between the teeth of the operator, so thai 
it presents <\ Fresh cutting edge of enamel. 

I'i.l:. L22— 123. Agile \\ ;iil,ih,\ j;iw .-is graver; Baruaguaji tribe, I'l. sicw.-irt. 
bMg. iiM-li'7. Gouges r.'ishidiicd from teg bones of bivds; Bariuiguan tribe, I't. Stewart. 
Pig. 128. hiipiem.'iii ..|- liumau front! asocl for at ripping Pmidmun fibre j Wubnbaria tribe, 

lint hurst I|.;i.|. 

Botb for trade purposes and for eonvenienl use ^nn is often melted into 
(hick "pancakes" around a short piece of wood. Leaving one half of the latter 
projecting ;is a handle ( fig. 94). 

Wood. -li spear-heada are sometimes anointed with an oily fcubatanee, which 
is obtained by beating a kind of eandlenul (Almntes molUMwm) I, called 'tor- 
torwul* by the Walmbaria, which drifts into the eoasi from the north or north- 


RbCORDS OF the S.A. Museum 

oast ; this fluid 'Mixes" the pigment* willi -which tile speary are Ornamented, The 
men's hunting spears, with hardwood head, usually have a barb al the tip, formed 
by [«tyiDg a slim pirn- of wallabydjone, wood, or (in roeent limesi iron, pointed 
at both cuds, airainsl Ihe point of Ihe spear, so that one mid of the former i'ornis 
the actual tip and the other the barb (fig. 12!)) : this is bound and smoothed, a> 
are splices. Then- is no donbt thai iron lias been used to sonic extent by tic 
Walmbaria natives lor more than a century. Kinjr ( ln ). after describing the 
wreck of the Wretkrk'k OH Stanley Island, says: "The natives appeared to have 
taken notice of the iron-work, for some spike nails were round about their fire 
places. " 

Pig. !_!'. Tip ;m<[ barb <>f" hunting afieav; WrilniUnia kril)l», Flinders Inland. 

Pishing spears are made in 1he same way as the others, bul have three or 
four hardwood prongs, each 1'rom 01TG Toot six inches to two feet in len-lli; lie- 
tips of thesr art' usually barbed, as described, hut sometimes terminate in plain 
points (fig, 111-11:; i. Miniature spears of tin's sorl are made for the children. 
who, however, always throw them by hand: as a rule adults use the ihrcwinir 
slick with fishing spears, but sometimes throw them without. Numbers of small. 
spears, with a slender hardwood shaft and a plain hardwood head, arc also made 
(fjg. 109,110) : these are about six feel in length, and have the end of tin- hull 
hollowed to fit the peg ol' the wommera. These Utile weapons are eommnnly used 
by women and children to obtain crabs and small fishes in shallow water, and arc 
llien utilized without the throwin^-stick. Harpoon shafts for dugQng and turtle 
are similar to some of the North Australian types drserii*>tl by Hoih and others. 
and more reeenlly by one of the winters {%i) ; tin- detachable head here dins 
trated (I'm. 78.) is from Barrow Point, and was secured at hMindcrs Island; it is 
thirteen inches in length, and is made of heavy hardwood, ami has a wooden peg 
lashed to the tip, ami coated with gum, to form a barb. A collar of string and 
gUflfl about two inches from the base forms a plug, which (lis tin." hollow end of the 
heavy shall. Roth I l2 ) slates thai this collar is absent on harpoons from Min- 
ders Island examined by him. 

i' 1 :, Khig t Sm-vi-N (."(mats Aunt., i, 1827, p. 232. 
(11) Tin,l;il.\ LY« . S. A list. Mns., iii, l!r_2r>, pi. vii. fig, 25t-2f>, 
(12] Both, North QlcL Bthndgraptay, ei, L903, p, 32, 



TJm highly decorative shields camitunily used in the Cairns district, and 

some of whirl! flre fiVF Feel in length (fig; l.'IO). are known to 1 1n- Wahnbnria 

natives by repute, bul aru neve- employ*^ as all Hpear-wa^Jing is -lour h> tyeaiw 

Of the speHr-throwrr 



The Kokolamalaina and li;irnn<jiian tribes, and some of the AValmbarm 
people, kill three species of wallabies with their spears; ihe mosl common is the 
agile wallaby [.Mnrrn,nis ui,i!\<) A blaek HpOCies of IqtfigaroO occurs al lialhnrst 
Head -'Mid in ihe vieinM\. l-iil is apparently ver\ sh.\ . The large red kangaroo 

1ml;. WO. Dwor&twl shii-M : Hiln»i:n: ivUu-, Mmw-uumu, Aiiirriun TahUitautl. 

I \tuttrojMa mtilopmicS) is also sometimes seen in ( he- coastal districts of Prim-ess 
Charlotte Bay, The insular Walmbarin. people, who belong to a kangaroo tofrm. 
refrain ftcuu killing and oatfllg tllO r<><\ kangaroo, even on the occasions of their 
Visits to Ihe mainland, ami this prohihiiion will also prevent tlmm from eatinn 
the bail failed wallaby. \o amount of persuasion wonhl tempi Wondal, a Stanley 
Island native, to eat a portion of one of the hitter animals, although he had had 
little Food for two days. 

The mainland Walmbaria showed great aversion to bunting or molesting the 
native companion. When foraeino- For food to miinnenl dwindling stores iliey 
persistrd i,, i.-iiuiiiiiiiir in camp, aflrr enlist in-- the aid of Kokolamalaina men ol' 
olher toiems to assist one of ihe authors in a hunt for them. In like manner il 
Was difficult to persuade Ambarabara | Alutumni tribe) to accompany 1 he wrilers 
wh.-n shooting big k;m<raroos f although he eagerly assisted in stalking cock VTal- 

108 Records of the S.A. Mi\ski \i 

labies. These inhibitions ;ir- CJailSCtl by flv" desire not In molest the particular 
toteio animals with which (he individual claims relationship. The same rclatioii- 
ship between the tptemic objeo! aiul the tribesmen exists in all tin* tribes dmter 


Eggs of the gcmb-turkey (Ttii<</<t/ht hiiimmi) and other large birds are col- 

leeted and eaten, and the birds themselves aiv snared of speared. Goannas 
( } r ,!niiiHs\ are 1 1 r >t uncommon on I he mainland and iwo HpeeiCS, \'<tr<inv.s dQUhlii 
and T. /,,o/r/'//^s "rWM/rs. oernr on the blinders Islands; these and EcogS (which 
are ever abundant on the mainland Atxtitlg the \vH season) are freely naed as 
food, and pictures of the batraehian-. and reptiles are not uncommon in rock 
slmlters. As is td be expeeled in He' ebNC Of coaslal natives, much I'ood is 
Obtained I'rnm the sea. and i'or seeiifin- most ol' ihe larger marine creatures the 

Kpear serves well. 

The natives throw their spears with gi?Ga1 acenraey : whether hy hand alone 
or with the aid ol* a spear-thrower, although Ihe weapon is, of course, projected 
wiih mneh greater bred wilh the last-named. Olie day we watched a man, with 
a rlsuiim' spear in eaeh hand, walking along a low clitV overlooking the sea. A 
miillel Mashed otfl from tinder the roeky ledge, arid in a wink the man had thrown 
his two Spears, USing each hand in turn; both spears 1rausli\ed ihe tish. When 
conditions are favourable y num. working 113 shallow water with a single spear. 
Wilt "i an hour or less, eapture as many fish I small sharks, inuHeli ' lll( ^ *<> W I ;,s 
lie can carry. 

.Inst inside the eashrn end of Princess Charlotte liay is a largp rock, jutting 
out into deep water. It is hollowed beneath, and the Walmbaria men. spear in 
hand, dive down and translix rook-GOtl, proper, and other fish sheltering in this 
iinder-water cavern. 

Thfi FliltderS Island natives evince e-reat fear of the sloiie-fishes (gijtotmHja 
hnrrifla and S* rrmtrthsa) , and are well aware of the sometimes fatal results 
mM-minir from the po'iMiii.-.l wonnds tfCCaKlOlied by treading on the fish as they 
lie part 1\ buried in soft mini; 1 he severe and prolonged effects of Synanceja 
venom have been reeonled reeenlly (* 3 ). AVhen wading in shallow water both 
men and women bread carefully, watching for siglia of this dreaded tish, if pofi 
silil. . they I ravel in single tile, each slopping into the footmarks of the leader. 
When a stone lish is discovered it is invariably speared, and if the lislmrs are 
near eamp it is carried there on t lie points of a spear to be exhibited, and, as men 
tinned above, the spines may be used to tip spears. 

Crocodiles are not abundant at the blinders Islands, although we saw tw 

i LH) Duliig and Jones, Mem. Qld. M'is., ix, W^, |>|>. lis |.'.n ; A.U3t. Jouni. I0xp. Uiol. anfl 

Me.l-s.-i., v, L928, p. 17::, ate, 

Hale and Tindale— Aborigines of North Queensland 


the mangrove swamps there. In the Stewart River, however, the reptiles are 
fairly common, and the Bamnguan natives kill them at every opportunity. If 
they manage to "corner'' a Crocodile in some narrow reach or backwater, they 
first prod out its eyes with their spears, with the object of placing it at the 
greatesl disadvantage before the cotip -de-grace is administered. 

Fig. 131. Child digging out Swift (.Yybs ;.l Flinders Island, 

Pishing in deep water is usually carried out by hook and line, although the 
pearl-shell hook, and other hooks of native manufacture, are things of the past 
OWilig lo the introduction of European fish-hooks by trepangers. Swift-crabs 
(Oci//)()(/r eemtopJlthalma) and hermit-crabs are commonly used as bait. Tie- 
first -named move so quickly that, to obtain a supply, the natives usually dig them 
on! from their burrows in the sand (fig. 131). The hermit-crabs are easily 
obtained, for on Flinders Islands we noticed that, both during the day and at 
night, these crustaceans collected themselves together into heaps at low tide, a 
single heap sometimes consisting of two hundred or more individuals; a some- 
what similar habit of hermit-crabs, when sheltering from the sun, has been noticed 
in Roebuck Bay, Western Australia ( 14 ), and in Africa ( 13 ). The hermit-crabs 

(11) Knur T);ilil, " In Savage Ausl ralia, " IDlMi, p, 269. 

(10) Scliniilt, Bull. Amor. Mus. Nat. Hist., liii, 1928, pp, 54-55, pi. IX, ng. 1. 


Records of the S.A. Museim 

are prepftffed by daftly breaking the protective molluse shell with stoxw^ ft 
StMiilcx and Flinders Lsltfnda the&e broke* shell* oyAx* '" eonniderable imibliett 
in places where bail is obtained flmfc Apart from kowietiuiea collecting; running 
crate and hermit orabs for bait, (Shildfoij "bitoi" small murine animals, whmh 

mr apparently not Utilized either aS food <>r bait, and &1 lovt tide sometimes nn.nsr 

thenttelf by throwing smal] «tie&s and pebbles at tin? mud skippers iKucb<>r<s(<>- 
,>i<,. kalolo) nesting on the mfWgrove coots, rarely foiling to knofefc facia over. 
They obtai? t hf little mpte-crab I ffippo advcttfltr) and tin- smaller geadioe (J?:rw- 
o/otmi orwitafiti), both of wbieh ftte eommori near Mue Flinders Islands, by scratch 
ing rapidly in the sand ai the waters edge; to Fact, tbay early abo^ 1 a knowled-v 
nftlir babitfttitaU animal Life bl their tribul itreaj whether ot not it be o$ ecftHjmiil 
Uuporl i(> I hem, 

Pin. 182; Brush KalJ trap ft •' <tr««& at Bathurot LteHfi. 

Several Old men at B&UiarsI Head told ns that "a lone; lime agO H whenever 
m surkinti- listi (Reniora) was scoured it was uaed to atfriat in tipeariAg turtle. 

Tlmy Stated that a Line was fastened around tlie eaudal pedunele in sueh a way 
that the tish Wafi &01 injured; a turtle baking at the surfaee trf the sea was 
,.;,,, tiously approaehed, and the remorn was rarelully thrown in the dim-tim, o* 
l| M , rhrhmian. to whirh il attaehed itsrlT, The natives wore then able tO eare- 
f nl I \ haul the rival lire to within speariii"; distance. 

We saw an old feiiee fish-trap a1 Walaeimini, on lmthurst Head. This was 
built across «> small mangrove creek, so Unit (islms pacing over it at high tide 
Were eailgfct behind W as the water ran out. It was made of brush, and had been 

about twenty-five feel in length (fig. 132). 

Halk and Tindale— Aborigines of North Queensland ill 

Vegetable poisons, as has been described by Roth and others, are sometimes 
used to stupefy fishes in large rock-pools, etc. Both the Walmbaria and Barun- 
n" ;l " natives use bag-like, shallow fishing nets, which are fastened to oval frames, 
Formed by lashing together two or three pieces of cane or saplings. These nets 
are made of wattle-bark fibre, or of Livistona fibre twine, find various meshes are 
employed in different nets. They are operated in the sea, the fishermen wading 
out until they are waist deep. Often two or more such nets are used at once, and 
many person* participate. Each net is grasped by two men (one at each side 
of the frame-}, who scoop it forwards through the water just below the surface, 
and raise ii a1 arm's length at frequent intervals for examination. Meanwhile a 
wide semicircle of men splash the water in front of the operators, and so scare 
lish towards them (fig 133-134). Surprisingly large fish (mullet, snapper, and 
so on, three or four pounds in weight), are captured bv this method. 

Fig. m-134. Pish nets in use at Flinders Island. 

The large Crustacea— the fresh-water crayfish, the mangrove crab {Scylhi), 
the blue era!) (PortUTMs), the rock lobster (Paini/inis), etc.— are collected by 
I lie women, although the men sometimes spear the last-named. Crustaceans are 
often placed intact on hot coals to roast, but sometimes the Walmbaria women, 
having obtained a large Svylla, take off the carapace, remove all the flesh from 
the rest of the body and legs, and place it in the "shell," which is then put on 
the hre and the meat cooked therein. The Flinders Island people designate the 
mangrove era!) (their main edible crab), 'apoyi,' and most of the other smaller 
crabs are either 'apoyi-indilka ' (medium-sized crabs, such as ThaJamita), or 
'apoyi-anga' (very little, or baby, crabs). Nevertheless, some of the small crabs, 
either because of some noticeable peculiarity, of because of their plentitude or 
economic importance (for instance, those used as bait), have special names. 

112 Records of the S.A. Museum 

The Walmbaria and partinguan native apparently always coaal thei* fish, 
dugong, and turtle, if two or three meii are hunting some distance from a ciamrp 
they cdph their tish before returning with theih. Small sharks are relished, and 
their Livers in particular are considered 9 screal deLipacy-; ftese fish pre ptyeetf 

on the embers for a IV w mjnutcs, they arc then taken out, opened with a finger, 
ami the livers Reacted, after which the masting is completed, ir the poking ia 

not undertaken in oamp, the removed livers are can-full y wrapped in uTass or 
barb for transports 

Oysters nre GOllected mainly by the women, bill nien also assist ihem DGgfl 
sionally. (Oysters are smashed b.Y liammerimr with a stone, and Ihe animal are 
picked oid from ihe broken shell ;ind are boiled. This method of proparnt ion 
did not commend ItHelf to ns durin<i the lime we were dependent on native food, 
for u<> found llial the cooked molluscs were plentifully mixed with splinters of 

A Large land shell (Tlnrsihs bipartite is found in abundance after the first 
raiir> <>\' the "wer' season, find t his also is boiled. Smaller molluses are some- 
limes collected in the man-neve swamps. ,uid are mixed with other ''dishes." such 
as those of careen aids, described below. 

As usual, the irrubs of lar^c moths and beetles, the larva** of bees, and various 
other insecls are eaten. The Mutumni and Walmbnria Iribes prepare a ennene- 

iin,i from the aver-abundanl green am {Qecophila $m<wa0in<t)* both op fltp 
Minders Islands and on the mainland. The women COlteet j*rea1 u'tantities of 
1hese ants from their nesls in the irees into bnrk dishes; on reaching camp they 
are lipped into baler-shells or other recepi acles, and mashed. Plenty of water is 
then added to the crushed mass; this water is drunk with relish, and 1 1n* mashed 
ants are then eaten. 

01 the Princess CharlQttG May natives, at least those of the Ibmuuruan tribe 
employ a length of lawyer cane (('alumna) for securing honey. One etui of a 
long cairn is frayed till it forms a brush (fig, 78-79) J the brush-liko end is in- 
serted into the Opening in a tree leading to a bees' nest, ami is Iwisled about until 
a mass of honey and comb is collected on it. The I mru nutans stated thai sonm 
n!' ihr hers (namely, the introduced species ) are "plenty hot fellow. n 

Roth ( 1(i ) has published a long list of the vegetables and plants eaten "Ivy the 
natives of Northern Queensland. The tribes encountered by us made use of any 
plaid, root, fruit, or planl-exudnt ion which their districts aiford. and which by 
any stretch of imagination can be termed edible, especially when they are Lacking 
meat or fish. Many of the small fruits, such as that of Iinch<ntatiia, are eaten raw . 
without" any preparal ion. Several kinds of edible fruits drift into Prim-ess (Tiar- 

(i«) Rath, North Qld. Ethnography, Hi. 1901, pp, &-Uj. 

Hale and Tindai ..e— Aborigines of North Queensland 113 

jotte Bay during that part of the year when a current sets into the coast, and ;nv 
tricked up tm the shores. Bone spatulae (fig, 124*127) anil small pieces of bonfe 

(fig, 1'28) are used in the preparation mid eating Of some vegetable foods. 

The yam | Diosmrra saiint) is, of course, mneh unli/ed (hiring- 1he wet 
season. The roots are plentiful on parts of Flinders and Stanley Islands, where 
the women dig them out with yam-sticks (fig, 77). Ai phices on the rocky dopes 
of Flinders Island the tubers are abundant, and are found in such places as raj- 
as 1,000 feet above seadevel; 1o Secitre them (he natives din- down between rork 
ciwiecs filled with earth, and often overlurn lare-e stones in their efforts to obtain 
the delicaey. Some of 1 he holes excavaled in tliesr ereviees whv only nine in.-lms 

Pig, \:\~>. Mangrove fruits. 
I'' 130. PanftnilM f'ruils prep.-uvd fyr eating. 

Or a foot in diameter, but were ipiite five feel in depth. Where the yam is 
abundant hundreds of these deep holes are evident in a comparatively small are;i. 
Women on Flinders Island claim that they always throw back into the hole a 
portion of the yam vine after removing the tuber, with the injunction to go and 
make more yams; we saw no evidence of this praet ice when examining the holes 
The Walmbaria people irrale 1 he yam lubers against a stone, catching Uie 
rcsiillaiit pulp in a baler-shell ; this is washed in several ehanijvs of water, and 
boiled to form a sorf of gruel or sa^o-like mass, which is mneh relished, 


Records of the S.A. Musi tm 

The rhizoim's of a BQ||p] speei&s pi lily grfywitig in the shallow wfttetf of 
hu>oons a re dCdleetad OH the mainland by women, who use 9 short hardwood slick, 
like a miniature yam-stick, to lever them out of the mini. 

During lean period* the fruits of the sercw-piue {Pmid.tmm) aud of WO 

spebiea of mangroves are Leathered. The pandanus fruits are thrown ou to a fire 
until charred, after which one mid of the husk is cut off i [fife, 136) With a sharp 
edged stone or some other implement. The liny elou-iale roasted u ttUt& n W 
Dh-u picked out with a Ion- splinter ill-. «7) l)f bone or wood; when this food 
alone is available miidi time is occupied in 1hus tediously nbtainine; enotmh nutri- 
ment to satisfy the appetite. 

p|g ; l:;7, ]',,,, ,, ■ ili, iM.-istrrl •♦tttttt* 1 frftttl |>n-p;o-cel PmidmiW I'miis. 

\\Y witnessed the preparation <>f the fruit of one of the aforementioned man 
grOV<*«, and were told thai a more spherical fruil of a second species was also 
used. The fruits (%, 138] are collected a1 low tide, for the trees apparency 
un.w low;, nh the middle of tb* stamps. When camp is reaelmd a small, hot lire 
is made, and for thirty or forty minutes stones are heated therein. The lire is 
iheu raked cut, aud the mangrove fruil s are thrown in amon<rsi the hot Mom-.. 
which are distributed evenly amon-si them with ;i stick. The heap is then 
,,,, rm | w ith a pmrr of paperd..ark. and this in turn is covered with a layer «»f 
sand an inch or so in depth. The mass is left undisturbed for about an hour, 
rfter which the CCryering is taken off, and the rotated fruits (now br<.wnisli-i:r.\\ 
instead of ureen'i are removed. When ihey are cool enough to handle, the tops 
;jr e pnlled olTand thrown away, after whmli the fruits are picked W* <>im or two at 
a time, pounded betwemi two stones, and thrown into a baler-shell. They are next 
tipped into an open-work basket and taken to the beach, Where a large container 

Hale and Iindai.i: Aborigines ok North QUEENSLAND 115 

is filial wiih sea-watar. With tin- baskel standing in \\w salt water in this dish, (he 

\ vigoimtsly kneels Ihr mislinl mass; the waler hrromes yrllow and Ih.-n 
milky as tin- floury roulents of the fruits pass thmujrh Urn open nmslms of H,r 
basket. After fifteen minutes or so of knradin-, the husks aiv throw out of ihe 
h;iske|. and ihe lloury s.-dimout in the dish is allowed „, s ,.filr. a rising smim ruj 
Mi- kartfitt being skiummd off ftmanwhik The water is then carefully poured 
Off. and the srdiment similarly washed j n a furtlmr r!i;,„n r p f M , MVH , (T A ,-,,.,. 
iho s,ro„d -pouring off" the thin, mushy s.-din.eut is tipped info a closel v-wovm, 
dilly h;,- w)u,l, is squeezed k, gel rid Of ex0*M W&tyr, and finally undergoes t vi 

washing in fresh water. with mud, knnidin- between each. This mangrove fruit 

iHfish n.srml.Jrs paper-pulp of a .irtvyish colour, hut is eaten with rvident cujov- 
m-mt when nihrr food is searce. 


I'ii:. Ift& Digging n>r j'r .-sli n,l, 

g? .?' "W"* W main vrator nut* the rtiargin of the si-uj ami fie. 139, teetljuz bliu 

•HSttpin^ I':. B*ei!V*tioils liunn.^Lwiu tribe, Pt HtOWfll't. 

^™sfj uairr Ik noi avbtltfble in i ui I i mil r« I quantities in the distriets occupied 
by llm W.dmharia and Kokoh.malama trihes, pari icukirly during the dry season. 
In lh" ml srasou small creeks are filfcel intermit lent \y on the mainland, and al 
o1,,l ' r ,,,,H,S vcirions small soaks and wells provide l\ Kltfiply, ;dthou-h rhe old mm 
sometimes have to "sing" lor rain or enlist the aid of rain-mak-rs (% 55-36).. 
The dry ;m.l kirrmi Klmdms Islands haw no permanent si reamlets— i,, f ; ,H. 
water draining into anj of the small courses runs nu\y lor an hour or two after 
rain— hut feVBltt] inconspicuous soaks provide ualrr. tfbJfe Ms mentioned in the 

116 Records of the S.A. Museum 

introduction to this paper) H.M.S. Dart visited Flinders Island in 1899 and 
cleared out a well, which furnishes murky but palatable water, which is used by 
the natives and by the trepangers. 

The Barunguan people have the Stewart River as a source of water supply. 
At the mouth the water is salt or brackish at low tide, but at high tide the surface- 
water is usually somewhat fresher. 

On several occasions we noticed natives digging holes in the sand only a few 
yards from the margin of the sea at Stewart River (fig. 138-139). These holes 
rapidly fill with water, and the digger dips a finger in the fluid, and tastes it to 
ascertain whether it is fresh or brackish ; if it proves too salt he tries other places. 
Tolerably sweet water is obtained in this way when the river water is quite unfit 

for drinking. 

The Walmbaria people stated that at one time they were in the habit of 
eating human flesh. When food became very scarce at the end of the dry season, 
and especially when dugong hunting had long proved ineffective owing to rough 
weather, meat hunger led them to kill adults. Persons killed in quarrels were 
sometimes disposed of in the same manner; newly-born children were eaten, 
especially if a second appeared before the first was weaned. In such cases the 
child would be struck on the nape of the neck with a yam-stick, or its mouth would 
be filled with beach sand. 



By Herbert M. Hale (Director) and Norman B. Tindale, B.Sc, 




Wooden canoes of two types were seen in the Princess Charlotte Bay district, and as they 
both belong to forms similar to those described by Roth ( 17 ) our comments are brief. 
At Flinders Island and Bathurst Head the type in favour (fig. 146-148) has a single 
outrigger ('appa') placed on the right (starboard) side of the hull and supported by six 
pairs of horizontal arms ('aipar') lashed to pairs of crossed sticks, usually of mangrove 
wood, driven obliquely into the outrigger log (fig. 149). The outrigger booms are passed 
through rectangular holes cut in side boards, which are lashed to the sides of the canoe 
after the spaces between them and the hull have been packed with paper bark pads. 



By HERBERT M. HALF (Dirkctor) and NORMAN B. T1NDALK, B.Sc, 



Will. C.MMOl'S 

XIX. Trade Routes 

XX. C-ilnps .-Ml. I KhHlri, 

XXF. Cmiii]. l.Ttrnsils 

XXII. Clotliin^' ;itul Orn.-mn'ti! 

xxiii. Rock-paint Inga 

XXIV. Mestmge Sticks 

XX \'. Language . . 

XXVI. ('ump.-iijit ive \'{)c;il)iil:iricH of Kour Tribes 

X.\'\'ll. Sii|tj»!ciiii'!i1 :i ]-y Xutrs 



1 17 

I, '" 



Wooden canoes of two types were seen in tile Princess Charlotte Bay district, and 
;is they botli belong to forms similar to those described by Roth ( 17 ) our comments 
are brief. 

At Flinders Islam] and I >ni hurst Head the type id favour (fig. 146-148) has 
a single outrigger ('appa') placed on the Fight (starboard) side of the hull and 
supported by sis pairs of horizontal arms ('aipar*) lashed to pairs of crossed 
slicks, usually of mangrove wood, driven obliquely into the outrigger Log (fig, 
L49). The outrigger booms are passed through rectangular holes cut in side 
boards, which are lashed to the sides of the canoe after the spaces between them 
and the hull have been packed with paper bark pads, 

A canoe of this type is made from a tree felled in one of the rain forest areas 
near the months of the rivers entering Princess Charlotte Bay. It is roughly 
(rimmed on Ihe spot with an a\<- ami then carried to the nearest water, whence 
it is floated to the he.ieh for Mual dressing, the latter taking several weeks. 
Formerly the axe used was of stone, as in the specimen shown (fig, 168) from 
the country further SOtlth, Both at Flinders Island and at Stewart River metal 
equivalents have heen in use for at least two generations. Kokolamalama people 
make canoes ('tuppa!') of lids character, and trade them to the Mutumui in 

(it) Roth, Ree, A.i»t. Mus., viii, lino, pp. iiM4, fig. 11-13. 

1 18 

Records of the S.A. Museum 

return for shell ornaments ranir, omarero') and spears (*atka, awita*)- The 
Muiumui also give them bloodwood gum ('otara') and ochre colours, obtained by 
ti*ade from people further to the south. 





Pig, 140-142. Rows ami (fig, 14;'.) stem oi single outrigger eanoes; Wnlmh.-ivin. Tribe, 
Flinders Island. Fig* 144, Bow and (%, L45) stem of (UmlilG outrigger canoes] Barungitan 

'I'ri he, sic w.-ni Bivev. 

The Walmbaria also tratle with the Kokolamalama lor canoes, offering spears 
tipped with stingray npines and with metal obtained from a wreck on Stanley 
Fsland. They call the canoes 'akaak'. Several types of prow ('alpayi') (fig. 
I K) 142) are recognised, and are specially characteristic of different canoe 
makers. Stem pieces ('turiene'), in the form of a projecting Hat t^cmuter (fig. 
143) are a consistent feature. Propulsion is by menus of paddles C wiriapu' ) 
and long poles. The paddles are some Tour feel long, with the flat extremity 
abruptly differentiated from the handle, not tapered and merging 1 into it, as is 
the ease with some from the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

An example frf the 'akaato 1 canoe I'rom Flinders [gland (the one shown on 
fig 4 148) is in the South Australian Mnsenm collection. Us overall length is 16 

feel (I inches and it has a beam of 16 inches. The Olltrigger is 12 feet long and 

6 inches in greatesl diameter. Ii is lashed at a distance of 2 feet tram the hull 
of the eanoe. It is made from a special type of light driff-wood which floats 
ashore along the coast, and is much SOUghl after because of its special characters. 
Canoes of this type were used by Muiumui ami Walmbaria natives in travel- 
ling as far soulh as Cape Flattery (to Cooktown in modern times), and occasion- 
ally t<> Stewart River. 

Hai.k and TiNUALi-: Aborigines of North Queensland 119 




j»*Ig. 146 1 IS- Sjn^lr dill liLi^ri' t';iii(ics nl' \V;i I m I \:\ riji Tiil'<\ FlimliMK InImimI; 146', r;nnn's 
-Ir.-iwn up mi the I'c-m-Ii -it Ap.i; 147, poltllg P GqjltM! in fcllC shtill.m \\:iI,m of < hvn I 'li.-i im«'l, 

Wjlpiautfl Piiinl in battleground; 14$, pattdtfiig a e&uoe, Owen ciiunnH, T?uitini e«orp in Icit 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fig- 149. .Method of mounting outrigger (lashings and hark pads omitted); Walmbaria 
Tribe, Flinders Island. 

The Barunguan peopld use a double outrigger canoe called 'tanju' (fig. 
150-151). This is hollowed out from a tree in the riverine jungle of the Stewart 
or Rocky Rivers in the same manner as is the single outrigger further south. The 
hows are nol sharp, as in the Flinders Island canoes, being well rounded, with a 
projecting lip-like prow (fig. 144 and 150). The stern is usually truncated (fig. 
145) ; occasionally it may have the general form of the Miiriene' of the 'tUppal' 

Fij>\ IfiO. Double outrigger canoe; Barunguan Tribe, Stewart River. 

ll.\u-. and Tindalk Aborigines of North Queensland 


The two outriggers of the l tanju ? canoe are supported by a paJr of loirtg, 
flexible booynft. It will be noticed (fig, 150) thai these hoomtf:are lashed directly 
to the outrigger poleti Wid to the giitiWfltefl, one beiiag nearly amidships and the 
other wear the stern. The outriggers do not rea#h Forward to the lino of the bows, 
,-is is iisu.'illy the case hi the 'tuppal' caiioe, and, contrary to Roth's experience, 
t hf examples witnessed all had the booms lashed to the top and not piereing the 

hull Of the vessel, the Lashingis themselves bettlg passed through one or more small 

holes in the gunwale (fig. 1S1 ) . 

Pjg« i:»l. PJalihg ilonMr 1'iilii-iiiT i-:ohm will) ;i ShOll .li.-li. 1 l:i i uiiu'ii.'i n Ttibo, Stewart KiVfe 

Canoes of the double outrigger type are common to the Barungtian people 

and lie 1 nativrs near Cape Direction. They are not made by natives south of 
Iviiiinin^ Creek, 

The equipment of a liarun^uan Manju' ineludes two ,.r more paddles, a 
baler I usually a Mtfo shell with the inner shell whorls removed, fig. 15] and 177'. 
a dugQUg harpCKfl] and rope, a larire stone tied to a rope to serve as anchor, 
pads of papcrbark lo act as cushions for I he paddlers, find various fishing lines, 
bait, and Other incidental objects. 

We disagree with Roth's theory that tire Single outrigger canoe of Flinders 
Island is a local modilical ion of the double ftutrigger, in which the outriggers of 
one side have been suppressed, and the side boards and an extra number of btiOItlti 
added in order lo increase stability. The local evideuee is rather more in favour 
6f the idea 1 licit they are l»e>th due to external cultural influences, different in lime, 
and that the double outrigger canoe is likely Jo be a later ae<pi isit ion than tin* 
single oiitrifftfer vessel. 

Records of the s.a. Museum 


The Flinders Island natives trade wiili 1 li<« mainland, obtaining heavy 
wooden spears and canoes in exchange for stingray-barb spears, throwing sticks, 
find woven bags. Tin- canoes are obtained from the Kokolamalama people in the 

south-western CSOrabB of Prim-ess ('harlotfe 1 >m \ , where suitable big Koi'tWOGd trees 

grow. Hardwood spear-thrpwers and their bsder sliqll ornaments are made ftl 
Flinders island ami on I wm hurst Head for trade hn people further sooth and east, 
as nieniioucd o3i p. 101. Ked ochre and bloochvood gum are produced in lie 1 
Starke River district, and find their way north either by caaioe or by £» Overland 
route which crosses from Barrow Point to Mack Kiver, and thence along the tioaai 

tO Bathurst Head. Pipe-day is found on the smith side of Flinders Island, and 
is carried to (he mainland. The natives nl* flic Wahnibaria ;m<l Miitumui tribes 
arft of a wanderhig dispOsitioni and partita nifty i ravel in single niitt'iggered 
canoes as far South afc Cookiown. They do noi appear to Lio further north than 
Dim Reef (Yangahuini) or Clack Island, and seldom venture further west (Jean 
Saltwater Creek. The Bartiuguan people, who wander north ms far ns VVej 

mouth Bay, use the smaller donhle-oiitriirirer canoes; they are less uresmnr 
sudors, possibly because there are few ishmds (except N'i^'ht Island ) of any afee 
■\\hieh I hey ;nv afolc to \ ISlt. 

Natives who were eilgftfi ing in a tradinLt venture left Flinders Island al day- 
break when the sea was calm, secured spears on the mainland by trading FrOUl 
Kokolamalama men, and returned al dnsk when the wind had dropped. Favour- 
able tight winds are mae.ieall\ induced hy lhe old men. who light a speeial smoke 
(ire and chant over it a phrase involving the use of the word "wind". A success- 
ful trading visit to Tartali is earrii'd mil with a certain degree of Formality ; OH 
tin; morning decided LlpOfl For t lie voyage no mention fc made of 1 lie journey until 
Khl ',-iiioe and its occupants have arrived QppoHlte a place called TUpaugU, where 
there is a roiigh cylindrical stone about eitrhteen inches in height standing upright 

amongst the sandstone boulders on the point (p, 93 ami fig, 63 >. This way greeted 

in tin' past by a legendary old man to mark the place from which canoes should 
leave tor the mainland. One of the men will say. "There is 00 v\ind. let us go 
to Tai-tali"; or if the wind springs up he will say: u Le1 us go back to Apa". 

[laving decide*] to proceed with tbejoxirney the ban of silence is lifted ami plans 

may be discussed in detail as the natives paddle across from Tilpaima 1o lie- east 

eoasl of W'akayi. Thej then pcfle their eaiioea in the shallow rock-strewn water 

in tie- lee of that island until opposite Kdaimbar. Here they resume paddlum, 
attempting i" Strike the mainland at Worei, but sometimes tlmy ;iiv earried inlo 
Wakarma by the powerful! tidal eurrent which races through the passage. The 

Hale and Tin-dale AnoKir.ixKs 01? North Queensland 123 

Kokolamalama people freujient ' >' caflLp OU the second ba\ on the west side of liath- 
ursl Head, where there is a permanent fresh-water Well and much shi-IJ-iish food 
lo few* obtained on llii' meks. The yoy a <:vi\s pole alon^ the shore. stopping fre<piently 

to gather oysteca tod to spear iish in the fallow waters of Walaeiniini Bay, Oil 

arriving nBai? a camp of the Kokolamalama people tlmy Light a signal smoke, ami 

moving forward still closer, sit down, fully armiKl, for ^rJheps lialf an hour. An 

individual of the mainlaml tribe, followed and supported hy a ".'roup of armed 
frllow-t nhesmen. then approaehes with uplifted spear, and shouts e.ut a series of 
grievances they bear against the islanders, lie then hurls the spear at lliem. If 
they are weleome the spear will not 1 ravel more than Iwo-thirds oj the disianee 
inward* lliem. Another man may then come forward with a BretfUek. Bartering 
does not take, A parcel of trade objects is simply placed in the main- 
hiuders' eamp, and when they aiv ;ihout to depart a return offering is produced 
and plaeed near the eamp of 1 i i * • islanders. Open criticism of the return rxcli;ni^" 
is seldom made while tie/ islanders are invny from their own country; any defi- 
ciencies are remembered ami an/ UrOughl forward as <rrie\ a when the ntain- 
landers repair to the i>lands oil similar visits. 


The eamps ( 'amhawanua ' ) of the Wal Miliaria natives may be classilied a* 
Icrriporary and semi-permanent. The former nniy be eonslrueted hy small parties 
during hunt ing excursions aw ay from t he principal shore eamps, or -when 1 he 1 ribes- 
people intend to rciiraijl in one place for a brief time only; in such eireumslauees 
erected shelters differ considerably from those of camps, which may be occupied 
continuously for louircr periods up to several weeks ov months. A typical tem- 
porary rainy-season hut. built during a short visit of some Minders Island peoph- 
to liathursl Head, is shown in Kg. IS2. These Walmbaria huts are semicircular 
in shape, and only tour or live feet in diameter al the an idesl part; thej ai*<? 
formed of a framework ('iktf '} of thin saplings or canes, over whidi strips «>f 
bark (*waltja , 3 are laid. Leafy boughs stuck in the ground around the huts, <>r 
bdd on tin- bark roof, provide additional shelter from Ihe heal of the sun; the 
open side faces away from ihe prevailing wind, and 1 1ms most of the rain is 

The huts are much larger and higher in the more Enduring camps, which are 
intended for weeks of occupation durinir the progress of the rainy season. The 
sapling framework is then built up in tic form of a rounded dome with a 
circular base about leu feet in diameter ( lie;, lo.'fi. hark is laid QVOV t lii>., com- 
pletely COVerhlg tin- fi'anii', excepliiiLr for a small doorway only twelve to siMemi 


Records of the s.A. Musktm 

inches in height* The b&vk is then thickly covered with tussocks erf ^fass > tiu-. 

154), A Inn nMhistypo provide el'ticn-m shelter El'Otfl all but the ln-in i''s'1 rfiins; 
the thick ^I'mss ilmlehiiiL' renders il <<ompara I iwl y DOO] in ijlp day tail warm 
at ritght; d'rLviTJg rain docs not seriously iuconvennmcc {he orcupanls, otfilig tO 

fin- small si/.c of the entrance, and this feature, ant! fbt? ever-piroenl Kiwoke (ivi? 
within the lint also mitigates tin- ubiquitous mosquito nuisance. The i»-nn used 
tot I) ni is 'qrrar*, and in bttild a tint is expressed by the term "arai-mmjjiliala '. 

Pig. )•"»-. Ti'Hi|"H ,n ;• hin :il U.-jI litirst Hi'.-nl; \V:i Imi i;i rt;i T'il.r-. pin. ]5#, &ttf)lfcr>g 'i. mm 

work of largo lint al Walkewn Ktauiej Islaml; VI m Tfilu*. i?ig. LJ!4. C'«tn*pk*tecl largu 

but; Woltubarta Trine, Wmvi. li.-ni.urst tl(?4<t Fi#, tfg, B&ift hut m tSfetvnti ttiver; Bni'tin 
!4u:iii Tribtfj in r'n.M le u witltrM wtqriitg mourning tabid (cnnijiai'v Jiu. R7 4 6!) 

Apart From tin-so i VVO kinds of slerpiinj'-uuarlers. sliadr -huts are creeled in 
IhB permanent camps. Four forked sticks, each ahoul foil r fed in heigrhtj &r£ 
(il.n-rd |ipi?if*Jl1 in the ground; sticks arr laid horizontally in the forks, and leafy 
hranches. hark. or tirass art? laid OTfr the sticks. When in r;mi|i the ualivcs slay 
in the shadow of these cuvcrs all day, w il h their utensils and oilier persotial 
hchniirmos seallmvd ahout OH t Ij * ground, and their spears on top of ihe shelters. 
During short visits lo open heaehes a shade is often provided for old men and 

children h> merely placing Feafy houghs upright in the sand. 

Places where cani]>s are regularly est ahlished — sites which have been period- 


icaljy occupied Iqv \ears — are unmistakably apparenl owing to the quantity of 
food debris Some of the kitchen middens on th& Flinders Islands and on 
liar hurst Head arc v^vy extensive,, and aiv marked by heaps of hours of turtle, 
dniron«r (sec p. !♦:> and fit:. ()()'), and folh, portions of shells of the tllOligrOVC <ii*ab 

iScj/Ud) and rock lobster | I'unvl inis) . as well as a vasl <pianliry of moll use shells, 
cockles, flams, various kinds of oysters, land shells, and so on, with tin- cork Irs 
predominating. Although, as previously mentioned, the Stanley Island section 
of the Walniharia is In-day represented by only one surviving male, There is ample 
evidence in support q{ his statement that the island was at one time the home of 
many people. Kitchen middens nn tlie shores and inland cover jicivs of lhc small 
island and show that ahnmlant food was available, 

The liarunaaian people al Port Slewarl erect dome-shaped lints 1cn to twelve 
feel in diameter, covered with bark and shaded with boughs. Io.mII seen hy ns 
tin* doorway was much Larger than in those nnide In the YYalmbaria people, and 
in some cases one side was completely open, as in ihe small temporary links n\' the 
last-named trihe (fig, 155-156), 


The only type of shelter !o which the term v ' permanent can be justly 
applied is that afforded hy caves and rock-shelters redidana' >, which, when 
commodious, are occupied hy large bodies of natives, sometimes for long periods, 
and particularly during ||m wet season Food debris is naturally abundant in 
aUf] around these ever-available relreats. 

We examined several of ihe rock-shelters utilized by the Walmbaria people. 
In addition |o ten moderately or very extensive examples, main small shelters 
Were noted. In some eases Ihe las! named consist merely of a Leaning rock, which 
offers protection from Ihe prevailing Mind (fig; 157), but even in such, accumu 
laied food debris is oflen abundant. The main slielicrs include 1hree large caws 
af Kndaen, on Stanley Island and seven on Ualhursl At Kndacn 1 here are 
six eaves within a half-mile radius which show signs of qecupqticm ; only one mi! 
tains rock -paint inns. The last-named was (he principal camp of the Staule\ 
Island .Lrroup of the Walmbaria Iribe within reeent times, and it is by far 
the largest and mosl imposing of all Ihe rock-shelters examined; hereafter it 
is reform! It) as the "Endaen shelter". Captain 1 * 1 1 i 1 1 i | > I\ King : ls ' notes 
that during one of his visits to the Flinders Islands. Air. Allan Cunningham (tilt? 
botanist on board j visited a rock-shell er on Stanley Island, apparently one of 
(hoau on tie- declivities of Castle Peaks, in which no paintiicrs wen- apparenl 
I 'imniiiLi'liam. in the notes rpmied 1> V Kine, sa \ s thai "'The general mass on the 

I 'v. Kir,--, Sim-v.'v Cnj.sis Aust., i, 18127, V \k 37S-37ii 

1 % 

Records <>i ; the S.A. Mtsrvm 

slopes or derlivi1ie>, arc clpepiv e\ea\ aled. i'nriiishi iil* spacious rrt t'ftatti 1" Ihe 

natives. I entered qiojp Df tfiese cavern* . . - - a Latgw natural chamber, capacious 
Enough to hold conveniently a large tribe of natives, who. from the nuim-rons fire- 
places, broken turtle staffs, and oilier relies, had not very bum since d-Wel1 1 here". 

!■ i-. |5<V. I':i]» 'i I.. in 'iii(. ; BftningUflll 

I'rili.', ;-Mr\.;u'i River. 

I • ' ( •_: . Lfi7. Leaning n»-k farming wind ami 
i in - . • i ■ . i - 1 1 juj- ,-uwill <-;uii|>; W.-Umharin TriLrp, 

The {Sudani shelter, which w<- i'\.mihi[.m1 in some detail, is formed by exten- 
sive natural undermining of a rlil'f near I he north coast of Stanley Island, and 
consists Of 1\\" easil,\ accessible chamber* <>r eaves. Tlmi .il lie- eastern end is l lie 

main pari of tlie shelter (%. IS8 j :; 3muh? the oBir" is uudenuiiiccl to such an extent 
thai there is an overhanging rock roof twenty-five feet in width at iis broadest 

pari and approximately one hundred J'eel in length; the shelter is from eh_rht to 
len feel in height, and is rendered more effective Owing to the fad thai a bllgC 
mass of I'allen roek partly protects the opening, which faces north-west. Towards 
the western end the floor rises at a rather steep slope, and leads into another 
* ' nsivr ea\ern, the roof of "Which i« honeycombed With holes jti whieh owls nest. 
'1'his ehaml.ier and a small and almost inaccessible ca\c in the roek Face aho\e 
show no si^ns of OO&Upat ion. The Urge eastern chamber exhibits many ,-\ ■nlnuvs 
of prolonged habitation, The walls and roof are COV^red With hundreds of paint- 

Hale and Tindale— Abokit.inks pf Ndriii Ql i i ;-i and 127 

iM-j-. I fig. 16] }, ail<] We est im;i1r<l lluir fha tains of food remains, nslii's, ami oilier 
'H-.-,i|>ii1inni)l i.b'hris siIh.-iIimI noartlm Pallet) rocjfc* to be ai h-asl eighl feel (&1 uiosl 
t\\rl\ci m depth; the EO0"d remain* consist iarirelv of bones of turtles, fish, mid. 
Clttgollgtt, shells of cockles (principally Area trapezia], oysh'i-s {(hfrca) aud 
oiler shrll-lisli, ;ilso bird*' Cgg$. 

W^ 1.^. hi| )•: ii. him riM-k alu'Itt'l-; \V;i IhiIki riii Tii h. \ S| lt u |. -_\ Ul;iii<i; I .. . ■• . ial \tr\>: 

i.'ii>. Lurtlii iini.u anil ilugojig hones "(' mvcniatiial iwpurl; HKV, framework ui an plw 

•■i •■•■ | ► i » * u IMUk; 15 Ji J > •* • i 1 1 1 in^s on \\;ilt, ;mh! stoiir $1flll uni'iI fni' g]*if\iJiUg rnluiiiH. 

On a lodge, and in a ewice nearby, mi fbr itasitji'ii rod w .-is a series of painted 
I urile-hcads i Hi:. 159) and some tiligtitLg skulls iw p. f?5), A wooden frame 
work, relic of a ftfceping rack or f wo-slormd hut similar to those described by 
Llothj occupied 9 portion of the floor (fig. 1">s. IfiO), 

A s\ ;i.\ from tin- food-mounds, and lire-places, lie- floor is covered with foe 

diisi. and in iliis, near (he hack of ihe &helter aiid beneath fhu wide«1 pari of I'ko 
nwriiiiiri, ,-irc the ^ieepiiig-piaces soft and dry throughout ths wei season. We 
prepared a plan of this cianvpuig place ffig, 1 62 } , 

At Wakarma Iieach, on the north i - ; » - 1 Gaasi of lmthurst lleail. is a shelter 
which consists of a somewhat rlatlened hlock of sandstone perched fill an angle On 

(hive pthfr boulders. This has been used as a r;mi|i. ami Mien- are pai ul iii^-s oti 

the underside of the roofing boulder (fig, 327). 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

tah-s slope 

talus slope 

uard-$ O 

Fig. 182. (Jiomid plan of EJadeati r<»<-k shelter; Walmbaria Tribe, Stanley Isl.-nnl. 

About half a mile to the west of Wakarma is the Word camp, which includes 
I wo shelters worthy of mention. The first and largest is situated a1 the western 
end of the little Worei Bay, facing the sea. The cave proper is wedge-shaped, and 
has a floor area of about two hundred square feel; the smoke-blackened roof is 
about six feet above the floor at the front, and only a fool or so a1 the back. 
Large masses of rock have fallen from the cliff above, hiding the true entrance, 

Fig. I DM. East Wort'i shelter, with n;itiv.< staff of Kxpcdit ion ; Biithursl Bead. 

Hale A.NI3 Tindale— Aborigines of North Queensland 129 

but Leaving. An inverted V-sh&ped gap about five £ee1 in height, through which one 

passes to reach the Cave proper ("fig, 163). This shelter is tlnis closed in on three 
sides; although rain drifts through various crevices near the front, During 8 visit 
to the place we used this retreat for a time in order to keep our gear dry; as shown 
in the photograph the partly protected ante-chamber formed by the fallen rocks 
is large enough to accommodate a tent, while the cave behind proved useful as a 
store for perishable goods. The roof of this inner cave is covered with paintings. 
Another shelter al Worei is situated a little further to the west : it consists of 
a vertical rock-face, twenty feet in height, protected From the weather by a jutting 

Fig. 164. W.-ihemiiiii .shelter; \V;i linhn ri;i Tribe, Rfitliurst lle;i<l 

Following the coast a little further to the west one comes to I lie large 
Walaeimini camp site, and Striking inland for a short distance may find a large 
shelter adjoining the camp (fig. 1(>4). Here a Long notch has been weathered out 
by Cornier marine erosion til the base of a low hill of Triassic sandstone (fig. Kil ). 
The retreat is aboul forty feet in length and only four or live feet from floor to 
roof, so that nowhere in il can <i man stand upright or walk with comfort. At its 
widest part the shelter extends inwards about fifteen feet. The main pari of the 
cavity opens lo I he nort li and north-east, and faces open, marshy country with 
black soil, in which tracks of game are plentiful, The smoke-blackened roof and 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

the? back w;i!l pri'sriit gmSU roek faces flue to the presence of joint, plant's in th« 
sandstone. Tin- food debris on the floor is, on the average, only a Bool in depth. 
.- 1 u < I consists largely of one species of cockle [Area tTapetsta 

At the time of our examination then' w$s a large Bai ^rinding-stone, tfeigh- 
iii^ maybe a lnm<h*«<hv^iirlil , at the Pouth-eaatorn end of the cave. Three deep, 
ilish-likr depressions had beea ground into the surface as a eonseqnence of. urner- 
jit i«»ns of use as a aether millstone. 

At the Wnholni camping-place, on the most westerly poinl of the north roast 
of Uatlmrst Head, arci also three rock-tohelterg containing native paintings. 

Several <rf the domestic implements in eommon use liaye bown refefrod to in 

ihc rHH-onnis of Hip preparation and collecting of foods; in addition the following 

were seen. The \V;i hu I >;i ria, Kokolamalama. and Uanin<j'uan tribes make fire h>' 
twii-liiiL' between the palms of tin- hands a thin stick (held in a pwpenflieuUtr 

; , : "ii| 

I'iL!. LU3, I. .'it L>r -hciIh r mi II -.loin- ; I »;/ rungumi Tri In -. Si. I •w.i M ftJVOl', He.. L6'5. s iu;i || u | , | ,. i 
mill stour; Bfl nin^un n TVi1)l 8 l i",v;i i t Ifivor. Pig. 0'7. KVpniieil X <i <it t! «.;■ s 1 m - 1 1 lifted :is 1 1 1 a r 1 1 •. 
• '. ' -r-.H^I : Mnfimiiii Tribe, <':\\u Mylvillo. Pig, !<ifc ll:il J te.| Btiflie .ixo ; IftlcmfllJ Tribe, 

Il.w.h AND Tindalf: — Ai;ork;ini:s OF WOKTH QtJEENSl 


position), whieh lifts ils lower extl-CTQlt t V pressed !innl\ int«» ,-i not «•! i in tin- s'nlr flf 

m similar ytouitl bin! <>n the ground ami held iii plAcp with thp toot. Th<? hvlrlfiitf 

slieks nre ;il first nflen live or six feet in h-nulh, bill n\' nmrsr graduall}! bCUONK 1 
renlneed willi use. When not in us..- lie. pUfltf of tin- siirks arc pfOtOCtcd 111 tl 

die;ifli Of cusr fftfi < Irsrt'l I >e< I l».V Kot II ) ; s. M) |. •! inn -v. this CtWC* 19 embellished Willi il 

I'iL' UHK < Iiii K luin.l i'liup|tn u-ril On (IjU'Jliltg ^t..-s\ |.,'ilin fl'llils, Howell, (JUiviin!;! ti'l . 

kllttl) ol' w;ix; into wltfcll jenpiirily srrdr- | l/<r/o-. prfdttlorius) Mre fixed. Mow 
r;irely ihr slicks 1 heinselve.s Imve ;i ser;i|ehe.l nr e:iryed piillern I li<2\ 80-81 >. A 
ni;in routine )hr ;iprie/hf sliek plnees Ins kinds nc;ir \\\r top of il. ; I ) I « I ns il i- 
Iwirled his pnlins r;ivr| down Iheslmft. Willi ;i opuek mov-mmf he tiien hrn 
I hem up ;<";i!n. I > 1 1 1 - i 1 1 !_i wel we;ilher I he ])rocess of lirenmkiiiir is nflen tedious, 
mid \\\<> persons 1 1 » ; i ;, .r--.!sK one quickly eonfmuin«r the twirling when the oilier 
tins. The lii-est iek-. flTfi not resorted t<3 mless .'ibsolnl elv neeessiiry. ;ind pyrin's 
e;jrry shim ildm\ ug SW<dypfUH blftDchfti With ihein, evmi Inkiny; Ihein I'roni llm 

isJ.inds to the mainland in th«ui •■.•mors, pAt'bfr fftan h« put io the neeessiiy of 

"nnnmtine; fresh fiiv ( Yndr kind ehnppors <>\' fffODif, Willy only broken pnhbks 
;ire in use for entinn-: KUCh fruits tfl llmt ».f r<<n<!units: thfi eviiiipk shown (llg 
IkM w;is found nenr Kowen lying m ;i rpc<*lltjj \m-.-itrd ..mip, tftgrtlwi 1 with M 
limp flf ftandttnM hmitS aild tiDUlV shells whieh kid Imvtl used for food. The 
I 'li.ok'tii' On] eXBUlplftti .'ire simikir. ;iiul hnve hi-m mmle hy breaking ;) snitnbk 
|W*Mi1p of n'i;»rt/itr so .-is I/) srriirr \'\ $\\\\ ing i*lg!\ 'Pile W;dmb;irk liaJflVCIS use 
(hit ':rindin^-stones I'or prep<irin-j t'onds, powdrriiin oehrr. rtr As mmhoned 
'ih"\e e kir-e ;ind wry hr;iv\- ^niid i ml'. s| our, with d-'i-n di'pre-,sions in I 1 m - 
-nil'.ie.'. w,-is sin, in |iif> \Y;ikiemiini roek shelhn' n\ Ii;ithnrs1 l|.>;id. At Sp.'\\;it'1 
Rl*Vi*r the i;?iriniLrn,in peoplo rabie tli-'ir st<»n«'s highly, Tor lli.e-r is no avftihjblo 
POCk in the vieinil\- — I he spec'mirn , illustrated were stated to lui\e \h^%\ ohuiinrd 


Records of the s.a. Museum 

liy trails from the Ooetl district, forty milrs h\\hy: these mills (fig. 165-166) are 
used for preparing foot! and also for grinding ochre Pot paints. Baler shall is 
Utilized for making dishes as well as for spear-throw rr ornaments. Nam ilus. 
I melius. ; j i k< I o\ster shell are formed info Up(»t&=pendantS and otle-r objects of 


■ I 5 

F*ig, J 70- 171. \w.h|, ii ln.'iiitM.N I'mm Barmiguaii TrihO] StewtU'i Biv\*r< utrfl Walmbai'ia Trifoe, 

I'TohUth Island. Pig. 17 - ' 17:.. WomlOM impli/itn nl x used |iy women for (Tigging U|i w.'irer -li] v 
foots; Kukoldruulatnu Triht\ Prim-ess Charlotte Bay. Fig. 174—176. fradfl iisfrl \\)w\\ uuwyUtg 

1m:i'.\ I'KjVrU on the; 17-1, |>;i]>rrl>;i r\{ [>\\i\, Knknl.'ima l:i m:i Triln\ iVinrrss < 'li:i rli -i I .■ I'.:i\- 

1.75 LTtf, gtapfcrbRrfe mid grass i ■ -■ i ■ i •-. . Mtitunmi Tribu, Barrnw Point wild fapt \ l • • i \ i N • ■ . 

Polished stony axes were formerly in use, bu1 no ''x.*iiN | )los wi'it obtained 

lor;illy; the \i\\'^r e \a 111 ) >le show 1 1 I fig, 1681 IS t'l'lDll M I .» OH -IIH>IU». < L >ll'THsUuH I , and 

has a cam' handle, hut the \n ;tx eemenl iu<i substance i> missing from it. 

Mallets I'oinnV). usee) by women Eor pulping various I'oods and far brudkinjg 
oysters, art' made of iron-wood and oilier hard timbers. The Walmbaria, lianm 
l-'umii. and M nt umui iriUrs commonly use the form shown in fig, 170. This is 
cylindrical in shape, wit}) one end abruptly onrrowecl t<- form the handle and is 

wry similar in form to the t»*ou*r-l icalers of Melanesia 11 pgoplGK. Ov FlIJldeTS 
Eslaiid and IiMihnrsi [lead a much thicker, shorter, and heavier undid is also 
made; this may be cm ployed as an anvil as well as a pounder; the example ill ns- 

Half, and Tindai.e — Aborigines of North QUEENSLAND 


(rated in fig. 171. originally Cylindrical, lias become tfttboval in section owing to 

COUtiuUCd use as a clioppin<r-l.)loek. Moth types are cut from a single piece "1 
wood. A similar mallet is known also t<> tin- Kokowarra people, who call it 

short pointed sticks of hardwood for prubbing QUI water lily roots (fig, 
172-17$) and the longer yam stick (of which the sharpened extremity is shown in 
Rgv 77) have already been referred to (pp. ll:M14"). 

Thick rinir-pads. which are placed on top of the head wlem heavy weights arc 
carried are too well known to need description. We saw them used only l»y 
women, who quickly fashion theni from cither M< hilnnui hark (ftg. 174-175) 
or irrass (fiir. 17b) : th«-y wr*- made by all the Princess Charlotte Bay people 


Cig. 177. Ii.*4 ]•■ »- slu] l rlisil nvpniied wiili resort) whicft has been usim] .-is ,-i cOukiug l H, i 

Miitumui Tri)>e. ( 'apf Melville. 

Wines of 1,-ir^e birds provide fans with which flics and mosquitoes are warded 
ell", and also form brushes with which the tidier members of a camp occasionally 
sweep <mt Iheir huts; the wiiiLr of a wild ffOOse illustrated (fig* ITS) was secured 
from a Ilarun<_niau man who was sutferin.e- f m m la?ge open sores, and was there- 
fore particularly worried by the multitudinous Hies ami mosquitoes. Smoke fires 
provide more efficient protection against tlic tiordes of mosquitoes and sand Mies, 
ami on u still niuht many natives wore seen earrvinu; a smouldering root or Stick 


Rf.cords of the S.A. Museim 

with which to repel the little pesis. These insects worry the natives Ear more thajj 
ftfeSj ami al times prevent thorn from bleeding; their abundance n\$y be appreci- 
ated when it is stated that in some of the riverine jungle aivas fbe writers experi- 
enced difficulty in aiming Iheir uuns nwin*r to the bbsCUrlilg of the sights by the 

hovering clouds of mosquitoes, which were also attacking all expose*! parrs of the 

Pig. 17s. W'iui,' fcathci'S Of gOOBt*, UHCfl us ll % whisk ;iii'l; B;i ruii^iw u Tribe, Si 

UiVdr. Fig, 17D. M.»r k <lis]i; Rukola ma lama Tribe, Princess CliHTlottv Bay. Fig. 150, Palm 

npa1 In* liMskc! ; R-tnni-jiiiiii Tfilif, S1rw;nt IJivrr. Fi». 1S1. firflS9 us iiHfil for rUAkitlg l'.-isk-'ts; 

t j • 1 1 n t ;i cave -i<mv; \\';i Lmbn rta Trii.r. RtatilciV Island 

(JAfgti bftlOT shells (MjpJ.0 dimlQMtl*) are used as water vessels, containers for 

various kinds of foods, et&, and for billing eannrs; they are simply prepared hy 
hreakin^ away the ventral surface, the remainder farming an efficient ii SOTlie- 

wh.-it fragile basin. TheSC rCSSfels are plaeed on the iire to boil liquids, and Con- 
sequently all we saw had the oilier surfaee jel bhmk ( ;fi<r. 177,); if they heenme 
cracked with l he heat 1 hey are repaired with .irurn. Portions of eoeonut shells and 
the shells of tin* true nautilus \\uulihis p&mpiMus) are used as drinking vessels, 

The last-named are not prepared in any way, but after pontinucd use become 

Hale and Tindai.h Ap.okic.inks of North Queensland 


worn and blackened around the lip where ftoilcci by the month; when accidentally 
tir&ektld or perforated they arc repaired with pruna I 'tiir« 167), other shells inay be 
us.'ii for mixing pigmonl for instance, on BathqTKt tread we snw our valve of 
a blacklip oyater being utilized as a ''palette*' by a man painting on the wfllls <>f 
a roek -shelter. 

The Barungndn people make spatulas from the thicker hmies of lairds and 
targe mammals; these are formed by cutting or grinding Lhe hour to the (lefcired 
shape (.fig, 124-127). The end is smooth, rounded ami spppn-like« and We wore 
told thai tin's.' implements arc utilized to prouge the meat From a i^pecies pf anj 
(not tin* coconul I found a1 Stewart River and other places, We did no-1 Bee the 
brae awls mentioned by Roth ( 1tl ). 

Bark vessels of the k 'pleat-1 ;ype" were seen in a eamp of the Kokolamalania 
peojile; they tore made of stiff hark, the ends of which syre henl up and pleated so 

as tO form a Ii-ohliIi. A spike of palmwood is tlirnsf through the pleats to hold 

them in position (flg. 179). Thr Waliftbavfe natives manufacture paper-bark 

vrs.N.-ls by neatly pleating the ends and tyirii? them around with twine. I*;)!!!! 

s})<ithr h<iskris are extensively used by the Barunguaii people. They are mado 

Pig. I si!. Palm Krattie baskei usnl as Fi#. is;;. IVfethml of parrying palm fijratlip 

i-rniiic; l'.;i run^Urm hil.r, Strswirt Kiwi-, rr.-jrllr; I'.;i iuh^iimii Trihr, N1v\v:irt I«i\i'i\ 

from i\ single targe piece of leaf. The sides and e&tto are benl up, and then the 

outer portions of the hitter are folded in find stitched through at the 1op | 5g. 

Some of the baskets of this \y\)c are releirated to the carrying of babies, and 
are not used for fond (fig< IBS) ; in this ease the handle is not used, and the hasket 
roninininir the hahy is supported on <mr shoulder^ where it is held in position with 

») lioth, Ni.rih Qld, Etlm..»r:i|>hy. Bntl. v i. UIQ3, ,,. 25, 


Records or the 3.A. Museum 

one or both hands (fig, 183), Around the camp womefc rarrv their children 
straddled across the hip, or, in the ea«e of yoting babies, held against the side, with 

the hand beneath the cliihTs hutfueks and tin* t'omirui behind itfl btitik; the basket 
is used when they arc travelling Long distances. 

\V,- selected abfcul 70 Silly bags Erotn amongst those in use by the Princess 
Charlotte peoples met with, and photographs of a few of these are reproduced in 

Pig. 1S4 t&2; Typos tif <lillv-l t ; 1L :s from Prioress Clwu-lotk- liny: I £5 HUd Iflf, aw UJtHTu 
w\\)\ u im tt i 1. 1 t« | 1 -li)ii<jii.', the cithers hourglass; 1M is.". Mutumui Trib*i, t*ai« Melville aw] EtafrtiY 
Point; lSU-lsS. BariUiguati Tribe, Stewaj-1 ftl*er? tAH-100, Wtalmliarin Trite-, Stanley Islnml: 

MU. Walnilorh. Tribe, BalllUl-Sl Httldj l#3, Knki.]:im:il:un;i Tribr, Table Mill. I'riu.:- ( Kin 

loth- Bay, 

Hale and Tindale — Aborigines of North Queensland 


fig. 184-192; the mesh of the nets obtained is mostly the hour-glass or double-loop 
pattern, although the knotted netting stitch pattern is rather common. The bags 
are of all sizes, from three inches to two feel in diameter; some are of fine mesh, 
and used (like certain baskets) as strainers (see p. 115) ; larger ones are utilized 
for collecting screw palm mils and similar foods; others are employed as u carry- 
alls" for desirable odds and ends. In this last connection it may be interesting to 
note thai Hie contents of a dilly-bag examined in a Baranguan natives' camp 
were: three spear-smoothers of hardwood; a sheath studded with jequirity seeds, 
For (he ends of fireslieks; prepared \va11le-bark and grass Tor string; wallaby 
sinews; beeswax and gum; fragments of red ochre; and a small quantity of String 
made from urass. 



Pig, l!>;>. Method of making ilillv bag with houvglass leHmiipu'; Walnibaria Tribe, Flindeia 


Much of the Iwine for di!l\ -bags and many other purposes is prepared from 
the fibres of Liris/ona, as described by Kotli (- n ), and the barks of wattles 
(Acacia) are also used. Acacia bark is soaked in salt water, and when thus pre 
pared is reddish-brown in colour. String from Acacia, and Liris/oaa are used 
alternately in some dilly-bags, so that a transverse striped pattern of brown and 
whip 4 is produced. Various Other barks are used in the preparation of thicker 
String, such as that used for large fishing nets and for the mooring ropes of 

(-*>.) Both, North Qhl. Ethnography, Hull, i, 1901, pp. 9-10, pi. ii, figs. 3-U. 


- ORDS of THE S.A. Museum 

Fig. 193 shows a Flinders Island bag in the Disking, si fetched between I lie 
two sticks sloping awiiy from the operator, who is invariably a woman. 'Flic bark 
fibre is kept soaking in W^ter, 8Jl3 m bon 1 six I'eet of tlie I w o-slraudcd twine is 
prepared at a time, the excess bein^r wound loosely around the 1 wo slicks durum' 

the preparation. 

Wallaby tendons, meiil n u i»'r I above, are ol)!ained in the usual way; a small 
Irausverse cut is made near the end of the tail, and the portion behind the cut is 
pulled Off, the tendons Stripping out with it; when required 1he\ are rendered 
supple by damping and chewing. 

Flu,. i!M-i!M>. lo-.-isH baskets (f-wiued technique I ; IJM 195, Wflhnfeaciji Tribe, Pliitilftru 
Isi.-ni.l; liMi ms. Barunguan Trih^ Ktdwa.ri Rived; JHflu Hi tenia ri Tribe, Muna-mona. 

Hale and Tin dale— Aborigines <>f North ( H'i-kxsi.ani> 139 

In the siimi' tribes baskets giw made by this twining technique. Two aoii- 
liinmns strands of grd#S fibres are twisted about vertical rigid or flexible bundles 
of fibre. An elongfttd cylindrical form with rouiided bottom [fig. 194, 196, 197) w 

manufactured in great numbers, but fl lype with a vimt wide mouth is also mad?; 
that shown in fig. 195 whs obtained from a Walmbaria ntrtLvfe. As with the dilly- 
bags, some of ilie baskets- have handles of string, split cane, or pandanus. The 
sninll type | fiir. 199), with a forehead strap, both ends of which are fixed to one 
side of the rim of the basket, is common in the Alnna mona district, on the uoasl 

id' UftintH. h is carried on the back, and the longer strap is supported on thfc 

As painted out by Davidson (- 1 ) twined baskets are the ttfoM primitive form 
recognizable, and were made by the extinct Tasmanians. 

Anions Ike Walmbaria the raw materials for the manufaeluro erf eamp uten- 
sils, weapons, etc., and even prized weapons, are stowed away and hidden in 
ereviees of roek-shelters and other suitable situations. A bundle of graSs fibre 
( fig. 181), for baskets. was taken from a store of this material in a small eave on 
Stanley Island. 


('ontael with Asiatics and Europeans has naturally influenced the dress of 
the Princess Charlotte Hay people, ami when first in the company of strangers 
some European clothing is worn by most of the younger men and women. You up- 
i»'irls, when not otherwise covered, wear* pubie lassels i>{ string, but no clothing is 
considered necessary for yoitno; l)oys. Old men wear ai lens! a strip of paper -bark 
or Other material depending i'rom a waist -circlet, and covoriiu; lie 1 genitals. 
Apai't from this many of the old methods of personal adornment are conliniied. 

As mentioned elsewhere in ibis paper, decoration of ihe bod> with pain!. 
scarring; and the knocking out of a from incisor have special significance. These 
practices and decorative objects, like the bean leu'-ral t les (which are similar to 
the goaunl rattles figured by lladdon {--) ). used l>y women during dancing (fig. 
200),, certainty increase the personal vanity of the individual, and may all be 
recorded t herefore as 4 ' ornaments". Certain objects, such as net dresses, hair 
pendants.. coin|)oiuid chain — -or rolled — strings, and wooden pendanls, worn din* 
in-' mourning and funeral ceremonies, liave already been referred to; wilh snch 
associations the articles are not altogether to be considered ornamental, in fael. 
they have a ralher depressing influence on the wearer, and In* discards them after 
a lime so that in: will not continue to fee] mournful. 

{'41) Davidson, Jonm. Po'lvncsian Sue., 41', 1H3S, pp. 257-SSJ0. 

Iladdoii, Antlnop. Efepeft. to Torres Srnnts, vi, Umis. p, :;i:\ ii K . 711. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

The halt (and in men the beard also) is generally kepi dose-cropped ; during 
mourning periods it is allowed to grow unchecked- 

Most of the men and many of the women have the septum of the nose pierced, 

mid wear various kinds of u ilO$e-peg!$"; these often COnsisi of a smoolh cylin- 
drical piece of wood or bamboo (fig. 46 and 48). and if a pag of this type be B1 

all Large it considerably alters the appearance of the Eace as seen ju profile. 
Several Bariniguan nicn were tfeen wearing curved riose-pins eul from ribs of the 
whorls of the Mt '■< nici hs shell ( %•. 201 and 207) : some of these were large, 
seven or eight inches in length, aud at a little distance the persons wearing them 


l-'iii. : en. WoifKin's [pg rattle rtf lialvoil gojinut sli<*I !-, : W.-i Imli.-i ri.-i 4 FttndeTd Island. 
Pig, 201. Biicimguan men waring nose ornament made Prom eavina oi ;» fehell {MegaXotractux 

hrUMtts) , S,|, : .\v:ii1 lOvc-r froinpaii' Rg. £07). 

appeared to have long luoustacbeB of the "walrus 11 type, As Ear as could be atfeer 
tainecl ncfse ornaments bare no Ceremonial significance amoiigsl the Princess 
Charlotte Hay people, and arc vFOriJ simply as decorations. 

A few of the men had the lotos of the ears pierced and artificially distended. 
and on occasion thrust through those holes objects similar to Ihose worn in llm 
nosi'. Small implements and utenHflfl are also occasionally fastened in the ear 
lobe, which thus becomes a convenient lemporary repository. 

Necklaces, particularly those made froni A uul Hits shed, are plentiful. Those 
seen in the Princess Charlotte l»ay districts consisted of small rectanii'ular ])ieees 

Hake and Tinpale— Aborigines OF North Queensland 


of Ute shell, each piece pierced with h single hole. The shell is strung on two 
strings of Li>'ish>»<i fibre, which axe mad.' to pass through tin- hole from opposite 

sides, so thai the pieces of shell closely overlap. Thai shown in fig; 20*2 was made 
by the Wahnharia, 20*J by the Kokolamalama, 204 In !he lianin«rnan, and SQS hy 
the Mntnmni tribesmen. These necklaces are worn hy women and children, peca 
sionally also hy men, bu1 are apparently rarely used as fillets. The example in 
fig. 203 has a larger ovate piece of Nautflus sne 'l *tf TO« erid of llie double string; 
this pendant lianas at the hack of the neck, 


jQfrem w&tm*? *«t " "" 




, 206 

Fig. 205-&06. Shell ormminits; 202, \V;i tin) inri-i Trilu-, Elin.ln> !sI;im.I; 20.% K . .k . .J:i io;j Inni.'i 
Tribe, Table Kill, Princess Charlotti Bay; 204, R:»nintfuaii TOIhs Stewart River; 30^5, Mm mum 
Tribe, Burrow Paint; 20(31 Milrm.-oi Tribe, Mxmn-mona, 

A necklace formed of ralher lar^e, Sllbbval pieces of \<utli/us shell, eaeb 
pierced with two holes and Strung <m a single string, was obtained from ALona- 
inona (Ilileman tribe). This type (fig. 206), according to Koth, may have beeti 
bartered fmm the Carpentaria coast. 

Fillets o£ String OP other material air somelimes wound lightly <m the head — 
not as an ornament, hot to core headache. 

Grass and reed necklaces (fig, 20S-209), which consist of scores <»f short 
pieces of the stein slmnir on a string, arc often made. They may be of consider 
able length, bUl are not so highly valued as the shell ones. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Portions of Nautilus and pearl-oyster shell, ground tg an oval or blade-like 

shape, are pierced at one end. threaded on a siring, and hung around I he neck; 
the shell rests on the breast (fig. 210-214). At fig, 215 is ;in unpierced pr-n rl-sln-ll 
ornament, while fig. 212 shows a pendant of two pieces of the shell. This hist 

Fig, 207. shell (Megalotnictuii) nose-pitt. Fig. 208-20$. Reed necVlaecs; Walmbaria 
Tribe, Stanley and Flinders Islands. Fig. 210-16, Shell pendants; 210j Waul-Un* shell, the 

<dliei\s pearl shell; 210-211, Wahnl.aria Tribe, Flinders Island; 212, Walmbaria Tribe, Flinders 
Maud and Bathurst Head; 213, Walmbaria Tribe, Stanley Island; 2 U, Knknlanialainn Trihe, 
Table Hill, Prim-ess Charlotte Hay; 2 tf>. Harnn^uan Tribe, Stewart River. 

example is of interest in that one of the shells was ground on Flinders Island and 
ihe other was made at Bathizrsl Head, on the mainland, and eventually obtained 
by barter by the Barunguan native who was wearing it. Poarl-sheU pendants are 

more plentiful than any other kind on the coast ami are more sought after, 

Pandanus armlels (fig, 216-217) are quickly made. A strip of SC1HVW palm 
leaf, twenty inches or so in Length and from one 1o two inches in width, is used; 

Hale and Tindale— Aborigines ok North Queensland 


the method of manufacture is similar to that described by Rath ( L>:; ) Tor other 
tribes, namely, one ojhI of tho strip is split into tags, and a corresponding number 
of slits made near the ether end. Tho loaf is first rolled to the desired diameter. 
and the lairs are passed through the slits and knotted inside the armlet. Tin 1 

Ki- 21fi 217, !\-iihI;HiUs leaf armlets; \V:i Imltai'Ul Tlibft, Minilcv tsbiml. Fig, IMS, I'm, 

lions nf .-( waist licit ; Batuuguau Tribe, Btowart Biw., 

neatness of the tag and slit join varies considerably. Some of tin* Walmharia 
natives Cllt one end into from ten to twelve ta.iis. anil run a sharp tool aeross the 
Miter surface of I lie leaf al the base of (he lags, ensuring lhal Ihe lailer easily 
IhmhI down through the slits in a straight line; others are not so part ienlar. and 
form an irroejidar seam with only a few ta^s poshed through and knotted. 

Pig. 218 shows a type of waist-belt, or waist circlet, which is now apparent l\ 
rather rare in the tribes encountered ; it is only one-eighth of an inch to rhree- 
sixteonths of an inch in diameter at the widest part, and is from four 1o six feel 
in Length. This kind of ornamenl \v;is s.'cnriMl from Ihe Mnliumii and lmriiiu^nan 

ps$) Rod., Xoril. QJii. Ethnography, Bull. 1, lwn. v . i I. p|. L v. 

144 Records of the S.A. Musfjm 

people. Il UB made from a slrip of yellow fibre or bark, wound closely around two 
lengths of iwo-ply IMnsfom siring, and hound with a single ply of the same fibre; 
the latter is passed over one side of a I urn of the cane-st rap, then drawn down 

between the twti brings and across the opposite side ol the turn. Thus the com- 
pleted article is yellow with a longitudinal median blackish line of the fibre on 
each side In rhe Mafulu dislricr o\' Papua a similar yellow fibre, obtainable Eroni 
a species of orchid found only in the mountains, is an important article <d* trade 
wilh the coastal people. 

A single string may be used as a decorative waist belt (and is also used ;is a 
LfgaJ are to relieve abdominal pains). The natives obtain a certain amount of 
European cotton material, and in some cast's this is adapted (o form armlets, belts, 
etc. A !loiird>a^ may be picked to pieces and the material made into twine for 
chain mourn imj'-M rings, waist circlets, or armlets. At Flinders Island We dis- 
carded a length of cinematograph film; the natives eagerly secured this, and 
Wdlind pieees of Jt around the waist as a circlet. The black and red paper back 
iimj's of "He Kodak roll-films were similarly used. 


When ample tObaeco is available smokinir is indulged in to exces> uniil the 
supply is exhausted or considerably depleted. Even small children smoke, often 
te, sueh an extent that they become drugged and sick. The practice seems to be a 

newly aecjutred one. and appears to have entirely supplanted any earlier forms 

of narcotics that may have been indulged in. 

Tubular smokin^-pipes — cylinders with one end closed and with a small 
lateral hole near the closed end — are still quite common. Pamboo is the usual and 
preferred material; all the coastal tribes of Princes* Charlotte Bay depend upon 
drift -bamboo for their Supply, and as the current which carries ibis lo their 
Shores Operates only for a limbed period each year ihese pipes are prized, are 
Used for Long periods, and, i f necessary, arc repaired with "Wax or glim. 

Photographs Of a selection of the pipes secured in Princess Charlotte Pay are 
reproduced in ftg. 219-235, At fig. 211) is a large example which belonged to a 
Walmbaria man: this is three feel six inches in length, and is decorated with 
alternate bands of v^(] ochre and pipe clay, leaving an unpaintcd space in Ltkti 
middle. The second and smaller pipe (220) was also the properly Of a Walmbaria 
man; this i$ decorated with a few logenge -shaped and triangular markings, pro- 
duced by scraping away the cortex 61 khe bamboo. At 221 is a much-used pipe 
marked with eight or nine lines en! or scored around its circumference at intervals 
of about three to five inches; these ai'C not appareni in the figure. The pipe 

Hale and Tindale -Aborigines of Nokth Queensland 


belonged to Ambalalmink who was the dominant old man of the Mutumui trilje 
in 1!M)7. Thfi example al 222 came from the Mack Kiwi-; it is unusnally slender. 
beiim two Feel hvo inches in length and onlv half an inch in diameter inside; and 








Fi«. 210-224. li;nnl)oo t.nku-ro-pi pes ; 218-221, Wnlmlmr'm Tritfe, FllmifcVfi Ishml; 'Jill!. 
Mutumui Tribe, Cape Melville; 228^ Banitiguaii Tribe, FJttfwftri Kiver; 224, Mutumui Trihe, 
VI: i i I; Rtvpr, Pig. 225. WoOclen pipe; Kokol;im;il;un;i Ti ibc, TfJ [»lc Hill. IVi nro-.- < li.i i lot tc Bay. 

shows Iimw bamboo not pari miliar] y suited for fnj>rs may he used wlieii no frtlw 
is available. The old pipe at ^J:J is from a Haruuguan eamp; the surface has 
heeii worked by skinning oil* lh«* cortex lor one and a half inches from the open 
end; it is eoaled with wax to support the mouth, which has spin, owing to 
removal of the outer layer of the bamboo. A Flinders Island pipe, similarly 
skinned and extensively repaired with gap, is shown a1 224. The last example 
I'lL'. 22-")) is an old pipe made from a length of hollow bough ; it is onl\ one foot 
four inches in length, with an inside diameter of one and a quarter inches. One 
end is blocked with glim, and the small lateral aperture is bored further frnni the 
closed end than in any I he bamboo pipes examined. This was used by a Koko 
Umiahima man, M lias become cracked, and has been re])aired with gum. 

The manner of using Ihese pipes has been well described; the tube is filled 
with smnke by a man smoking a European pipe, or a pipe manufactured on those 
lines, and ihe smoke is then inhaled by him or his friends, usually through tie- 
small lateral hole. With the aid of otic of these cylinders a man can inhale his 
smoke more than once, or can share it with others. 

146 Records of the S.A. Museum 


The surfaces of large and easily accessible rock-shelters usually bear paint- 
ings, Those which it is intended to discuss wore selected From large scries present 
iu llic huge Kndaen rave, in the shelter at the Wakarma camp, in the two Worei 
retreats, and in the Walacimini sheller. These probably offer a fair sample of the 
variety and 1 \ pes of designs w hieh peCUl' on llic walls and roofs of the wet weather 
!vifca!> of the Walmbaria mdives. As the pigments arc usually dull nn\, yellow, 
and black against a hrowti rock background, and do not lend themselves for <rood 
photographic reproduction, our illustrations in Ihe main are sketches of the 
originals, almost all drawn to scale, oilier sketches than (he scries here pre- 
sented were made, hut have been omitted because we were unable to obtain definite 
and confirmatory evident- from the natives as to tin- objeets which they are 
intended to represent. 

The Walmbaria nativ.-s readily furnished details regarding eafih of the 
drawings represented. Some at tic figures obviously represent the animals and 
Objects they are intended lo depirt. but in certain (rases the sub.jeel is far less 
evident. Doubtless much depends upon the skill of the individual artist, and 
'luiibtless also continual copying and rccopyin<>- () f particular designs by different 
artists has led to the development of conventional forms. 

The native purposely exaggerates certain features in his pictures, particu- 
larly those of a phallic imtiire. The genitalia are often iriven <rreaf prominence in 
drawings of human I'lL'tires. 'Die abdomens of moths and butterflies arc shown 
disproportionately large, possibly heeause the bodies (as distinct from the wings 
of the insects! are edible, and llius make a stronger impression on the aboriginal 

h is doubt fid whether (except in a few of the series mentioned below) indi- 
vidual drawings bear any direet relationship to one or more of the adjoining 
fiirures that is to say, in the ni.iiii each seems to have been mi cut it y j no "picture 
story" has been attempted, Xo Appreciation of relative size was noted; a por- 
poise li\e inches in length was shown alongside a moth covering seven and a half 
indies by six inches o\' wall-space, and rubbing shoulders with a man only tour 
inches from head to heel. The pictures may be eompared with the drawing of a 
child, which pfteto bears little resemblance to the aclual sub/met, but wJiich never- 
theless e.ui\ey S to the artist a Vivid impression of the object depleted. In many 
cases the artists have made no attempt to orient their pictures, and on an upright 
wall space, or on a roof, ihe lieures are drawn in just when' they will fit. All 
drawings on a small portion of the Kndaen shelter are shown in the top part of 

Hi:. 226 to illustrate this. A few definite series of figures do exist, however, and 

Hale and Tindale — Aborigines of North Queensland 147 

a connected set of marking's interspersed and overlaid with other drawings is 
reproduced in fig. 232, showing part of the Walaemini shelter. In most of the 
shelters the picture are of different ages, some are almost obliterated, and partly 
erased examples are commonly overlaid by newer pictures. A few are decorative, 
like the designs on weapons, implements, turtle heads, etc., but unlike the last- 
named apparently have no utilitarian or symbolical purpose. Walmbaria men 
described rock-paintings of special and magical significance on Clack Island (see 
p. 91). Cunningham and another member of one of King's expeditions visited 
this island in 1821. After describing the geological features, he notes (- 4 ) that 
on the south-east part "there is a horizontal stratum of black schistose rock, 
which was of so soft a consistence that the weather had excavated several tiers of 
galleries; upon the roof and sides of which some enrions drawings were observed : 
. . . . they were executed upon a ground of red ochre .... and were delineated by 
dots of a white argillaceous earth, which had been worked np into a paste. They 

represented tolerable figures of sharks, porpoises, turtles, lizards trepang, 

starfish, clubs, canoes, water-gourds, and some quadrupeds The figures, 

besides being outlined by the dots, were decorated all over with the same pigment 
in dotted transverse belts. Tracing a gallery round to windward, it brought me 
to a commodious cave .... sufficiently large to shelter twenty natives. Many 
turtles' heads were placed on the shelf s or niches of the excavation. The roof and 
sides of this snug retreat were also covered with the uncouth figures . . . .". Roth 
saw these paintings on Clack Island and illustrated some of them (- n )- 

As is to be expected in coastal shelters, a vast number of the drawings exam- 
ined by us represent marine creatures. Animals living in the scrub-lands, human 
figures, and native implements have also received due attention. A few designs 
are admittedly only decorative, and a number are meaningless to the present-day 
representatives of the Walmbaria people. 

Throughout the reproduced sketches the colours are indicated as follows: 
White — outline only; red — cross-line shading; yellow — dotted shading; reddish- 
yellow — dot and line shading combined; black — solid black. In the main the 
general colour scheme is thus made moderately clear in the line illustrations, 
although the method has some disadvantages; a few clear interspaces, for in- 
stance, may possibly be construed as representing white instead of bare rock. 

The Walmbaria people collect pipe-clay for preparing these drawings from 
a deposit on the southern side of Flinders Island. At least some of their red 
ochre comes from Starke River, whence it is obtained by trading. 

(24) King, Survey Coast Aust,, ii, 1827, pp. 2(5-27. 

(25) Roth, Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, ix, 1902, pp. 493-495, pi. xiv. 

148 Records of tfie S.A. Museum 

Endaen Shelter, 

All drawings on a five-foot strip of the waD of this shelter are shown above 
the dotted lint' in %•. 226-; the remaining sketches are selected from our notes, and 
occur on different parts of the shelter. 

The paintings in this retreat are I ho work of the Stanley Island *rroup of 
the Walinbaria tribe; some D'f them have been executed during the last twenty 
years, hut the origin of others is not known to any of Ihe present inhabitants (sir 
(1). ,\s usual, they are of two genera] types; in one an object is simply out 
lined in colour or filled in solidly with one colour, but in the oilier a more ornate 
effect is produced by margining or banding \\\ v figure with different colour. 
h, h h /■'' ( h >'« >'« 8-Tld W may be taken as examples of monochrome figures, while 
more ambition has been evidenced in the execution of most of 1he others, two 
Colours h&Ymg been used. 

Some of the tiuur.s (for instance, the turtles, dugftog, cassownry, fn»<r. and 
most of Hie fish j are fairly obvious represcntal ions of the animals concerned, One 
of the most simply drawn, or C0tt\ eutionalized, of the paintings is that of a flying- 
"fish (p) : this consists of seven yellow strokes each the width of a finder. 

When questioned ahoul the |%nrn p. 'Which app&urs with variations in si-wnii 

coastal shelters) Ihe natives brought us a smooth, pink llolothuriau which this 
drawing is supposed to represent. The common blackiish, anolher llolothuriau 
which was abundant, was shown to them, but they stated that this was not the 
subject — k tandi\ the paler soa-slu.i>\ was Ihe one depicted. The amorphous mass 
at one end represents the filamentous Ouvierian orpins which a few species eject 
\\ hen alarmed. 

The human figure at a has the Im ;m I pointing to the right ; the legs are shown 
in a squatting position, and between them is a large pair of testicles. A grotesque 
dancing WRl\ it] i* drawn around a cavity in the rock; other cavities (see u ;md 
r) have colour palternS aroimd Ihem. iii some cases merely a decorative effect 
being Rimed at. The small fish called 'mnrun\ shown in #, lives in the mangrove- 
swamps, luil we wnv unable to aseerlain the species; it is not the abundant mud- 
skipper (Euehorislopvs kalolo) of the vicinity. Other designs consist of the 
familiar circle-patterns, double-headed figures, men. etc. Photographs of part of 
the roof and a small portion of the lower part of one wall are reproduced in (ig. 
161. The last-named shows a mother wilh leu- newly born baby, with the umbil- 
ical cord connected; in this picture may be seen a large srpuire block of stone on 
which pigments are -round. Other drawings, including a recently executed one 
nl ' a Ircpang cnficr-, are indist iuetly shown on the wall above some turtle-heads 
(fig. 15}),. 


i l i ft zn 


Fig, 2iiR< R(H-k j.aint iu^s in Ijnla-Mi slnl t . r ; Wahnl.aiia Tiil.o, Manlr\ Islainl; n, moil 

(huangui) ; b, gonna; r, ftest) urat^ turtle; >l, partly nldfturateii old paintings <■, hnliTtfiiiriuii 

MniKlil: /. i|«-\il ra\ or lltaiiioml [fell I'toal); a, i-uHow ( unilhini) ) ; h, easSOW.lTJ tiark; i, a 
li-li CattthCTUWA — ( \v<ni^.-f hi ) ; ,/, ft'fjg (tarai); k, slmvrl nosr.l p«v (alawul); /. fi-malo dugong 
j tnnntounm > ; m. (log puppy wifcll iiiiiliilu-n 1 f»or<l? M, ml \am-.<| human : fJ, turtlr; p, flying 

[ialj i \ hifl yertfl ) ; '/, small liali (momo); /, j<-llv lisli iuiri.1 i ;i iHowaiv ; /, dan tying man ! 
u-t\ (U'cnrative patterns j "'■ ••:> »• i •• t snake: t, IdogrtaUvrl atingmy (tuttihlenibiii). o. .s. ami w 

air hot <h;ivvn to tlm BOflJC I mliratt'H. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Wakarma Shelter. 

The* pietographfl in this small retreal art* chiefly depicted in red. and the 
artists seem to have had a predilection for { 'double-headed * J human figures, de- 
scribed to us simply as kk meir'; their double heads may possibly be intended to 

^ >s^» 

l^igi 227. Ruck |»;iiu| iun-s in W'rik.'iriHii aholtcr; \\';i IiuIki ri:i TiiIh-. lintlmrst Hrrnl: it, />, fl, l<, 
II lim at] figures; <\ turtle; <l, <h-i<i|uin; 1, iiH.tli, /", > ( i<-k liznrd. 

represenl ceremonial head-dresses; there are aboul leu of these figures in different 

parts of the shelter. A FeW ^elected illustrations are shown in (ii>'. 227. The 
paintitnr al a is Jha1 of a Walking nuin will) a v^ry iQrgC penis. 

East Worei Shelter. 

There are a numbe? oii paintings mi the snmke-hlaekened roof oi this retreat, 
most of them being under a loot in length: they are drawn in white pipe-elay ; 1 1 1 c I 
red ochre. A Few representative designs are shown in fig*. 228. 



\P- 1ft 

1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I ) I I 1 I M I I I I I I I I I 

Fig, 238, Uo<-l< pa'uitiilgti in Eket Word shelter; \V;ilinl»;o'.;i THbB, Bntliurst Hr,-..l, ./. 

ui-1 Iti ; l>. crocodile; <-,}',!/, nmi tracks; <i. stingray; <-, rlugimg. 

The I'lim-t racks, e. /, and //. an- of Y'-ry different sizes. The drawing of the 
stingray (//) has a slnm*>v appearance, and differs a greal deal from one of the 
other drawings Of this fifth On Stanley Island (fie;. 226, .r). Several other draw- 
ings are fairly well defined, and then' are traces of many almost obliterated 

i'lLi'iires. One of I he most recent represents a 1 repairs culler, a lype of vessel 

which has only become common along the coast within the iawt three decades. 

Half, and Tindale— Aborigines of North Queensland 

West Worei Shelter. 


On the high Willi face of this shelter are many very old and faded outlines o$ 
large sfee. The pictographs which arc clearly traeeahle arc shown in H «_►*. 229^ 
These designs cocvfey no special meaning to the present-day natives; the figure 
on I he left appears to be thai of a quadruped. 

1 i i i I i i i 1 

A I L 

I I 

V\g. 22|)» Atlcient paintings in West Worci shcllcr; \V;i hn l>;i » i;i Tribe, M.-it linrsl I lrn.L 

Walaeimini Shelter. 

Owing to the nigged nature of the rock -surface, few smooth spaces of Large 

area arc available in this shelter, and consequently nios] of the hundreds <^\' 
drawings on the walls and roof arc of a foot or less in length (fig. 230*231 ). As 
in flic Kndaen shelter red ochre and pipe-day arc the main pigments used; an 
occasional figure is depicted in yellow ochre. In the main the figures are solid 
red, oi- are broadly outlined in red; in many (he va\ designs arc margined with 
while lines or wilh a scries of approximated while dols applied with a finger lip; 

some of the figures are stippled all Over the solid {ground-colour with white dots. 
Some of the drawings appear to be rather older than the others, hnl no definite 
break in technique or design could Ik* discerned. 

A fen-foot strip of the hack and root' near the northern end of the low cave 
is shown in fig; 232, Owiftg 1o 1hc length it has been necessary to divide this into 
two parts, placing the right-hand portion below the left part. On the lower pari 
of this wall is a long line of upright markings (some of which are enclosed in a 
semi-circle) and a. trident -like figure, obviously forming a connected series; Ihc 
natives did not know the meaning of ! hese old designs, some of which are shown 
also in fig; 281. Above and around them are paintings of more recent origin and 
remains of even older ('mures. On the roof arc two butterflies, not distinguished 


Records <>i the S.A. Museum 

by the natives from moths (o) and a flying-fish i /> ) ; much more effort has been 

oxponded in the [qafcaamed tbna to fhc simpler delineation of the same subJL*el in 
tho Endaeu shelter (compare fi#. 226, />'). 

Fi^r. -J-'io-L':;!. pfiintiugs in the WaJarimini Shelter-; Watnibaria Tribe, Bfiilrarsi ttcad. 

A a\ «*J I -drawn houoydjce appears on the Nicfe of the cave ( V. ) : this is executed 
in yellow Dehre, outlined and banded wilh red. Amongst other designs arc repre- 
sentations of a drvd ray or diamond-iish (rf), a dtigOUg [t ), a spear-thrower | f I . 
and two human hands | ,/ and // ) ; the hands arc not of the usual stencil type- bin 
arc M free -hand " drawing- The drawing of 1hr devil ray is of interest wlcn 
compared with the figure of the same rish in 1 he Kndaen shelter ('%, $}"26, /"). for 
it shows how variable may he the rendering of similar subjects by different artists. 

The skelches reproduced in fig, 233 represenl paintings which occur on 
different part-, of the roof and back, neai' and at the soul h-eastern end of the 

Hale and Tinhalk Aborigines or North Queensland 


Several kinds of pielurcs mit very common in this part of the shelter, par- 
I ienlarly small human figures, lizards, stencilled hands, and moths. The lizard (a ) 
is hloekrd in with vrd ochre, is surrounded with a margin of while (inuvr-st ipple 
dots, and has several hars of similar dots across the tail. In three of the human 
figures the genitals are jj'iven great prominence. The lesticlos of one man ( /) ) are 

! HUM/. 

Fig, 232. Two portuma flf \v:ill «f WnL-ioiniiiii shelter; \V;i liti I »:• ri;i Tryhp, I J.'il IiuihI llnrnl 4 

c, mollis; b, flying tisli ; r, her; ff, devil niv or di.intond fisli ; r, dn»on^; /, sj>c:» it lirowcr ; 
/./ ;iiiiI //, Ihjmkiii 1 Kinds. 

1 54 


disproportionately large, while Hie picture n1 (***J was said to rapresetil a tittle 

woman with a big vulva; alongside the last is a marl "with an miormoits penis. 
The frigate blfd ra ms .simply ilniwn .'is 1he flying-fish previously moiil iomal : fiir. 

.'.Mi. p), ;ui(I consists practically of three brnatl finger-strokei*; nevertheless^ tip 

Pig. 233. StdeetprJ ].;ii]ii logs in W&lawrnni ibu|t«n Waimbana Tvibt?, Batlw-sl Fltwl - ; 

<<, lizard; b,c,-A\\i\ a, www ( l)e&t>£fl t ) ? •:. Ppigtltl' \}IV\\ v"reti); t Jiml /. $tfrt fislirs; //. ( V(>lia lupOtl : 
//ami r, t n it h-s : i and '». human ii:iml>; J. ', /, ;nnl », but I crll Jii8 ; 1 1 1 • I ninths ( IttDt jalft) i K . 
Ilirnwci-; W, woni.-i.ii ( nuiniibul) ; //, tavsli water rraylish ; i(, \ani; n. Erug M:ii;ii); /. uunv.iw 
nized; w, ptlriwise; J, kflXlgtU'rttt, parth i • I • I i t Br&tctl ; y. Mmniamh 

Loiig ImhIv and tail, .ami 1 1n- speeadmg wiugH are rather well KuggfeMtecf. A long 
Inn' emanates 1'rom quo of the sta.i --fishes on tine roof (i >. and 1 his is supposed to 

Indiealo I he Iraek. We have already mentioned that in draw iim's of butterflies 
and mollis 1 1 n • size of fcfte ubflOii'lf^M is ^really exa.irirm-.u (*\ I. A marked iVaf ore of 

pictures of toveHekratfctf having aniennae is thai 1 1n* ceph&lon and its appendages 

art 1 ilniwii either ms a Y or as a shorl s1alk carrying; a ereseent, the arms of. the 
last named, or the Pork of tin- V, represenl Lug tin* antennae. This is evidenced in 
./, /, p, and w, showing fresh-waler eraytish and moths. It is ijtlerest LUg to note 

Hale and Tindale— Aborigines or Noktii <H i enslaxd J55 

thai the l>o<|\ somites qt the ci*<i \ lislt ;uv suggested — inaccurately, il is Inn.' — by 
uarrow while bars, but the less obvioud ftsgrnentation of the abdomen of ihe Lt*pi- 

tlOptora IH rarely indicated. ' Mot jala ( moths and butterflies i are depicted again 
and again in llus shelter, white, yeilow. ami red being used in various combina- 

We did not learn \vilh certainly \vha1 object is represented hy the figure al ,//, 

hui were consistently told ihat ii was loanam 1 . Curiously enough thjti is lit. 

nam.' of the food-pounder on Korsylh aini WLoriWUgtOli Islands. 

One is naturally somewhat surprised lo sec a spear-throw vr drawn iu such a 
crude maimer as in the painting a! /.*. While the artist who made this draw in- 
was probably quite competent lo produce a smooth, shapely weapon, be appar- 
ently look little ]>ains lo record biS handiwork ptetorially. The peg airainsl wilhd] 
the spear (its is grossly disproportionate ami Urn haler-shell girjp is ill-draw n. \\ -e 
watched a man painting a rri[ hand similar lo those at i and <>, and the laborious 
tmiuner of Ihe task astonished us. The native obtained a palm frond, mid chewed 
one {'ml until if frayed sufficiently to form a crude brush (fig, 235). Afler mixing 
pip*) clay and wafer to a paste (with an oyster shell us palette) Jl( ' s|)read his hajtd 
flat against a rock-f&(Jfi, and carefully drew an outline around Ihe hand and digit**, 
and then, removing his hand, idled in t In- outline solidly wilh red. 

Many of the paintings arc executed wilh a forctimjer dipped iu l he pi-meiil. 
while, a-s mentioned, stippling j s produced wilh the tip of litis digit, The natives 
are as absorbed as children during this recreation. 

Other Forms of Decorative Art. 

Pigment is of course applied to decoratively eoltnir objtieta other than the 

walls of roek-shelk'rs. but usually for different reasons. ( icrasionally a painting 
depicting SOIUO definite object or other is drawn on a piece of turtle bone, tw some 
Other eoiivjii-'iil "canvas", more usually the decoration in no manner 

resembles the cave pictures. Pig, 284 shows portion of a turtle bone on which M 

drawn, ifl red, white, and black T the figure of a man. This was discovered iu a 
crevice of the Fnidaen shelter. It is reminiscent (if some styles q1' drawings neck 
by natives of Torres Si raits and Papua. 

Apart from decorations pure and simple the designs painted on implement 
and other objects are in the mam i a : marks of ownership or 1 rudesmanship, (|>> 
symbolical, in connection with ceremony and ma^ic. Mention <d' such forms of 
art are scattered ihrou^h the pap\s of this report in f he descripl ions of t he variolic 
aboriginal objects, but as examples of the two main types may be ne uimiied [aj 
the pat i cms on > pears and olher weapons. ( b ) Hie pa inline of Hie in rile heads b\ 
the youuu- inil iale at Slanley Island, and for magical reasons a1 Thick Island, the 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

decoration of "rain-makers", mourning tablets and staves, and the ornament n 
tion of the body with ochres and pipe-day for various ceremonies and dances. 

I* T ig, L!.".-l. Paiuting Of human figure on turtle bone ; Wnlmbaria Tribe, Stanley Island, 
Fig, 2.'>f>. Palm-frond paint brush: Bnrunguan Tribe, Stewart River. 


While trading for old bags and baskets at Stewart River numbers of message 
sticks were noted Hiuoii" 1 the contents of some baskets which were being emptied 
for our inspection. This led to our being able to secure a series of these interest- 
ing objects; some of them were of recent date, others were old. In no case was 
there any attempt made to indicate a message by symbols on the stick; the com- 
munication passed verbally with the piece of wood. 

The makers of the various sticks were known by peculiarities in style of 
workmanship; thus 1 hese objects were evidences of g'ood faith, giving authority 
to the verbal Communication. They may also have had some slight mnemonic 

.Mention has already been made of the message stick forwarded bv a Mntiimni 

HALE and Tindale Aborigines of North Queensland 



23 B 




Fig, i:U\-2^K M>ftHAg« SlifKs; ti,ae 2&7, Walnibaria Tribe, FUimUtk Island; 238 IMS. liar- 

uuguan 'i'i i)-r, strwaii K'ivM-. 240, Mutumni Tribe, l'.anuw iN.'mi. Fig-. 850. ttarttwoud ppg f rri' 

sprart Iii-owit; I Ja nin^ua n Tftbc, StfiTVUft Riv< r. 

158 I\k< mKi>s or i in:. S.A. Mi 5KUM 

woman at Flinders Island i<> her (joi t wt& husband, wiio was camped inland froiu 

Stewart River. This stick whs passed on with a verbal menage asking thai their 
i wo children should Deceive names. Fig. 249 is an example which had passed 

between them on a former occasion and had been retained by her. 

After messages have been <1< i 1 i\ 4t»m l i he sticks are usually retained tor a long 
period, being either slowed in string bag** or tucked nwny gjiiong the leafy cover- 
ings of the lulls. 

When [uteres? was expressed by lis, more than a hundred old ones were pro- 
duced For inspection wit hin a few moments; only in a proportion of the oases could 
the message be recalled, 'I'hr verbal messages related 1o I lie sending of parcels 
of spears; arrangements regarding I lie cutting of canoe trees on the Xormanby 
River in Bxchange for spears; promises Jo meet al specified places, eilher after 
the elapse of so many moons, at the time when some fruit was ripe, or when eer- 
lain fltiWBrs of seasonal nature were blooming. Fin-. 236 and 237 show message 
Sticks which wei'c in the possession of Walmbaria people, Pig, 238-248 have been 
Selected from a lone; series of old ones Without associated mrss;inv.> which were 
obtained at Stewart River ( I>anin»'uan tribe). 

Pig. 250 represents mm uneaned pieee of hardwood such ;is is freojiienlly 
carried among' a man's personal effects. It ean lie adapted either as the pug of ;i 
spear-1hrower or as a mes^aire slick. 


Opportunity was taken to record comparative voeafeulariea of several of the 

principal languages ami dialects, but the general nature <>\' our observal ions 
unfortunately prevented the reeordiim- of texts which would have v-iven data as to 

the structure nf the languages. 

The vocabularies weiv recorded in conformation with the Koyal Geographical 
Society's scheme as detailed in \otes fltld Queries I. -''' i. and it has thrtUgW 
undesirable after this lapse of time tO i»'a useribe (hem inio miiv other phniiclie 
system. Tnless otherwise indicated the ng sound is hard as in /no/<r, nol 30fl as 
in sniffer. A s| reSS aeeent is placed ft1 the beginning of t he emphasized syllable. 

An approximation to the normal pronuncial ion of Die word has been aimed 
at. There is eonsidera bio variation even in simple words. Thus one would not 
be incorrect in transcrihing Kui.jin<ra, the name for ihe mouth of 1he Siewari 

River; as vnjjngui mjwig^ yinjinyu, ymjhign, j/niijiin/a. pentfimga, or in'uf- 

jhif/a, for variations which approximate to these renderings may occiir amoftg the 
natives of the disl riot, 

Many of the Kokolamalama people talk rather indiM im-t ly, wilh markedly 

(-<•') Kntrs ;nn\ QooriGB oil Amlnoj.nloyv. Loudon. 4th. i.l.. IMS, [.. lso H soq. 

IIaik and Tindalp:— Aijokioinks OF North Ori i \si asp 159 

aberraftl aspirated 'd'aml 'w 1 , strongly voiced 'tir ami V and *r aotmchs which 
are absent in their neighbours' speech. Ii was noticeable thai several individuals 
of this tribe suffered from palatal abnormalities, and the above^-mentioned modiii- 

ealiniis may be dm* to lillS fador, ihe manner of speech of ihe abnormal imli 

viduals Laving become the norm for others of the groi^p, 

Jn ihe follow inu vocabulary there are approximately 2,000 native e<jviiv<denti$ 

for sonii' 570 Knirlish words. The MuTuniui and Walmbaria words Were written 

down by diveel translation info English with an interpreter. The greal majority 
of the 01 hers were obtained as direcl eqiiivaierits of these words withoul Hie Use 

of Kn^lisli 

Our notebooks suLaresI that I ho details given for points of the compass may 

be confused. 

Most of tho English words used in i»oi& piling the original lists were selecte/1 
from Uoih's vocabulary of the [vokoyimidir, in order thai they ini^hl facililatc 
the Hit are comparative study of the northern languages. 

The Flinders Island natives have a eolleelive word. )i<f<il, nlhiit, for many 
animal foods. Such terms are rare in some soul hern Languages. In this term 
Ihey embrace land mammals, the whale, lizards, fish, snails, shell-lish, and green 
li-er 1 ants. 

The importance to the coastal and island natives of tin 1 shallow-water lislms 
as a perennial food supply, such as can be apfeared by walking in the surf at low- 
water, is shown hy I he extensive series of names for species of stingrays', sharks, 
and other shore fish detailed in the vocabulary. Ln addition bo those listed, many 
Other species Which we were not able to recognize were made known to US by name. 

A \'r\\ recently introduced words are recorded in their places in the vocabu- 

The origins of the native terms for some foreign articles, e r g., ^bottle'* 
11 gun", etc., have not been recognized. In the Gulf of Carpentaria inany of them 
are of Malax origin. One word, *kalako\ for pubic tassel, is obviously Knidish 
(calico). The influence toi visiting pearlers may be reflected in ihe general Mntu- 
mui word (V.r bird. k tori-tori\ which is a duplication of the Japanese word *tori\ 
A Similar OrigiU niay be post ubited for the teian "kanr for trade tobacco, vvllieh 
compares well with the Japanese word k kane*. meaning l, i)m)ii'y". 

The accompanying vocabularies are placed in four columns; in eacb ease 
there are dialectic variations, which are shown in brackets. The few words by 
Tun-, on the authority of llod<rkiuson i 1 ' 7 ). from Princess Charlolte Ua\ are Ihe 
only iiiirs recorded from the district. They have been placed in the Engll&h column 
few comparison and reference. They appear to agree best with those recoi'ded in 

"in- vocabulary for the Barunguan tribe. 

(47) ll.,i|nkiiis,,h. iii Tint. A ust I'H li.-i n U.-kt. ii. 1 886', [i. ; J .S!)-'J!'l. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


ibove, high up 
across, MYcr 
adder, death (Acwn tkuphw 

Uiihtn-I K'<iy ) 
animal . . 

animal food ; general term . . 


ii mi, green tree (OeMithylfa 

>:nuini!/<!ihn ) 

ant. m'.'cn tree, Female oi 

.-int. grCWl tt'<M*j H"sL of , . 


urinlet - 
II riupit . , 



bank nf neck 

had: Wicked pfirBOM 

bag, <li!lv- 

tiag, string diliy- . . 

iKiltT-slicll (Mi'la dhiilriHa) 

bamboo (for spears and pipes) 
bandicoot {iNOodon ^la&nirtt) 

barranuuMli (Krlcro/hi</rs 

i'.i rk. of i ree 

bankel (folded palm leaf) 

baskel (twined grass) 


beard (watta #<& Cun ) 

beckon, to 

bee, native (Trigmia) 

ben, honey of native 
ben, wax <>r native 

lii'i!,-.-- ((rlmtid, f.OH'iii-m 

etc. ) 

lll'll III.] . . 

belly . . 


bitter, Bflltj . . 

M;wl, . . 

blood ( of man, iii* ii-h 
blow, bo 



html I foreign ) 

boat, foreign fcwo masted 


Mntuinui Tribe. 

The language called 
Bihole (I'limio, Etpo 
lin ), together with the 
Ongwara ( Bavlani) 
dialed (in brackets). 

Walmbaria Tribe. 
i Rettfiinga, ftlha, 

Wonka yi ). 

Tlir language ualled 
Yalgawarra, together 

Willi the Tartali dia 

leet (in braofceta ) , 

aU'iidnv alo 

n .. ihi n i ii 




Uugun (omeorir) 

■■■ ii ' 'war 
works n 



( .niyiii ) ( worungo ) 
wongoral ( waal I 


alra (alt'D 

ngapdea! ( nganileal ) 


Wiiniitr ( wiiiiiaruka ) 



tllTI fori 

.'iniiiiii <»ina ) 
tanibila (wiiiiilyurii ) 




V. I II II I 1 1 




manga] ( artfca I 

upapul (walwa) 

a ruga (11m, Ibon'gar) 
wurungn ( i-Hkama ) 
waraki, warawi 
okotOTOO, ukulonm 
ads ala, adoln 

a nlamu 





alpal (talalpar) 




i.ii.,i.\ i. tori 


wawii (aiiilnil) 

nmiyulpn, ulmvara 

abba (nrwnn ) 

lilrtul;> i 

Kokolaraalania Tribe. 

( \\ aiihara, Uakaba- 

nambia ) . 

The language, together 

with the YHtoneru 

dialect (in brackets). 

I. a bar. i 


yn"war (ou'ar) 

tambal, anliin 

• > »• 1 1 ) > 1 1 n ( oT warms r ) 




WO naiM I .i wiinain ) 

nil ii n 


arija (npp;i) 





i' i lv a Uar (agapar) 


i apma) 

'ar mnl 

koifl pampan 

Barunguan Tribe, 

(lia, liaka, Uan.ji- 

The Language, together 

with the ()mp«'ila <lia 

leel (in brackets). 

( i,v a ratlin ) 


kvm'uko (onta ) 

pun I a 

walla I walla | 

iliMlanma, til n in)>:i 

(iiiimpa ) 
in la n 


altinyn (altinvn I 


kawa (wiriki) 

ma \ npu ( 'iiiu.s uini ) 


pliya, (nlyi ( i 

tonga tongn 

pa iiiuii' 

ka will a 

,\ n ru-pahani 

Hale and Tindale— Aborigines of North Queensland 161 


boomerang ( winehe fitlr < u v\' ) 

buttle (flotsam) 

boy, small 


In-east (ehmvhji fitlr i 'urf) . . 

i.reast , nipple • r 

breath . . 


brother, ele. 

bucket, "i- drinking! vessel . . 
build, (*i iiut ) io 

bustard. Australian [Eupn 
liotiH ii "st fit! i.s) 




call, In . . 

Ctlttip ( wipt w fide < 1 urr ) 
eandleuiil ( flotsam from else- 
where ) 
canoe, ulll riggpt dugout ( t,i lull 

/iih- Qxivr) 

canoe, outrider, buoitis Of 

panoe, oul rixgvv ut 
'"nidi', puddle "f . . 

ramie, | > I< i V\ Iff 

(Mime, stern Of 

cassowary (f 'Mtimrlu* nimi- 

1 1 riiis) 
oat, native (Daajfttrttn lialht 

rut n s I 

channel bill (Nrjftftt'npii imrtip. 

hiilhi inliar ) 



eh ild 

cliibl, newly born . . , 



cicatrix (on chest and shoul- 
ders ) 

■ ' I « * ; i m n<.;-..> by 1 1 1 o w i 1 1 li- , In 

clear sky 

climb ( trees .), |<> . . 


cockatoo, black (Ciiluptnrliiix 

rlni.s ) 
cockatoo, while ( hithuitur i/nl 

fritn) ( wattalda fnlr CuVt ) 

cneonut ( llotsam ) . . 
Cold (])ilja, in Ian 


conic, to 

Mutumui Tribe. 

(in brackets, 

Ongwswa ) 



oy iicni|>a I 


\ einhar 

Ul'pili ( "W nre ) 
a wiir 
vv< i ml u mlu ( won 

dnndn ) 
alcmia, a.uale (alemia 


1 it ri'al 


vvarkeal (woke) 

wakka (yaw nl ) 
eif.ja (cilia ) 

Walmbaria Tribe, 
(in brackets, Tarlali) 

n nan dear 

wall ii 





eital, ikarln 
oymiti'a (aynm ) 
worunibu (lir) 
wawn (nilu-ini 











wi rial in 





Kokolaraalama Ti 

(in brackets, 

Yelleiieru l 


yal\ anmai 



(iiira:ilal ) 


pli uv won »al 
*;ir wliar 

uinrknl ( retaln^a ) 
wert a (naratu) 


(oluwen ) 
'dor ham 

yalnanda wa 

takkal dnl (taradu) 

'arbnar (wa| 





m at call a 




man jar 

reil. iiru 




Barungnan Tribe. 

( i n brackets, Ompeila ) 



tjotjo, Jiynwan;. ii 


Fnii.ja (mantupa) 

kalla (kalla) 


kaijalmnko, lampi 

( ampnyu ) 

w a a Mi," 1 

..wan, pina Imvim) 

kahi, wnpoyi 

kattn, ngekc (ngeke) 

tain I a 


( paipa ) 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


(SOiae ( imperar ivi- .1 
come (to many I . . 

complain, to 

cook, to . . 

corpse . . 
cough, to 

crab, hermit 

crab, mangrove, ('t'hnlaiaita) , 
Crab, ni lining (Ori/pO'lr) . . 

crab (^i -nil 1 1 ) 

it;iIi (Xaiitfiiax) . . 
crab ( fW.) 

rr'iylisli oi' POCk Lobster (I'anii 
fir us ornate*) 

creek, or river 

i racodile (VtocofJ/il'MS porovut 

crocodile, nest of 

crocodile, young 

crooked . . 

crow ( Corvua cecikie ) ( I el pe< ■ 

fide Curr) 
cry, to . . 
cut, tn 


daughter, (male speaking) . . 
daughter < female speaking) . 
deep down 

(lie, to . , 

dip, (o . . 

Wish (li.-irk i rough | 

dish ( Mriu shell) . . 

dive, to . . 

dog, native camp (ffUttVfff* 

fulc Curr) 
dog, wild (Can-in famiUaris 

dingo ) 
dream, to 
drink, to 

'I i- 1 1 1 1 . i in.' vessel . . . 



duck, white headed Sheldnck 

( '/'iiiln/iifi rtt'ljah ) 
(luck, Mark (,l nas sv/icrrii;- 
tisa ) 

• liu-k, plumed whistling (Dftn- 

<l VOCjU/IUI IJ/lu>li) 

ilum.n.u,- (llalirine ilai/onu),. 

eagle { I' naiclns anda.r) . . 

ea r ( ,\ impa fiife Ourr) . . 

ecir, pierced . . . . 

• asl (or south essi ) . . 

eat, to . . 

Mutumui Tribe. 

(in brackets, 


;ir\v;iiii (arwala | 

nokottt Idea 

\\ i iiirlun 






;i rkinge-a 

yd pal 








etea r 

,\ :il i;i r VetilfiffUV 





<>> en , <iy 



3 atnln 

Walnibaria Tribe. 
(iU I. rackets, T;irt:ili) 

ongaye, ippara 



t ai-.'i im I i;i 

apoyi indulk B 










lll'U ui 
\va kkii 




ik;i r.'i 

ma ml i 

montawa ra 

nlrlla ( rukutii ) 

Kokolamalama Tribe. 

| in brackets, 
Yctteneni ) 







a i lia r ( el>e\vu) 

koparing (otjorowon- 

WOll ) 


angeal an goal 



( i 'bar war "i 



arija (oppfl ) 

arunna im'ii 

tow&rpa rati m 



iii.h'i n 

lilu, ninilm 


lambawari ( itn.'i ) 


Barunguan Tribe. 

(in brackets, Ompeila ) 

i moj a 


i m.i nk.i 

ngapu (ngapv i 


bnngako (tawaya.) 

o I K 1 1 

tilumba (waiiam | 
koaga, okokoyi 

lampi (tampi) 

« aitai I wataa ) 

ycnipa (yainpa) 

Hale and Tindale -Aborigines oi North Queensland 


Mntumni Tribe. 

Walmbaria Tribe. 

Kokolamalama Tribe. 

Barunguan Tribe. 


(in brackets, 
Ongwara J 

(in brackets, Tariali) 

(in brackets, 
!r*»tfcenem ) 

( i n brackets, Oiuiieila ) 

. .1 

ii ndal, vawulani (a rig 


k niton g-tjoir 

Hgg ( emil fiili' Curr ) . . 






t'Min ( D rmimiiis novae h<i/ 

york inipiirn (orukun 

tungu (deyainbar) 


kanlcol, kangula 

( nainpl ) 

hiiiitiiir i ( lioonti'il ( 'n rr I 
h Veiling 


war am 


eye ( totml rev fitltt < Jutfr) . . 


wonba (alir) 

elanufu, elaruinil U 

buddan (eratjai ) 

t(int«'\ u (tun! Hi ) 

( ungulul u) 

eyei hi open 


ei adalpo 

eye, to shut 



^^~ — 

eyebrow . . 


wo ii ba id a ( redier ) 

(erotftHa ) 

milmoya, yauko 

( yanko) 

i * s 4*1 ;i sJ i . , 


wonbafakkn (lirawu ) 


fall down, to 
fan, to 



onka .i'h 
a pay a la 


far away 
Pat, or grease 



fat, sol nl 



(oat jar ) 



il iai ) 

father, adopted 



fa 1 1 1 e I* s h rot h er 

kagai, -iiiyi 

(nayi ) 

fathers father 




t auibiara 

father's mother 

fathers sister 

fibre, red wa 1 lie dark 

fibre, palm ( lAristaxa) 
lig free, native | /-'Iras i 



otei, n gun 'tar 


finger . . 


• 'iljelwuni 


finger, little 

vvindi ( andindi ) 





reinba rin 

lire (yunia, @tjf Curr, yuma. 

yiku (yeku) 


Hi ran, kran faflia) 

okr, uange, turama 

K.-ii-nyii Tribe) 

fir-'liuht ( melal, Kariiyu Tr. ) 

V]k0 ;i a 

ngawu (nwala I 

III Pan n W ha, ;i nunari 

firosfirks, base (A), t vv i fl.-r 

oradala (A), toroko 

( y ii wai, ewan ) 

tmiiongi , wudni ( A ) , 


( B ) 

tadni (H) 

firewood . , 


— - 

fish (yimpon in lr Curr , > alii, 

ngarttt* oinba 


a w a i' 

minya, bangaiia ( pOfl 

Karnyu Tribe ) 


Ball, T 1 1 1 1 4 1 ( l' llfhoriNln/nis 

kit loin ,1 

in or a vi 

Hsll, ruck end , , 




fish, stun,. (SinKiiK'^jn ) . .. 

tllll 111 


;it'd u n 

fcoitu, i.'iil.i i' piita) 

fish, trumpeter ( Pututes) . . 
fish, dorsal .spines of 

t and eiu a 


abi, wanda 

fishhook, pearl shell 

u-:i ikIm 

Railing net, oval frame 



(areidu ) 

fishing net, big meshed OVft!, . 


fish, scales of 

n otol 

fish, tail of 


fish, diamond ray i Muxta) , . 

yua, tjnlkn. RTQnka 

tisli, stingray . . 

cool inna rayi 


Inntitha, baalki 

fish, stingray (another spec- 


1 uniheiiner 

f huarwiri 

pan k nra 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


fish, stingray (_Dn»ftatU kithlU) 
iMi, stingray, caudal spine of. 
five (also many > . . 


fly (Miotca) 


fool (tnkko '"!<■ Curr) 





frigate bird (Fr 9 train sp\) 

Frog {Il/ihi nwnilrn) 


give me 

gonnu ( V n mints ftiKilfli) 

gO away, In 

gO away, (a great distance) to 

gO away, (a short distance) to 

go away, (for good) to . . 

go away, you | imperative ) . . 


grandmother (indefinite) 


ground, earfh, country , . 

grow. t«> 


l' m 111 1 11101.1 |[i 1 issue ) . . 

gum, black ( for spiM rs ) 

gum, hi ood wood . . 

gum. mass on stick, for trade 


hair (infill fule Cnrr) 
hair, piibio ( bntli sexes) 

hair, under arm . . 

ball -caste 

hand (hoolam fid* I'nrr) . . 

head ( mea fftfo Cnrr) 





here, very close to 

heron, re.-f {DemfoftreMd 

hit, to . , 

hold, to . , 


hot (wuln. Karnyu Tribe) . . 

Mutum ui Tribe. 

(in bra elects. 



im'.i wunda (orolwol ') 

oundul, wumlur 


talmal Caiman) 

nsombor. onbui 

lakai (.-rerwin ) 

alien u 

.ii tea 


ntara (otare) 


y:i will 

ekaruwakal, melka 


.■ • • liimundu 

alkun ( nkananihai ) 

ni. • ., 

:i 111I1.1I, 

ongoa r 

Walmharia Tribe, 

(in brackets, Tartali) 





w 'ataala, a<laiii<>(, rollji ) 

ngakulkin (animal 

food only I 
yeda lupi'ara) 
mantra I 
1 111 1. a ra 
I a rai 



wakaiyu, wokaye 

pteti nga 


yilnjeria, woppau 


vert a I 

3 alpal ( Pelnbapoan ) 


wnkka (lowar) 
wakka l.iitjal, Hike] 

ara k lea 
wakka (af.uwar' ) 

mangal | kunianar ) 
taggU (kolari) 
wukclht (rarungo) 





a hit.) ul 

Kokolanialaraa Tribe. 

(in brackets, 
Yetteneru ) 




tjaiu, ka'lar ma I 

y\\ wurin 

ranganu ( mala kappa r ) 1 obOfl I I 
a wai- 
ting miu 


aohar ( era r war) 




(epmei 1 

pa r 


tji'i (warepal) 


p| lilfloil v ;ibirn) 

a i'|Mia 11 ( aw a r ) 

1 1 _■ - ! 1 1 1 1 11 k w a ) 1 



oh vi 

Barunguan Tribe. 
(in brackets, Ompeila ) 


yali, kl 

wullu (pulpul) 


mil fa 

own, yantila (ou ) 
-.on, -nauko 

palWU (palwu ) 

tjotjolka, wannemok- 
l.i n 

y.M a (yd a ) 

ngarnkn (ngarukn) 

yalnmai, matalla 


van-ana i ;•. .ingau ) 

wart a 

man, yOpOkO 

paanna ( |i;i,m I 


( moa ki ' ) 

Hale and Tindale — Aborigines of North Queensland 



him!, cullert, gfttlwr, to 

husband . . 

1 > 1 1 s: I > .• 1 1 1 < r •-. in 'other 
hush and 'a sister . . 


Inil, framework of 

hut, bark eo\ ering of 

in In ml 
inside . . 
in toxica I in 
dn tied ) 

spirits (intro 

.jabiru ( ,V f imrli jiiK-li lift usuili 

jelly (ish 
.ici| uirily seeds (A In us i>r,'ru 

I irriiis) 
jump over, cross . - 

kangaroo (Maeropua </i</nn- 

t«U*) (vearpee jitlc ( 'wit I 

kangaroo, big; red {M&cwpiiH 

Kill II si US \\\Y.) 

kaiman.o, t;ill black, lilerally 

kangaroo, tree (DtntlrtilaguK) 

kaolin, white 
kick, to 

k nee 

knee, hollow :it back nl' . . 

knife, shell 

knife, slime . . 

If] ii'j.naL';e, n;inie Of 

large numbers 
laugh, to 

lead, lo 



level, Jlal 
little, 10 . . 

lie down, In 

lift, to . . 
Hf&t (wei-bl) 


liver . . 

li/a I'd 

li/;i rd ( Lunu.soiiui ) 

Mutumui Trib 

(in brackets, 
Ongwara ) 

in fa 

«>v\ ,i I in ii 




won £n 


nndnndurila ( tapila ) 

aljin.ui (werrer) 

eibole, eip Im 

lillnhvi ( ut nl > 



kal nib liar 



Walmbaria Tribe, 
(in brackets. Tartali) 






ad u wnlu 


yen bun 



lok.i In 


iiift'owaf a 



Inng-n (fig as in 

"sing" ) 









v\ iambala 


tat a 

iiuoln^apopil (kai 

wni ) 
vvarra (adir) 

Kokolamalama Tribe 
(in brackets, 

Yetteneni ) 

rnonularaba, nyanara- 

(orajrai ) 




kon \va n 


kliar-llial reia lipoma i 
a la 




almba r 

ta rnkndaala 


in;i nil 


vvhiinaka ( watanar) 

(anna ) 
knripeinn (agll) 


Barunguan Tribe 
( in braeketSj Ompeila ) 

kutji nilji (katjinatji) 

beun, | M-i %v n ( peiwil i 

ladpo ( rrtorupo) 

ptiug-gn, ponko 

W.'i liei It 


onalali, wiinaiiib 


k;iam;i ( kaninian ) 

an kai (an kai) 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


Ii/;inl. frilled (C'lila in //do- 

sun r ii. S ) 
lnhster, spiny roek (Piuml i rti* 
or ii ill us ) 


lose, to 

make, to 

ni.i Hot . woman's ironwood- , . 

man, n dllH 

man, big 

man, dead (corpse ) - - 

man, d\ ing 

ma n, married 

man, old 

in. i n, single . . . 

man, f rack fif (takkn full 1 

< !uw) 
man, yninm 

i 1 1 . 1 1 1 :■ ; ■ 

ma iiii'iaive (edible species) . . 

ma litis ( If/iiirloinu id is sp. ) 


ma reh fl\ ( I'nlxi i, us ) . , 

message si nk 


moon ( arpe fide ( 'urr ) 

morn i ii u 1 

mo,s«|iiilo (hulhtil fuU Qlltv) ■ 


mother . . 

mullier's niolliei 
mother's (lister I elder and 


mouse, native 


moiiih ( kama fulc Cnrr ) . . 



nail (claw ) 

oai IVC I oinpa nimi i i, na ruin 
<< ii nrf ns) (Inindeela fidfi 



nnekbie**, grass bugle 

necklace, pear! shell , . 

necklet, pofirl shell , . 

nice (good looking) 


Mntnmni Trih 

(in brackets, 
Onuwa ra ) 

nnlkaria n, ka vn J pH 


to olal 





J a n -a r 



1 iiyn 

to olpin 

eiryalo (ciryale) 


wnlpii | wulpn ) 


nn nrllll 

(amha > 

an. mi (ainjin ) 

a il :i n 

\va mhiir 


warn lea 




wondal (wontal 





ma n.lki 

a nil- 

nmti feTn ( nmarei n ) 

a iinenl,.,. 

mariynn (arnkan ) 

Walmbaria Trihe. 

(in hrackets, Taviali ) 

w ttrkeahi 


Icla'ra i pa n 

tajiw ii i> 








wakka (lalalpar) 

itfl (kara Until ) 



unpawn ( unpawn ) 


ngorupn I 

w iyangai 

Kokolamalama Tribe 
( in brackets, 

Vettenern ) 

kill hid (ot na ruga ) 

(oljorowonwon ) 



malum (an^'kni tin ) 

khar mai 






moliayilha (th as in 

rein, eriet 


kokal (eha r war ') 



( ama\ i ) 

a iiiioi ii 

( wapar ) 

kalu mlnia r. ha namhdi 
a kthrnr 


nahilhal (anathal) 


hoinii ( woitpenu'.'inc 

Baruiiguan Tribe. 
( i n brackets. Ompeila) 

a wa (lawa ) 


wuni ja warn ia 
( woni-'a wonya' 


konto. yali 


piiTlga kayarri 


piili, tauyaha ' 

wimjju ( pon vi ] 

yoiko (yoiko ) 

walti (otti) 

pnjiina, yanuan (van 

w nn I, a (wanka) 

cbilgfl ([.onileila ) 

niaiina ( mannn J 




Hale and Tindale — Aborigines of North Queensland 167 


north (or north ) 
nose (muntyin fide Curri 

nose, ]"••<■< .m| 

nose, ornamental pin for 
nostril , . 



opossum, ringtail 

opossum ( I'liflin.sitnts I ( u> 

la ii tidf Curr ) . . 
order, or command, hi 

Olltsddo . . 


»j ster, ttuiu grove . 

m\ I rr, 1-iu'l. , , 

pad (native I raek or road ) 
paddle - . 

IKHllilf, tO • • 

palm tree ( lAviktonn I 

palm tree, wood of 

p;ihii sinr i '■'Imvy.'r" > 
panda mis, '•screw palm" 

pa mla mis, limit of 
pamlaiins, nut Meal of I rnit of 
pearl shell 

pUliCH n ( I'rh'fti ii us ptltf s/iiril 

hit us) 

phosphorescence (in the sea 
!>iL';e:in, white 
plaill I level country ) 

pointed, sharp 

porcupine, native ( [Erhitl mi 

porpoise {D$lpMnu») 
prawn, snapping (Gro,uftm\ 
prickly , . 
pnhic hair (hoth sexes) 

pVhlfi tassel (calico ) 
I'till ( up ), to 

pull (along), to . . 

push, to 

Til t down, to 

i|uail (Tun, is sp.) 



ruim-loiul, OlftCk . . 


red ochre 

Mutitmui Tribe. 

(in brackets, 

I >ng wara ) 


oven ha 

ny uriba 

iiponu (uponn) 
tangoro ( worun^al) 
o.\ mhi, oya iiumbir 



u ■ .• 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 : i J I 


wial (when low and 
s c p u h 1.) v), opuel 
(when mature tree ) 


worukoi, wurukui 

moitoni (arayil) 

ka i'ii wakka, enkel- 


y eten^a r 



irangut (otjir) 

Walmbaria Tribe, 
(in brackets, Tartali) 

ngolma (wekn) 

onmawalin (alkiitu ) 


alpi, otobi 





(ngarulkoa ) 

w.ii uUeala 


won da 



el pal 

atjal atj.'il 
will. ka tjitjal 




apin, ftmbal 

adi, adi"wanika 
mo id a 

add a 


Kokolamalama Tribe 

( in brai-kets, 
Yrtteneru ) 

wurman (n^arata ) 


duun ( nuueti ) 

Iowa ii 

m i ; i wur (it.inn I 



st h;i uitan 

wltomlnri n ii 

w lnimhia 

rukai (otjthran ) 



Mmmga i 

Barunguan Tribe. 
(in brackets, Onipeihi ') 

tow arm 

ni\i (niyi) 

tutl lingo, nilarua 

umpovu, kol.nia 
( Ulana) 

umulo, k:ini;il<a 
(makoyi ) 


niatuya (mahiya) 

wanga, wnnga 

pultu, owaran 
palki ? (mangili ) 

kamima (kauma ) 

\\ 1 1 i 1 1 

yiniirkui, iimpi 

koppa ( po ot;i | 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


Mutumui Trihe. 

( i ii brackets* 

Oni:wara ) 

Walmbaria Trihe, 
(in brackets, T:irtali) 

Kokolamalama Tribe. 
(in brackets, 


Barunguan Trihe. 

(in brackets, Oinpeila) 

reel", ('.oral 



kulla, tjayuka 

refuse, to 

— - 





\v:i n '4« si ll;i 

(a' (jar) 


ri<. H| w iiii (Orjtza tmtira ) . . 

*ar mama \ 


a \a 


kopnka, mania) (at 


fa pa) 

rurkslit'lU'T (wet wetlftOTl ramp ) 









I'M n :i\va,\ With, I'O 

iihoa rala 

kUJ 11. in 

'-mikI. sandy con t 1 1 r.\ . . 

loweir ( a wnr i 



malkana (mankan ) 


in di 



ko-ontu (ko-onlu) 

scratch, to 




s.-riiii fowl i. HfeffUttOdJUR '''''" 


Inutn, (wont a ) 

ii'itnll ) 

scrub ini-ki'V ( .1 ledum lull' 


I mil ii, nii I ia 

flitli ) 

■ ■;i 
• ; 1 .:i»'Iill {'iis >, Q ru ,■ hillu n 




olamla (Olanda) 

(I rwoisi 

ilnie ) 

m'ii lolise (Exctfdnnit <<nent 


a lis ) 

• ,-;, v\ .iter 



(kudom ) 









i;i ke, to 

shallow . . 

(ilia rk ( general ) 

ngfl mm u 


muwara ( nmwara) 




shell, bfllei" (.!/'■/" (Ilinlrnul) . . 

woniiii ( \v;ial ) 

adola, ad;i:il:i 

w'ii n;i in ( ;i\v;i n.'iin ) 

tilutnba (iniiiipa) 

sin']], cockle 



shell, cockle (,( ,•»« t m />ezia ) 

— - 



■..hell, giant clam {Tr-idiWfia 




.hell, pearl ( Meh'iii/rinn vmr 


\vei;i pa 


i/a t'flt ifeni ) 


t oinhulino 

shell, pearly naiHilns (\niiH 

h,y. /mm /liliiis) 

woimiirwul, \vnii.ii'.'ir- 


-hi 11, periwinkle t .Ye/o-e si. | 


■hell, siuiil, edible (Thei'xites 

lale ( undii' ) 

w alaku 

hi/in rl Hit > 

shell, trorh us ( Tmeh us irilo 

;tl >i n lv.i 



1 tfUfi ) 


shield, ,//.se uniiil (cheese /'tie 

Cuvi ) 


vvuvi dill 

iiUiilina n i 

a rpnni.'i n 

tao, i;ih-, tali 




- — 



w'orupa (aren^a) 

panla, lemma n (Inn 



man ) 

sii fiiiip ( generic j . . 


w :i rawi 



mantra i 


sixer's (humhler (male speak- 




• i -! er - -on ( male sjx^m ki n q; ) . 

sit down, to 




Hale and Tindale— Aborigines of North Queensland 





sU.v • • 

sleep, i«> • 


siliilll, also thin, etc. 
smear, 01' jrrease. In 
smoke (Itimpa fide Curr) 

Slliootll . . 

snake (yeerura fid# CnVr) 
snake, carpel ( Pythtm ) 

snake, gigantic poteonov 

( O.i i/iininii-s 
.make, poisonous (not dotel 

mined ) 
snake, sea- (//.'/<//•'/, g ) 
sole i.f foot 
6UJ1 ( m;ile spea k i 1 1 u > 
son, female speaking) 
SOUl 1 1 (or li west) 

ttpea I. . . 

ypear (knlka /i<ir Curt) 

:-,|.r;i l-illll | lilnudwood ) 

spear-smoother ( ha nlwood ) 

spider . . 

spittle . 

stand np, In 

•:i.i r ( i nmpc inir Oitrr) 

starlish . . 

Stfty awa.v one ni-ht, to 

st;iy awa.\ Iwu nights, to 

Stilt y away three nights, to 

s|:iy away altou'elher. fcil 
steal, to 

si iik insect ( Pkttxuiidw ) 

stomaeli (t<iolk;i /i/lr Guw) 

Si I kodhi ii<lr Cnrr) 

stone, large 

stop, to . . 


string, tWO stranded n;iti\ e 

strong j , 

:|IJ,;i r, ftf :,\\ <•<■{ -.11 Ps| ,| Hi <•.-, 

sun ( w ti'oti h.i flth ' 'u it ) 
sunrise . . 

mi nset 

swallow, in 

.S Willi 

ten (the trade artiele) 
tears ( weeping) , . 
term it.' 
ti'i -mite mound 

Mutumui Tribe 

(in l.raeki'ts, 

Onawara | 


a ii'la \ i 

wuniniuu ( worpar) 
II r u U n i . alk ii I 

eil.ia tin 


a Ik" a, a wit a 
olara (otare) 
(orinvur i 

turnk ul 

aniiirkan^an, iiniii r'kan 
(mera ) 

nriiburuprmu apil 

orn|)ote!ila apil 



nlpai (t:inil ) 


n W u r 

wi-kea r, wokk; 

,\ ewarla 


c la rwommnr 

Walmbaria Tribe. 

(in braekets, Tartali ) 


lakku (akkn) 
wa ndayi 
ma cigayi 

tjitjanua. winin-al 
wo pal 
i ii_v<i t-ii] >.i I 

; I ill I > 1 1 i 

a Ik a 

ola ra 

ma i-ara 


J'eralji, wa ra r 


a inurkan^a 


wa ippal 

WOga (I el a) 
WOfffl r illume 
nyorparti. yftgHsttllt 


won dal a 


ii -a kill 

Kokolamalama Ti -ibe 

(in braekets, 

Y.'tteiieru I 


I hainol, sainnl 

m'gil OtiiguTitr) 

nienaka.v i. aliwili 

(to ruga ) 

( nai-ai ) 

I I'liw a | ) 


thridiiiain (liTftpe) 

>ra II an^al 


tir pun^ar 
n.^iar (oamman ) 

' na r ( i'ira ) 
( eiralbalnema ) 
( eironyoiya n i 
ad nn a da m 

Barmignan 'lb 

( in braekets. ( )m 


reiln I 


w niiambii, onal 

li:'.il, I,; | 

(po a ) 
( kappa 1; 


|"i\\ M>, ka nulla I poVVfl i 

kalka, kak 

kail i 

I Ulipl. I lllllbi 

ii at. i a -l no ( nal ja n 
knl a (knl-a) 

| >l. i LIN 

pnn-a. kampella 

pn 1 1 'j- a wa wnyi 

|hi ii'.'ataak.-i 



Records of the S.A. Museum 


t.-Mlcle . . 


thigh (puhn jidr Chit) 


lh rout . . 

throw, (spear, etc. ) to 

rh rii'.', away, to 

throw down, to 

throwing stick, slender type 

(l.ootcl.ii lulr Chit) 
throwing stiek, flat type 
thumb . . 

lie Up, to 

mi-«mI, in become 
ii i ree ( Uelalevca I 

tobaCCO ( trad*' article ) . . 


toe, little 

toe, under the 

tomahawk (wakko fair Curr) 

1 f n 1 1 .- 1 1 1 .- 1 w k, stone head <>t" 

tongue (darbi fide Chit) . . 

LOOt]] ( kunnnun fidr Out) . . 

tflOth) Knocking oul of 

f m 1 1 1 1 , falling out. of 

tortoise, freshwater 

Irark- (ui- foot prints ) (tilkko 

!i<U> Curr) 
trade parcel (more recently 

money ) 
turn, ( the head) to 

turtle .. 

turtle, irreeli (( .'Itrhm in nn/,his) 
I ii rile, leather) ( I h> nnochfli/s 
coi'uicnt ) 

turtle, loggerhead (('arrthi 

rurrtlti ) 
turtle, shell or hawksbill 
| A-' rrl iiKir/irh/K iiti brit'nt n ) 

(Urtle, egg at 

turtle, flippers of , . 

turtle, nest of 

turtle, shell of 

turtle, snout of 
I """ 

umbilical cord 
untie, to 

urine . . 

vegetable food (yams, roots, 

vomit, to 
vulva , . 

Mntnmni Tribe 

(in brackets, 


otle .lli-.iodll 

marantal, uuiaii 
ountua (ountua) 
ma n u 


athawatha, w a that 
'n^n.rvvar, arw en 

tOko] taruv e| i 



afayil (okolopo) 

noreiiuba ( yaln.-a ) 






oleara (otcara | 

vvundii, ambulwunui 

ay i 

Walmbaria Tribe. 

(in brackets. Tartnlf ) 




o nkii (nutnlnga > 

; * < i < • ; 1 1 ; « 




algfl yerl.ii n 


matja, warai 


w iudi ( detrmbui ) 


mita n 


wolkel (alala) 

wanda ( reluha ) 




we a gal a 

ti ratal 

l;ika 3 i 



wadu (amlmlayur ) 



Kokolamalama Tribe 
(in brackets, 




la riiiiiariuyal 
enam, eiuaiu 

fin... •••I i n 



ranuw iini 


!;i ; u«mbda 
erierman (wagtui ) 


''ii -ul 

o ratal 


ho' war 

(o1t;il I 



Barnnguan Tribe, 
(in brackets, < impeila) 

wokana, wakkal 

nga nl a. ka utaua 
unlu, ku kut i 
wika (iiiaunu ) 

ma a pa pa, uiaapit 

keini, kaui 

t.ioi i- 1 

a i mala ( aimala) 


kumuna, kammaii 


(okla (liikul) 

wapuna, luppu 

karkara (ka rl?ara I 

k . . i 1 1 1 1 n . ■ 

pah a ii io, k i oil i 

kapitmO ( kapamo) 

pukana, pinyu 

Hale and Tindale— Aborigines of North Queensland 



walk, tO 

w;iii;ii>y, agilu {Mutrvptf* 

wallaby (Oni/rli'if/alr ini'/iii 


wallaby, rUtik {I'rlmntilr rf. 

ii ssi m His ) 
\\ )l,sll. In 


water, fresh ( t > ' • . Eumyo 

waterlily {tfympimm spp.) - ■ 
w attle bark fibre ■ • 

wallle I fee ( Arabia 8JJ.) . • 


WBsl ("i- no rlli west .) 



what is EM 
where is it .' 
wherei n 


White man (parra fldtt <'urr) 


wife's father 

wife's mother 

wife's sister 


wind, north east. 

wind, south-east I rude • - 


woman, single 
woman, old 

woman, young 

WOOd (youinpa !<'}<■ Chirr) . 

;\ ii rl. y or hnl 

yarn ( Diosrnmt sul i nt ) . . 
yam, some other . . 

v ainstiek, WOMiett'fi 


yellow ochre 

Mutumui Tribe 





w uinlnl 

a tn n ii ) 



nlpa PU 

( W 11 I'll ) 

uvvere, P 



(a liar) 

arnrn (< 

tama ) 

wainar ( wania ruka ) 

n wanain 


ii'iiilmni (teiinna i a ) 

yon go first ! 

aningir. alingii* 


enta (enta ) 

amba yil (la pal ) 


a nna (anna ) 


Walmbaria Tribe, 

(in hraekets, 'I'artali) 

I iiktin 


taw ii 





ma rpi 
tabayi, tori 
ark cit a 

a \ 



rabayi ( muni ) 

aw una 


ma i an i 

a run 

way a, 



rig inibnl ( tainba ) 

w n ni pa I i 





Kokolamalama Tribe 
( in brackets, 

Yelteneru ) 

a I'bimbnrwir 


1 1 1 < I . i wara n^a 

Ihrida (erele.) 



knrlaw an 



• l.i ppa, dabahayii 
ara par 

V'fllj umalbi 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

warkayi ( e'l.a r .) 
a i-nn-uia 

Barunguan Tribe, 
( in Ii rackets, Oiflpeiln I 

opala, pii i. pi i ) 

w Lrlti 



w niola, won) a 


antra. Wupoikam u 
wentja wentja, 
91 .ii ja 

wopo'ika m ii 


Enquiries among tin' people mentioned in this paper did noi bring to liiiiit 
any knowledge of the bow and arrow. On an earlier visit, to Cape York Penin- 
sula one of vis (T.) saw children using small bows and arrows at Batavia River 

172 Records of the S.A. Museum 

on l.he Avcst const; They stood in the breaking surf and aimed small arrows at 
fish which were momentarily visible as the combers curled. They also shot al 
garfish I'i'oin small outrigger canoes which they paddled about in the weedy shal 
lows. The bow was comparable with that figured in flte English edition oj Bahsel 
i - s ) as probably from Cape York, and was made from a simple unsplit piece of 
mangrove wood from two to three feci m Length* The arrows Were from twelve 
to fifteen inches in length and composite, at) mibarbecl palm or other heavy wood 
point being fixed into a vo^d shaft, 

In the Princess Charlotte Bay area boomerangs are not used. Only the 
Kokobimalama have a name (Marumbif) for boomerang. It is ;i weapon which 
is known to them by repute through «'ontact whh natives to the soulh and south- 
west of the coastal area under discussion. Our einpiiries lead us to believe that 
the boomerang is not in use any when- on the Tape York Peninsula. 

Thomson (- :, j fms described lire and mouniinir ceremonies of the Mhnpela' 
and k Yintjiii^a' groups of (he ParuiiLiuau Tribe. Our accounts (<rnha, p. [14. 
etc.) may iherei'ore be regarded as supplementary. The l mola ' strings mentioned 
b\ him are shown in our fig. 70, and are described as 'mourning strings'. 

Iianiield ( •"'" i describes a native ftompanion dance by men from Princess 
Charlotte Bay; the performers painted themselves with streaks of while and 
pink clay. Wearing hail* and Feather decorations, they formed a circle, and, 
bowing to tiie centre, Ihrew their bauds out behind their backs and whirled about, 
imitating the noise of (he birds. They flapped with their arms and came suddenly 
lo m dead pause in unison. Hollow loirs and boomerangs (the latler perhaps being 
acquired cultural objects) were employed to beat time. 

The same writer also describes a doe; dance in which the pel-formers imitated 
ihe behaviour of two angry canines, progressing in spasmodic jerks and working 
up to a snarling, snapping climax. 

(-'«) Untzcl, History of Mankind, i, isjm;. ,>. 

(-'■<) Thomson, M;i.,. 32, MKCJ. \o. I!»S. 

( :; ") I'.riiilicld, Confessions of ;i I W-.-o-In'om her, L&IJB, \k li 7 .* 5 . 


By Bernard C. Cotton, Conchologist, South Australian Museum 


This has proved one of the most difficult families to classify. Probably the list of South 
Australian species should be as follows: 

Dosinia crocea Deshayes ( = circinaria Deshayes), D. victoriae Gatliff and Gabriel (not 
D. histrio var.), D. sculpta Hanley. Sunemeroe aliciae Adams and Angas (type from 
Encounter Bay). The last is very closely allied to S. vaginalis Menke, but apparently 
different. If it is the same species, S. vaginalis has priority by twenty years. Gouldiopia 
( 1 ) australis Angas, Circe weedingi sp. nov. described below. Notocallista kingi Gray, N. 
planatella Lamarck. Tavvera ( 2 ) gallinula Lamarck, T. lagopus Lamarck. Chioneryx 
cardioides Lamarck (= Venus stiatissima Sowerby). Placamen placidum Philippi, P. tiara 
Dillwyn. Bassina disjecta Perry, B. pachyphylla Jonas, Gomphina undulosa Lamarck. 
Eumarcia fumigata Sowerby. Katelysia corrugata Lamarck (= scalarina Lamarck) K. 
peroni Lamarck. [K. corrugata and K. peroni are the sand and mud cockles respectively. 
These two common bait cockles are extremely variable, and although one is disposed at 
first sight to divide them into innumerable species, after careful examination of many 
specimens not more than two species can be recognized. Although both may be found 
living together, K. corrugata predominates on sandy beaches and K. peroni on muddy 
beaches.] Venerupis exotica Lamarck, V. mitis Deshayes, V. diemenensis Quoy and 
Gaimard, V. crebrelamellata Tate, and V. crenata Lamarck. 


No. 3. 
By Rl.RNAKI) C. COTTON^, Sot "in Australian Muskhm. 

B*Ig. 1-7. 

i amiiv vknkridae. 

This h;is proved one ol' the most diffieull 1'amilics to classify. Probably the list of 
South Australian speciew should be as follows: 

Dnsiiiid orocea Deshayes (= ofccwu^nrt Dcshayes). ]), vivtorw Gatliii and 
Gabriel (not I>, hisi no var.), />. svulpfa Ilanlry. Sum unrof <ilici<i< Adams and 
An^as (type from Eneonnter Bay). The last is very closely allied to 8. IMflMidlii 
Menke, but apparently different, if it is the same species, S. vaginalis htifi 
priority by twenty years. GoultHojfki i 1 ) tiuslralis Auu'as, Circr maiinpi sp. 
hoy. described below. Notomllufti kingi Gr&y, A'. planatMti Lamarck. T<ut:< ru 
( 2 ) (/ulhtut'a Lamarck, 7. lugup'Ux Lamarck. ( 'h iou< ru.r canlioiths Lamarck 
(= Venus stint issiina Sowerby). PlncnnuH itfncid/nn Lhilippi, P. liara I > i 1 1 \\ \ n . 

Bassinet disj&vta Perry, /». paohyphj/lla Jonas, G'oMphina undulosa Lamarck. 
Bum&roia futnigutu Sowerby. K&lctysiu vorrugufu Lamarck (' = sMldHnu 

Lamarck), K. p&l'Ont Luniarcl,. [K> cor ruga la and K. pcroni are the sand and 
mud cockles respectively. These two common bait cockles are extremely variable, 
and although one is disposed al lirst sighl lo divide them into innumerable species. 
after careful examination of many specimens not more than two species can 
be recognized. Although both may be found living together, K. corruy&ta pre- 
dominates on sandy beaches and K. peroni on muddy beaches. | Vent rupis oxolti'U 
Lamarck, \' . mi/ts Dcshayes. V. <J><iu<u</isis Qiioy and (Jammed, V. <r< brcluni' I- 

lata Tate, and I', crmala Lamarck. 

The remaining three species of Vi iurupis may be allotted to two subgenera, 
as follows: Subgenus I'ldhislra | :; ) \\ (Jdlacl lies Lamarck and l\ jlnbofplln 
Dcshayes. Sub-en us Cl(lUdi60WhU Fischer 1<s<s7, |\ cunhin/i Dcshayes. 

From Western Australia Vereo dredged Vent nipis exot%CW, V. JlubuipUu. V, 
i/ ihs, I'. rrrbn lumrlhtfn, and L. iridcscnis at localities between Albany and 

174 Records ok the s..\. Museum 

( 'ikck WKEDIXfli sp. nov. 
Wig. :} and 4. 

Shell subtriuonal, rounded, truncate posteriorly, about as hi«>'li as lohg, very 
depressed; cream or wry lighl faun coloured. usually withoul a vOHtlgU of rmlials 
though somelimes with one narrow, indistinct reddishdn-ow n radial stripe; tinged 
will) liidit lawn or violel within; hinge deep, middle cardinal teeth stromrly 
developed; concentrically, irregularly, ru^osely sculpt tired ; obsnlHcly di vnei 
<-;iiel\ Sculptured about Ihe uinbonal area; inner margin of shells smooth. 

Holotype. Heigh1 56 mm., length 56 mm., and breadth o[ jpined valves 

Ifig, i ;owl 'j. Gastrachaeiw frotiflftm *|». nov, ]Ttg, :> ;nnl 4. ('<>•<■< <rt< tliwgii sp. mn 
ffig. .">, f», ajid 7. Bynkiu gabrwU sj>. nov. 

IS mm. Miulacowie, Wesl Coast of Yorke IVninsnla. In Smith Aust ralian 
Museum (D. 10957). 

Common in Spencer Gull: on the beach to To fath.; good heaeh sprmmens 
being takmi at Wallaroo. It is very rare in Gull' Si. Vincent on Ihe beach, bnl 
is more commonly dredged down to 20 1'atli. 

At Mural Uay h slightly more obese form occurs as a suhj'ossil. Flindrrsian 
specimens are somewhat like ReeVe J 8 illustration ( ' }, which, Iiowwim'. is not the 
shell described in Hie corresponding text as (\ rit'vlaris Mankc. the red-striped 
smaller shell shown at ftg. 3 b in the same publication. 

Cotton Phlkcypoda from Southern Australia 175 

c. w&dvnyi is separable from other Australian species of f'irrr by its irregll- 
Utr concentric sculpt lire, lack of colourat ion. the weakly developed cfiVaricatC 
sculpture found only in llie immediate vicinity of 1 lie* umbo, and llie compara- 
tively greater heiglik Tin* fatio of the anteroposterior diameter to the Limbo 
\cni i-ril is Seven to six in a juvenile, and one to one in an ad nil. 

Xone of 1 tie numerous described foetus allied to the 1'erouian (\ quoyi agrees 
With this Klindcrsian species. It is named after llie Rev. J. B, Weediuiz 1 , ol' 
Iladelt, whose discriminate collecting of shells from the w^lms coasts of Boiltll 

Australia is providing valuable data. 


In the Plindersian region then' arc ilirce representatives of this family. 
Kartmio ( Yvhtnjilltt) rubiuiiin&a Adams and Anuas occurs in both gulfs alive 
fmiti ."> to 20 fath. Tin? type from Port dackson 4 fath. 18 mm. x 10 mm. 
Tasmanian specimens attain to 19 mm. x 14 mm., but in southern Australia 
11 mm. x 8 mm. seems to he the maximum size. Vorco dredgftd this alive at Albanx 
in 20-28 fath. Specimens in this Museum from South Australia bearing the name 
Gh&risfodo'n (Iwarw&m (Mienmifz are merely variants of (he above, ffmwiiv 
hfdcidu ('hemnit/ we have from Port Willunjia, Tort Lincoln, St. Francis Island 
Peach to S3 fath.. also Albany, liunbury, Yallinifup, Kllenshmok, ami Fremanih- 
Peach to Sfi fatli. Tate compared Port Lincoln specimens with I he lype and 
pronounced them identical. 


The following species occur in South Australia : 

Tellina Mimtla Lamarck, 7. uldingenH%s Tate, 7'. I nsifunnis Sowarby. 
>■< a" l<ni</itli<s suhililulus Tale. $. vineentitmwt Tate. «S. U ■■■iinili.nittts Sowerby. 
Marainu ( Sifhimrouut > j 7> ) thf i oidttlis Lamarck, ,)/. moth'sl i nit Tate, .1/. scit't- 
fossi/is Sowerby. VsfudurcOpagiU victoriue Gailifl: and (labriel. The following 
species have been erroneously recorded from South Australia, and have never 
1)ccji taken there to our knowledge; TetUna viri/nln. T. shmrr/ht, m tx I Metis 
Hiiihnmlhi. Pel ween Albany and Fremanlle Vere.o look TellPnd tfldinQenidx, '/'. 
iimtlcsfina, Snitf liMtfful Its suhdilul its, S. h iiiiilinif its, S, ri))mil in nn.s, Mncotnu 
s< TMfossilvt$ FseudareopagiU Virfanac, and some I'our or five as yet unidentified 


South Australian species are: Semeh ftrigwi Adams. S. ada A«lams. N. 
tnonilis Adams and An^as. The last lias ;dso been taken fir I Jnnbii ry beach. 
Western Australia, in 15 fath. 

176 Rkcords of the S.A. 

Family GARJI3AE, 

From South Australia wg have G'wri !wi>fa Lamarck, (i. alba L&iUarek, (?» 
modesta J)eshayes, a. bra<z$eri [fate, S<>h hl!ina btradmtn Wood, n. dwutcioidcx 
Reeve f = floridn Gould p*eocc-J. ff. Ktutiki was taken at Albany and Rottnesl 
down to 28 lath., and & brasieri at Albany and Bunbury down to 35 tath. 

Pamim solenidak. 

gfltetj nnjiimn/fs may be added to the Western Australia*! lisi, as n was 
dredged at Albany in 22 to 35 fath. 


Prom South Australia we have: Doaa.r (UeltafiMnn) rhrfiiis Iredale, Panax 

(Memidonax) diapmani G&tlift and QaMel, Oowx fPlebidonax) d^lfoides 
Lamarck, Donax (Tentidomx) ufiriunwi Jlodley (St, Francis Island, 35 falh.. 
typical), identified by Hedley. />. viwpmwm was taken at Albany, Bunbury, and 

Rottnest down to 28 rath, hoaa,,- Jriioifhs is plentiful from Encounter Bay 

southwards. II is fairly plentiful at Sellielrt Beach, and is actually said to be 
i'ound alive as Ear north as Port Xoarlun^a. Being a favourite bait eoefck il may 
bave established itself in these places through being transported there by fisher- 
men. The empty shells arc found wherever fishing is carried on. 


South Australian species are: tfoofra (Ausfromacha) mfrsn ' a>, M. attstmUs 
Lamarck, .)/. (Nmmomuctra) tackwnenrin Smith, M. (Biaphoromffltra) versi- 
color Tate (= corragala Tate). .1/. ( i:\n-\raa\ar\ra ) owtfna Lamarck, .1/. (Tele* 
aiarfra) abbreviate* Lamarck, Spisafa (Nftibs-frkutiT) tfiffOnellQ Lamarck (no living 

uncus seen from South Australia). Aaapclla <■>/<■!< aha Lamarck ( =- Madra 
pinguis Crosse and Fischer). Lahtfjsa mcritfionai is Tate. Martra amygdala 
i'rosse and Fischer, described from Spencer Gltlf, appears (n be merely the 
.juvenile of M. intra Keeve. Mar Ira adrlaidar Areas. 

To the Western Australian list may be added ; M. jOrfatmenm Smith, Albany 
to Bunbury, dovm to 35 fafh. M. ovolina Lamarck, Alhanv 1o Kunbiirv, to 22 

Family A M PHIDESM ATI.] ) A I .. 

Only three species are taken in South Australia: Am pli'ahsiaa ( = &!MtoQ- 
dema Iredale !!):{() > an<)aslafa K.vw, A, rnnrala Lamarck, A. MtifJa Keeve. 

i Cotton — Pklecypoda from Southern Australia 177 

.1. n'tciiKirit Lamarck has been erroneously listed frotu South Australia, bill does 

liol OCClll' here. 


South Anslralian species fire: Jlinlrlla (Uislmlis Unnarek, tMtgtm Alibis. 
Panope (tmlrnlis Sowerby. //. mbalahi (iatlilf and (labriel was laken a1 the fol- 
lowing localities: Corny Point, 3 miles south of Tnnk Head. 16 falh.. mid 
channel between Pape P.orda and Wedge Island, 60 falh. As pointed oul by 
lred;de, this is apparent ly more nearly related 1o the Exfmioiliraeia-ThWQMav* 
tsfna series (ban 1o Hidfc/hi. II. dusfra/is Lamarck was taken in WVslern Aus- 
tralia al Albany, Yailingltp, Ellensbrook. linubury, and Fremanlh'. 

I am i i.v G AS PROCHA KN 1 1 )AE. 

Two speeies occur in Soiilh Australia, (ids/ roclnH mi hisnuuiicd Tcnisnn- 
Woods ;ind (1. frtjlidosn sp. nov., recorded by previous authors as (!. lamelloM 
Deshayes, a Phili ppine Island species different in shape from onrs. 

(5.\sTia>ri! \i:,\.\ KL'oxnnsA sp. nov. 
l?ig. 1 and 2. 

Pairly solid, inflated, leaf like in shape very widely gaping, umbos Inn 
slightly prominent, rounded behind, sharply rounded in from ; voniral margin 
convex throughout its length; yellowish-white (colype is darker, brown), bluish 
within; sculpture of numerous delienle concentric lamellae, crowded in front, 
spaced behind; hiii^'e with the vestige of a cardinal tooth and corresponding 
socket, and an obsolete posterior laleral ; ligament external, posterior, small. 

I lolotypc. Height PVf> mm., length 83 mm., breadth across joined valves 14 -o 
mm. Packstairs Passage, 35 falh., burrowinu' in a sponge. 1). 1()<MiS. Also Inves- 
tiLialor Sttaif, 10 miles of Troubrid^c, Ilardwicke liny, 8 falh.: Port Adelaide 
('reek, burrowing in limeslone; and Point Marsden, 17 falh. 

The ucaresl described species seems to be (i. (jiffit nl (<t Deshayes from no 
known locality. OllT shell dilVers from this in ihe genera I shape o\' Hie shell, par- 
ticularly Hie vent ral margin. 

Pamii.y TERKD1DAK. 

Spemes recorded from Soulh Australia are: Trrnh) pnci/liforutis Moll and 
Koch, T. cahmnii Moll and Koch, T. (Pingokmlo) frmjilis Tate, 7". (Nototertxlo) 
nhi.r tledloy. Rankin oohrivli sp. nov. A scicntitic investigation of this family 

178 Records of the S.A. Museum 

has yet to be made in South Australia, when probably more species will be found 

to occur. 

Uankj.V GABHTELT Sp, now 

Pig. 5, 6, and 7. 

Shell of medium size. white; anterior auricle large, sculptured with very 
numerous riblels; posterior auricle small, elongate, smoolh, except Tor aenv. 

mental striae; median area medium in size; anterior median fairly broad, 

extremely closely marked with fine riblels; middle median narrow; posterior 
median narrow, smoolh but for 1'me accremental striae; interior ivory-white; 
knob small, circular, delached; blade thiu. arising from behind the umbones; 
shelf elevated as a ridge running towards the umboues. not meeting the 1 > 1 ,• t » I . * ; 
hinirc thick, umbones fairly large. Pallets (%, 6) consisting' of conc-in-conc 
elements, well separated, numbering six. edges smooth; sintiate on one side, not 
sinuate on the other. Stalk long and thin, slightly longer than the cone in-cone 

Holotyp.'. Shell, height 7 mm., length 6-8 mm. Pallet, length 10 -'5 mm., 
length of stalk only 5 mm., width of cone-in-cone section 1-9 mm. Deunekin 
Slip, Port Adelaide. In South Australian Museum (I). 10970), 

The pallets of the holotype have a small fragment broken from each end. so 
thai the measurements of a complete paralype pallel is given here. Paratype pal- 
lei (largest specimen) : Dength 20-5 mm., length of stalk only, 11 mm., width of 
eone-in-cone section 2-1 mm. 

The specimen described as holoUpe was handed to me by Mr. C. .1. Gabriel, 
after whom it is named. According to our investigations it would seem thai 
Cobra or Ship worms are scarce in the Porl Adelaide River, 


1. Tredale: Proe. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xlix, pi. )J, p. 209 ( 1924). 

2. Alarwiek: Trans. NX. hist.. :>7, p. 613 (192-7), 

3. Sowerby: Sowerby's Genera of Sliells, pi. 72 (1826). 

k Reeves Conch, Icon., xiv, Circe (1864), pi. 1. gg, :U\. 

5. Iredalr: Mem. Qld. Mus., ix, pi. iii. p. 267 'dune 29 1929), 




ByH. Womersley, F.R.E.S., A.L.S., Entomologist, 



The two families of Acarina dealt with in this paper are very closely related ; both belong 

to the suborder Prostigmata, characterized by the position of the stigmata, which open at 

the base of the mandibles in the adults. 

In general appearance the members of both families are similar, but in the Erythraeidae 

the mouth-parts are more or less retractile, while in the Trombidiidae they are not so. In 

the larval forms the Trombidiidae have a stigmal opening between the first and second 





By H. WOMKRSLEY, F.R.K.S., A.L.S., Entomot.ocist, South Australian Museum. 

Fig. 1-235. 

The two families of Acarina dealt with in this paper are very closely related; 
both belong to the suborder Prostigmata, characterized by the position of the 
stigmata, which open at the base of the mandibles in the adults. 

In general appearance the members of both families are similar, but in the 
Erythraeidae the mouth-parts are more or less retractile, while in the Trom- 
bidiidae they are not so. In the larval forms the Trombidiidae have a stigmal 
opening between the first and second coxae. 

Several species of Trombidiidae are of economic importance, for their larvae 
are not only of great annoyance to man, but transmit disease. In Japan the 
Kedani or river fever is caused by the bite of the Akamushi (Microl rombuliuin 
akamushi Brumpt.), while in Queensland and the Coorong district of South 
Australia the ti-tree itch mite (Trombicula hirsti Sambon) is a source of irrita- 
tion to campers. The harvest mites of Europe comprise the larval forms of 
several species; similarly in America other species are regarded as pests. Other 
larval Trombids, while not attacking man, are pests of various animals, such as 
cats, rodents, and marsupials, and are generally to be found in the ears, on the 
scrotum, etc. Adult Trombids, as far as is known, feed upon insects and their 

As far as is known none of the Erythraeidae attacks man or animals, but all 
species are essentially parasites of the early stages of insects. The adults prob- 
ably have similar habits to the adults of the Trombidiidae. 

Tn studying these creatures one is faced with the difficulty that only in one 
or two cases have the life-histories been to any extent worked out, and is forced 
to give both generic and specific names to larval forms without any correlation 
with the adults. 

Comparatively little work on this section of the fauna has been carried out 
in Australia, only four workers having written on them, namely, W. J. Rainbow, 
N. Banks, S. Hirst, and L. W. Sambon. Most of our knowledge is due to the 
work of Mr. S. Hirst, who was in South Australia during the years 1927-1928. 

1*0 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Tu 1508 VV. A. Uainbow { ' J ) listed hvo species of Trorabidiidaes Trtimbitlinni 
.<<ri<-tthhit sp. now < i ml Trtinihifiiitm papuanum Canestrixii, In this paper the first - 
named is referred to the -irmis Cttenofhrombiwm of Oudetuans, and is shown t« be 

synonymous with two of Hirst's later species. I have Ji ( >t he&n able to s<m* tlit' 

original description of the second species, birl as Rerlcse, in Ins monograph of Hie 

j_Tonp l : '), does not mention it. probablx it is not recognizable now and can be 
dropped. In addition Rainbow records three rteeuramGes of *'/,//>///-.■ Kpp.* 1 on 

wirions insrcls. It i^ possible thai these do belong to the Lmnus LrptllS 

(Eryihracidae) as now understood, especially considering t heir hosts: almost 

<-rrf ;iinl y tliey should not be plfteed in the Trombidiidae. Amomjsl the ttrythrae- 
idae Uainbow IlStS Nme/e/e/ r.rfranra Koch from Queensland, Uhynclrolopfrns 
niftiittiiiu sp. now from Mount Kosciusko, rind filniin-holnfilms cderip#& sp. now 
from Enfield, N.S.W. I have not seen the original description of tie- first, and do 
mmi discuss it in this paper. The second is shown herein to be a species of 
(''Ki'iilisoum, ;ind the third a species of EVytllPat its. 

The i\(^x^ paper was h\ Uanks ( -). who described a number of Acarina talmn 
in association with aids by the late Mr. A. M. Lea in Victoria and Tasmania! 
AinonList tin- Trombidiidae he described TrombidHm ftequnti< % which is referable 

1o Mnrofroiulihhitm, as ;ire also Rkynokotophto dlh>!,(s and ft, niculus. which 

Ei£ refers tci the Erytbramdae. Fe^sania pmmnem Imnks is h frne member of the 
Brythraeidae, but the genus most be changed to (yalyptotfowo, 

The fir.sf of Hirst V. papers dealing with the Australian species was thai in the 
Annals and Mag. Xaf. llisr. for 1920 : . { 'K when he described the following 
species: Mini h rnnihiu m I 'rrmrrnfi ii>i, , Mini h rombi it til ( M 'c.solli nniihnnn J anfi- 
poduiiuini t A. ( JfJ a, wir. nhnnnmi, nil belonging to the Trombidiidae. In the 
mm* journal for U)g8 | s ;. he added the Ppllowing S|>ecies: ('Inf-cria tins! nitinisi 
sp. imv., tfmPrtiinbirfwtn burrmrinnenw $p. nov,. BiplQtfwwnbmui trustralicnse 
sp. nov., Mirruhumhifiiiun hfimin/miriisr sp. nov., jlfrrntrirnibidiHlH ( Eunun- 
thrombitm) coUhmwi sp. nov., M. < /•:. j wijandrm sp. nov., VifMthwthhwm 
iij/iifjannist sp. nov, IK fiplendidWh sp. nov.. />. hvriilum sp. nov., 1). mission 
sp. nov.. and Minihrnmhiuni ir/.ni.xln/r sp, nov. amongst I he Trombidiidae ; find 

CaecuMsoftiu namfwm sp. now, I j pins piloses sp. n<w.. /.. mjinfa} sp.. now. /,. 
(Tniipotlianm sp, nov.. /.. imperator sp. nov T , MM'mttHtris gotiftHufi sp. now. and 

/iifa/tsfinm warregen** sp. now amnng'sl the Kryihrneidae, or rim above all his 

spenrs of ninnihnnuhufni t ,re placed hej-ein in the -'enns < \n not h rauihivni , and 

/^. .s 7 Vf mrlidnm is regrai»ded as m synonym of (?. wicutnm (Rahibcrvr). The speeieH 

uf /.//y/^.s- ,-ire now placed under h'riffl, nn us, .-md /,. imnrriitor and /.. n )tl i (u„l ,- 
(JWtttPe inchided in rhe synonymy nf nther spe<-ies. RelttMtiWH tcur^,,, us, is a 

member of the genius /,' pftw as now defined. 

Womhrslhv Australian Mm is 181 

In the Proe. ZooL Sq& Labcltibp for 1928 t M ) n^< 'Wed fhe follow iim-: 
Cfiyzeriu montnnu sp. now, f. itmsyrfto*i sp. now, Miern1rnmMiU%m purmmm 

sp. now, .)/. >///n/r Bp. now, ,)/. monf&Vtt&Wti sp. nov,. I/. ( K ih moflii'tnnlmuif ) 
Jcbordaanni sp. now. .)/. (M£J simile sp. now. AltrftkrontMum (jutUttwm sp. nov., 
,1. (ifinihnn sp. now. J. insttpif sp. now, J. (mtipotJillWUni wir. />oi<<li>tiit>i< var. 
now, THnothrmnhmm rainhowinp. nov., />. riiihicositnt sp. now, />. nobifo sp. now. 
/>. at(<iiishf< sp. nov., and />. hnflnri sp. now belonging to the Trombidiidaw Of 0. nu(S(irnr<i is reduced in this paper to varietal rank; .)/. montivagnni is 
placed in the <renu.s (Ui< H<,f/)roiu()iu>ii. and />. nt'nihowi is considered synonymous 

with it. AUothromhiitm onmtum is treated a« a synonym of .1. guttahvm, D. 
ventHcoitum iti 0. x&ieotunt (Uainbow), and I), taylari atf r. lorruhtm. Alio- 

lii rnnil.'imn inst<;/i,> is placed in lhe new <2i*n i is .1 ks( ml hrmnhin m . a>S is also .1. 
atil'i i><><li<i)i!tut var. Londi/tiitm, which is shown not to bo related to .1. iinii 


In fhc same journal for 1329 I ' 10 ) Wirsl added to the list Chi/yrin arimoeni 
sp. nov., ('. ijtsuluiw sp. now, (\ QVCldenialiS Sp. now, TnmilxKu iciinc</t usis sp. 

now. AJlotbmmbinm [ Mesathrambiiim ) au&tralien&i ap. now, 4. fiawultim 
iiroon^sl Hie adull Trombidiidae, and Troptbivula noime-'kollmidiat sp. now. 
Srhongasfio dasycrrci sp, now, and n. (mtipodiipnHm sp. nov, amongst tin- larval 
forms, lie suggested thai (T occklenUtUa might he only a variety of ('. austfal- 
ii nsti, and I agree wilh this view, 

In the Annals and Ma-. \at. Hist f*») f 1927. Dr. L. W. Sambon dufleiribed 
a larval Trombid from Queensland as TfowbtCllla ////'*//. while in the same publi- 
cation for 1!>2!> Hirst recorded this species I'or South Australia, and described 
another larval Form under i he name of Srlnnuta^l m CQOWngeMe. 

The previous known adult species of Trombid and tfrylhraeid Miles from 
Australia, Ihorefore. omitting one or two donbtfnl forms, as well as ihose herein 
regarded as synonyms m reduced to varietal rank, are as follows: 

Adult Trombidiidae. 32 species and 2 varieties 
Larval Trombidiidae, ,1 species. 
Adult Krythramdae. l J species. 

Larval Rrythraeidat*, nil. 

In lie' present paper lb* species and 1 varieties of adnlt Trombidiidae are 
jistcdi of which 2 genera, 14 species, and 1 variety are new. Of the larval Trom- 
bidiidae 2 new species are added. In the Kryt hraeidae 24 adnll forms are listed. 
Of which 1 i species jiikI 1 genus are new. No larval Kryt hraeids ha\'e been pre- 
viously recorded from Australia, but no fewer than 9 speeies are now described. 

The writer is grateful to the A nl horit ies of the Australian Mnseiim. Sydney. 

U}2 Records of the S.A. Museum 

for tie loan of type material* while his gratitude eaE hardly be expressed to 

ProfeSSor Harvey Johnston, to whom the material collects by Hirst while in 
Australia hud been given by Mrs, Hirst. This material contains a Large number 
of Hirst 'a types, the location of which may nol have been made known otherwise. 
These types and many other of Hirst \s specimens hove been deposited by Professor 
Johnston in the South Aiisl ralian Museum. Thanks arc also due lo many other 
friends who have collected specimens which have assisted in the preparation of 
this paper; 


rnvzuiuA (Vinestrini, 1897. 

CHYZEftlA aestkauknsi-: Hirst. 102$- 

The type of this Bpeeics, frtilfl "Swan River, West Australia' 1 is in the South 
Australian Museum. It is labelled as from the nest of the nut Pancrd lnhu. A 

secoml specimen from the same locality is a paralype. 

Through the kindness? of the Authorities of the Australian Museum. Sydney, 
I have been ahle to examine all the types of Hirst's Australian species, with the 

exception of C> occidentalis, and to compare them with a number of additional 
Specimens recently taken in South Australia. 

('. ocmdentalin was described in 1929 ( 10 ) by Hirst from a specimen eal 

leoted on Ivottnest Island, West Australia. In his remarks he expressed the 
opinion fhnt if might only be a variety of 0. «vsiniitt ns<\ differing mainly in the 
Shorter and stumpier palpal Claws and in the rather more developed lateral body 

processes. From an examination of all the material before me I quite agree with 

this view, find in this paper treat it as such. 

Further. Hirst \s (7. mnsQVilvti musl also be considered as a raricty differing 
in that the median .'interior plate is developed into a comparatively long process. 
One specimen amonasi the Hirst material in Professor Harvey Johuslon's keep- 
ing, and now in the Soulh Australian Musriim, is clearly intermediate between the 
tWO forms in respect of this character, the process being shorter and triangular. 
This specimen wns labelled in pencil by Hirst as (\ MUSQrctVcL All the Specimens 
Collected recently by Mr. M. YV. Mules and myself in the Adelaide District HgTQX* 
wilh this intewnediate form, for which 1he name ('. tatst rah'insf VHt*. In'rsli var. 
nov. is jjroposed. 

Loc. Type: Willunga., West. Aust.; par&types: Woodside, s. Aust., -Inly. 
t»33 (\v ivi.); Alt. Osmond, s. Ause. Ncpi. 17. \ l x\:\ iiLW.); Glen Osmond, s. 

Aust., Oct. 1. 1!>:!:;( II AVE 



Kig. | 1. Chiirriiii ,,.,'..',,.<':,,,,., Uirsi: I. <|,-»l \ \\ w ; 1. pulp ; 3J t r».»m tflfJ5ltS MU<I ttlCtU 

" M , i . i n 1 1 ■ » i <• i latpraJ ami medial il<xraa1 pt'omuiom-c* »*' mr. in-usf/wi'ii llirsj. 

K i ■.•■■ TO TflK ArsTRAUAX AMI \l.\Y ZiiAI.ANI) SmriKS OF PtlYtflSRlA. 

1. Srcmni and third pairs of dorsal lati*ral proeossos poorly developed and 
almost obsolete. No distiticl median anterior dorsal process, only n plato 

w i 1 1 1 rounded posterior udgr, A distinct and eniiiparjitiYtfly lon«r n h • < I i ; 1 1 1 
ppOCGSM | >ust priori y and Yen t ra 1 1 v. hYont Tarsus rather more than •! limes as 
I"iin- Ms hio'h mikI imc fourth as long again ms Ihc metatarsus. Palp With 

ooniji and long accessory claw. . . . (I amtraHm^ Hlwrt /./,. 

Second ;md third pairs of dOTflfll lateral processes distinctly developed . . -. 

2. A I ria uvular <.r elongate median anterior process |'iv>.riii ..3, 

\Y. such process, only i\ posteriori y-i-ouiidcd plate . . . . 4. 

3. AVith a comparatively hum- median anterior process. 

ft aiis/ruli' usi v;ir, mnxfp'UVri Hirst. 
With a short tniangul&l' process antcm-medially. 

C, Qitslralh Hue var. hir*H vflr. now 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

4. Terminal claw and accessory d&w of palp short and stumpy .. ..5. 
Terminal and accessory claws of palp long . . . . . . 6. 

5, Unpaired medjo-posterior ventral process minute .. ('. insula n<t WivM. 

This process comparatively long and slender. 

C. ouslralir ns( var. ofcii/citlafis Hirst. 

i : . Medio-posterior ventral process minute. Large species. Lateral processes 
long and with the long ciliated hairs numerous . . C amdgera Hirst. 

Medio-posterior ventral process long and slender . . . . 7. 

7. Anterior lateral pair of dorsal processes long and slender, longer than the 
next pair. Large species . . . . . . (\ movtana Hirst. 

Anterior pair of lateral dorsal processes little longer than the next pair. 

0, novu('-]iolI<iii<lia< Hirst (New Zealand L 

8 f 

Fig. fi-N. TronibrlJa ivairef/cusix Hirst: ."», mil line of body showing shape and dorsal 
pits; o" front tarsus and metatarsus ; 7, one of the lateral dorsal pits mueh enlarged showing 
setm-; S, our of tin 1 setae nnieh magnified. 

Womkrsley— Australian Mites 185 

TrombeIiLA Beriese, 1887. 


r rii< i type of I his species was amongst the Hirst material Left in Adelaide, and 
is now in I he South Australian Museum. 

The description given by Hirst ( 1 ") is very full and adequate, but only the 
front tarsus and the tip of the palp were figured. A drawing showing the shape 
of the animal and the general arrangement of the dorsal pits and the spines of the 
same, together with another figure of the front tarsus and metatarsus, are now 

The type locality was the River Warrego, New South Wales, August, 1928. 

NEOTROMmmr.M Leonardi, 1901. 


The type of this species is now T in the South Australian Museum. It was 
found amongst the Hirst material in Adelaide. 

There is nothing to add to the original description ( s ), and the author's 


Ifig, 9—12. DiitlotJtrombium au-straUense Hirst: 9, crista ami ey©s; 10, pulp; II, front 
r.nsus ,'iikI metataraus: 12, one of the dorsal seta&, 

L8.6 Rkcords of the S.A. Museum 

figures of the palp, front tarsus and metatarsus and dorsal setae ( 10 ) &rs 

Dll'LOTHKOMi'.ii'.vi Uerlese, 1910, 

Dii'LOTHROMBJI M A i rSTRAld^NSE Birst, L92& 

This interesting species was described from specimens collected by Hirst at 
Charlesville, (Queensland, in June, 1927 ( . s ). Other spechoenS were from (Jawler. 
South A usr rnlia, in March, 1-927, The original description was not accompanied 
With any figures, but Hirst later ( J0 ) figured the front tarsus and nietalarsus and 
the palp. 

The syntypes From ( 'harlesville, as well as the OaAvler specimen and another 
from Dubbo, Queensland, were in the Hirst material; and are now in 1 he South 
Australian Museum. 

There is little to add to the original description, bill one or two additional 
details are figured. Hirst's statement that the sensillary area of the crista has 
three pairs of sensillae is erroneous. The median pair of hairs are not of a 
Sensory nature and do no1 arise from pits like true seiisillae. They are in even 
respect similar to the ordinary body seine. 

MvriMicoTKOMiai'M gen. uov. 

Diagnosis of Gentts: Crista shorl with two sensillary areas at anterior and 
posterior ends. One eye on each side, in front of the anlerior end of crista. Bodj 
as in Micro! rombtdium. Tarsi at end Iruncate with one Or 1 wo small raised 
prominences from which arise plain setae. 

Remarks: In having two sensillary areas to the crista this genus comes near 
to Ihe preceding and also to the genus Rohaultid of Ondemans. PiplothrOMbiUm 
has the two sensillary areas adjacent and iu the middle of the crista, ttohoul 'fin 
has them separated, one heing anterior and the other median on a transverse 
plate. Tins new genus differs from both in having only a single eye on each side. 
in t his respect resembling T rouihicvht. 

Genotype: MyrmivoiramMuni hrcmcrustuhum sp, now 

M vuMiroTKovimr.M m;< kistati^i sp. now 
Des&ription: Length o-<s;) mm. Colour in life pinkish-white. Crista well 

developed but Short, 160/a, with anterior and posterior sensillary areas each with 
a pair of sensory hairs about lit) ,, long. Eyes, one on each side, large, and placed 
distinctly in front of the anterior end of erista. Palpi long, with the usual tibial 
Claw, but without accessory claws or spines, palpal tarmiS long, not clubbed and 
well overreaching the tip of claw. Legs shorter than body, 1 1 and II I shorter than 



I and IV, tarsi I and II with two small tubercles on the truncated end, from each 
of which arises a plain seta. Ill and TV wilh one tubercle only, claws strong ami 
simple. Front tarsus 120 p Long and 50 p high, subelliptical, metalarsus narrower 
lull as long as tarsus. Clothing of numerous densely feathered hairs, the Longer 
ones t>5 ii ami decidedly bushy, the shorter ones only 15 { i. 

Locality: A single specimen collected with anls al (»Ien Osmond, South Aus- 
tralia, September 11, 1938. 

Type: In the South Australian Museum. 

1 6 


Fig. L3 17. M i/rinirol nnnbitun brevicfitti UtM m Et,g., li.sp.: I M, cristM ;nnl eves; II. palp; 
1.5, i'nml t.-irsws ;iihI met ;i1 ;i isus ; 10, <lois;il setae uf two sizes; 17, tip ol* tai'SUfl :m<l claw. 

Microtromkidium llaller, 1882. 
This genua as it is represented in Australia is composed of 1he Iwo subgenera 

Em wothr&mbium and SHcrvtrombidium el str. It is particularly rich in species, 

no fewer than 1!) being now listed for this continent. 

AIlCK'OTKOMBlDIUM llallcr, 1882, S, str. 

Al k KOTUoMiunn'ivi nAimiNuuNKNSK Hirst, 1928, 

The type ot' this species was amongst 1he material left by Hirst, and is now 
deposited in the South Australian Museum. There is nothing further to add to 


Records of the S.A. Mi:seum 

the Original description (•*), and the species may be identified by the key givea in 
this paper. 

Ml('Ki)T];n;vii',il)lC,M WEBTBALIENSE sp. now 

Description: Closely allied to the preceding species. Size 1-2 mm. Body 
shape normal, Kyestwo on each side, almost sessile (when first mounted the eyes 
vvfere easily observed, hut owing to displacement of the specimen they cannot now 
be seen, being hidden by the legs). Sensillary area of crista posterior in position. 
Nasal process wanting, Dorsal hairs uniform, long, 60 p, and feathered as in M. 
barringunense Hirst. Ventral hairs similar bill shorter and slightly stouter. 25 f.i. 
Palpal tibia with the usual terminal claw and its base on inside with two smaller 
accessory claws or spines much as in preceding species. Palpal tarsus noi clubbed, 
barely reaching tip of claw. Tarsus of front tegs elongate, sides slightly tapering 
towards apex, 200 ,u long by 90 ,./. high, one-third as long again as metatarsus. 
Colour of aniimil in life rn]. 

&%. is 20. MUsrotmmbUMum wrxtmiieiifu n.sp.; is, palp; LP, front t.-u-sus attd iiarta 

Imi-iis; I'd, long Jiiid short <lors:il srt;ir. 

Locality: Under stones at Mundaring, West Australia, August 9, J 93) 

Typt : In the South Australian Museum. 

Hfintirhs: This species differs from the preceding species in the presence of 
eyes and in the dimensions of tin- front tnr.sus. 

Womktcslry— Australian Mites 


MlCKOTlfOMniDll'M MVKMirUM Sp. UoV. 

Description: Size 0*8 rnm. Body of normal shape, broadest across tin* shoul- 
ders. Eyes two on each side, sessile. Crista wit li posterior sensillary area. Dorsal 
hairs all of one type, Leaf-like with shorl lateral hairlots, almost as broad as long, 
length 20 u. Palpal tibia with terminal and one accessory claw followed by tour 


Fiji. 21— 2fJ, Micnilromh'uliiiiii m i/nn icu m n.sp.: 21, palp; 22, front Uirsus ;in.| met u t ;i rsus ; 

2&, one "i' i lie dorsal setae. 

or live spines. Palpal tarsus small, not clubbed, iind not reaching tip of elaw. 
Tarsus Of front leg short, elliptical, more than half as high as long, 110 p. by 
180/2 respectively, twice as long as metatarsus. Colour in life light red. 

Loral,/,/: With nnls. IY1 uudaring. West Australia. May 25, 1981 ill.W.). 

Syntypest In the South Australian Museum. 

Aliria>TKOMmi>ir\i attoucs ( [Banks, 1916). 
Sy ii. lihtjnclioloplius aJtolUS l'»Mnks. 1916. 

The species described by Banks (~) as Ehyneolophtis uttolm is, like his 

speeies //. r, h it/us, a member of the genus Micro! rouibidiuHi s.l. The syntypes 

are in the South Australian Museum. Although Banks states that the eyes are 

two on each side it is not possible to see any in the remounted specimens. In ihe 
South Australian Museum collections were found two other specimens moulded 
dry on cards from Ihe same locality, mid although these have been cleared and 
mounted still no eyes are to be seen. As Hanks was also wrong in his determina- 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

lion of the eyes in his other species it seems possible that he was also in error in 
this case. Microtrombidium afiolm can be separated from all other species by 
the key. It comes closest to M. barrmgtmense Hirst, in the absence of eyes, but 

Fig. 24-27. ,1/ ierol rombidiuni. attoPtbS (Hanks): 24, entire animal in outline; 25, palp; 
20, anterior tarsus and metatarsus; 27, dorsal seta. 

differs from it in the proportions of the front tarsi and the number and structure 
of the dorsal body hairs. The mandibles are of the normal Trombid type, alld 
not of the Erythaeid. An outline of the entire animal, and details of the palp, 
front tarsi, and dorsal hairs are given* 


Mn .■koTK.ojVllJlLVlUM AEQUAIilS ( Hanks, 1916), 

Syn. Trombidium aegualis Hanks. 191$. 

The type Of this species (Iocs nol appear to be in The South Australian 
Museum, ;iii(l was possibly not returned after determination. The Original de- 
ei iplion and figures given by Hanks ( ~ i are extremely gpO(J, bill lite Species is 
o\)\ iously a Mirrol roiuhiiltimi and not a Trouihid'nau. A single specimen taken 
h\ myself al Hreeubushes, Weslern Australia, oji August 2#> 1!);>1, is referred In 
this species. 


The type was amon^-sl Hie Hirst material left in Adelaide, and is now in the 
South Australian Museum. 

MiriajTia>.Mmmi:M affixi: Hirst, 192$, 

Hirst '« type is in the South Australian Museum, together with two specimens 
collected by myself at Adelaide in 1!>:J:J. 

In his description (**) Hirst refers to a small comb of teeth behind the apical 
and accessory clatys of the palp. As the palp was mounted in a bad position Ear 
Observing this eomb, it has been remounted, and it can now be Been that the comb 

consists of a graduated series of teeth. In the presence of this comb and the 
Shape of the front tarsus it differs markedly from .17. hurrmgunmse Hirst, with 
Which the author contrasts it. From .1/. i><tr<nniut Hirst it can be separated by 
the characteristic hairs of the dorsum. 

MhiafTivoMiJiDlUM KAm;n;\sis sp. nov. 

Qtsnoriptirmi Size 1-0 mm. Colour reddish. Body of normal shape. E\ es 
two on each side, sessile. Crista with posterior sensillary area. Dorsal hairs 
uniform, short. B5 /.<., with Long accessory hairlets, which are very much longer 
than those in the nearest species, M. affiiK Hirst. Palpal tibia with large claw, 
smaller accessory ebiw, and a series of 6-7 Strong spines. Palpal tarsus not 
clubbed, Iftng, rind reaching tip of claw. Tarsus of front leg elliptical, less than 
twice as long as high, 270 /<, by 155 fx respective^ metaiarsus short, as long as 
tarsus is high Front le»\s as Long as body. 

Locality: Denmark, West Australia, duly ii, 1932 (II. W.). 

Type: In the South Australian Museum. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fig. 28-30. Microl.ronihidinin hufriensis n.sp.: 28, palp; 29, front tarsus and Qietatai'SUfi : 
30, dorsal set a. 


Description: Length 1-4 mm. Colour reddish. Crista in the type specimen 
indeterminate owing to displacement. Eyes similarly indeterminate, Palpi as 
figured, with one large accessory tooth after the claw, followed by two large spine- 
like setae. Palpal tarsus clubbed but nol reaching tip of claw. Legs all shorter 
than the body. Iron I tarsus 270 p, long by 185 p high, metatarsus 190 fx long. Body 
hairs very numerous, spine- or rod-like, with only small, tine, and indistinct 
adjacent hairlets, length of spines somewhat variable in length, from 50 /* to 150 ix, 
but mostly the latter, and all of the same type. 

Fig. 31- P.o. M irrot ronibidium s/iiimliini n.sp.: 31. palp; 32, front tarsus anil metatarsus : 

33, dorsal seta. 



Local it //: (Jlen < Ksmoiid, South Australia, October 1, 1&J3 (JI.WV). 

Tape: In lln i South Australiaii Museum. 

HniKir/.s: This species comes very close 1o XL ( Hrwiuoth romhiiuu ) rirfarir nsf 

sp. now. but differs in that the dorsal hairs are ot uniform type. 

Knemotiikomhiem Berlese, 1912. 
MicROTROMmmuM (Enemthuomhittm ) retentus (Banks, 1 91G ) . 

The syntypes of tins species are in the South Australian Museum. Hirst in 
1028 ( ['•* ) pointed out thai this species belonged to the Trombidiidac, mid not to Ihc 
Kr\ ihraeidae, in which it was placed by Banks. As the specimens have beoil 

Ei^. !U )!7. M irrot rombiiliuni ( F.iicniolliromhi h m ) nhnhis (linnkx): 34, pHstfl Mini eyes; 
35, palp; 3(5, frdTlt tarsus .-nnl metatarsus ; .'17, larger and sitmlfov tlorsal setae. 

remounted for further examination it can now be definitely placed in the sub- 
genus EnemotJirombiwn of ItwotromMdmrth The following additional details 

can be given. Kyes two on each side ( nol one. as stated by Banks), sessile. The 
dorsal body hairs are of two kinds, a longer type 50 fi long, fairly thick, and 
somewhat elavale distally (in many the distal portion is bi- or even t ri-fureate). 
The smaller hairs are short, fairly thick, not distinctly pointed apically, and with 
long hairlets. The palpal tibia has the usual claw and three or four stout spines 
behind (el'. lig.). The palpal tarsus is large, tapering distally, and overreaching 
lip of elaw. The tarsus of Trout legs is elongate, parallel-sided, and four times as 
long as high, *'()() fi and 90 ,« respectively, metatarsus 315 i>- long. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

MirRoTitoMminriv] (EnBMOTHROMBTUm) ADiiLAinirnM sp. im\ . 
T)e&C,Hpti&%; Size 1-0 inni. Colour red. V*(u\y of normal shape, broadest 

across shoulders. Byes two on each side, sessile. Crista with sensillary area al 
aboiil one-third from posterior end. Dorsal hairs of two kinds, a larger typo 
50 // long, scattered evenly over the whole surface, with long hairjets, and 
although with parallel sides rather pointed al the apgx, The shorter hairs? arc 
only 20 /* long and pointed, with long hairlets, Palpal tibia with usual claw 

Fig. 8#-39. M IrmlnnHhitiiiun ( /',' f\i }1Uti h rom hi U m ) <i<hl<ii<lic<i iu ii.sp.: :'»S, front 1:ns\is :unJ 
iii<M,-i1;irsus; 3(1, long <lors:il hair. Pig. 40-42. Micro! r<> m hi>l i U m | ' lui< nml I, r<>m hi u m ) iiriCHHini 
ll.sp.l 4n. J > ; 1 1 J • ; -II, long and Bhoi'i rloi'Sal luiii's; 42, front tarsus Miid metatarsus, 

followed by accessory claw, then a series of 10 1o strnnir spines. Palpal tarsus 
iml clubbed. Tarsus of front leg elliptical, more limn twiee as long as high, 
ISO fJ and 7-') ,, respectively, slightly more ilian half as long again as metatarsus. 

Locality: In ants' nest, Glen Osmond, South Anslralia. September 10, 1933 

Byntypes; In the South Australian Museum. 

MTcROTKOMiaoirM (Enemothkombu m ) nkwmam sp. nov. 
Description: Sifise 1-0 mm. Colour wd. Body of normal shape, Eyes two 

02L each side, sessile. Crista with posterior sensillary area. Dorsal body hairs <>l' 

two types, the longer ones elavato, with numerous hairlets, 70 fJ lone, the shorter 

cues 20 /i. long, with fairly Long Imirlets. Palpal tibia with normal claw followed 
by a graduated series of spines. Palpal tarsus clubbed, mneh longer than and 
overreaching tip of elaw. Front tarsus elliptical, 225 y long by 120 i>- high, twice 
as long as metatarsus. Front legs shorter than body, 

Locality: Bedford-dale, West Australia, November 29, 1932 (ll.\\\). 


Type: In the South Australian Museum. 

This species is named in honour of Mr. L. J. Newman. Government Ento- 
mologist of West Australia. 


The type of this species was found amongst the Hirst material in Adelaide, 
and is now in the South Australian Museum. 

MiCROTROMBiDiUM (Enemothrombium) simile Hirst, 1928. 

The type material of this species, taken by Hirst in the National Park, 
Belair, South Australia, was amongst the material left in Adelaide, and is now 
in the South Australian Museum. In the National Museum, Sydney, are three 
specimens in spirit, and a slide of the chelicerae and palpi, the locality for which 
is Myall Lakes, New South Wales (A. Mnsgrave, 1922). 

Miorotrombidium (Enemothrombium) collinum Hirst, 1928. 

Hirst's type was also amongst the material left in Adelaide, and is now in 
the collections of the South Australian Museum. 


The type, found amongst his Adelaide material, is now in the South Aus- 
tralian Museum. 


Description: Length 2-6 mm. Colour red. Eyes two on each side, sessile. 
Crista with posterior sensillary area and with a row of strong setae on each side 
of anterior portion. Front tarsus two and a half times as long as high and one- 
fourth as long again as metatarsus, Palpal tibia with strong terminal claw, an 
outer claw at base of this, and another claw inside. There are also two distinct 
scries of spine-like setae on the outside of the palpal tibia. Palpal tarsus slightly 
overreaching tip of claw, not clubbed. Dorsal body hairs of two forms; some 
very long and spine-like, 200 /x, with very faint indications of small lateral hair- 
lets; others very small and stout, pointed apically, and with hairlets as long as 
hairs are wide, 20-25 /x long, with bare apex. 

Remarks: The type of this species, originally in my collection, and now in 
the South Australian Museum, was collected by Mr. II. G. Andrewartha at Sassa- 
fras, Victoria, in 1931. Amongst the Hirst material left in Adelaide an un- 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

named preparation, labelled ''Mount Gambler, S.A. ", without date, can be 
referred to this species. This preparation is now in the South Australian 
M iiseum. 

Fig. 43-45. M icrol foinh'uliiini ( En< inotii ninihlu m ) victorimse n.sp. : K>, palp; 44, fnml 

i ;i i nus mid metatarsus j 4.1, long and short dorsal hairs. 


Description: Length 1-2 mm. Colour ?. Eyes two on each side, sessile. 
Crista normal for the ^enus. Palpi ? (missing in preparation), Front tarsus 
half as long again as metatarsus and less than three times as loii£* as high. 
Longer dorsal hairs somewhat eup-shaped, but widening gradually from the base 
t<» apex, not sharply expanded as in M. ( E.) simile Hirst, 60 \k long; smaller harrs 
cup-shaped, with longer hairlets than in M. (K.) simile Hirst, 15 20 /./ long, 

Fig, 4fi-47. Mwrotrombidiwrn (Mnmwthtnmbnml hirsii o.sp,: 46, front i:n>us anil met* 
tarsus; 47, dorsal hairs. 



liniuirks: This RpeefeH ifl elosely related to M. (tt.) titmih Hirst, but differs 
mainh in the sluice of the longer body hairs and in the dimensions 6$ the front 
tarsus and metatarsus, 'Die type specimen is one found amongst the Hirst 
material left in Adelaide, and now in 1 he South Australian Museum. It had 
heen labelled Atlothwmibium iwi'gnff Hirst in Hirst's writing, bul this had been 
later eroded Qui ixi pengtt. The locality was Myall Lakes, New South Wales, 
September, 1922 (A. Musurave). 

MuiaiTK'o.MmDir.M ( TCnemotiiromuium ) soctmcotti sp. now 

Description: Length 1 -4 mm. Colour in life red. Crista well developed and 
characteristic of the genus, 245 ju Long, with large posterior area which is fur- 


Ptg. 48-50. 
<".<•<; 49, palp; 

MivrotfflmliMnw ( f&nfwwthrtmhiuTti ) savUtfioltl 

Jtf. front tarsus .'iikI liictatrirsus,>.: 48, '-risl a : 1 1 1 « 1 rlgfil 

nished with the usual two seusillary hairs 100 p lon«i\ Kycs, two on each side, 
sessile, posterior eyes sonicwlml smaller tlmn the anterior. Palpi as figiircd, with 
a fairly strong apical Tibial elaw followed by a series of teeth on the outer edge 
whieh art? graduated, gradually beootniYlg spine like. Legs shorter than body, II 
and III shorter than 1 and IV, front tarsus elliptical, 200 f x loniz by 1.00 /<- high, 
metatarsus 12.") ,, long. Clothing of Long spines, whieh are slightly eiliated and 
80-82 /.«. !oiio\ ;,,,<[ many short eiliated scales 2S /* long; These are parallel-sided, 
blunt at the lip. and with rather long hairlets. Leg hairs line, pointed, and 

198 Records op the s.a. Muskum 

Tape: A single specimen collected by Mr. \i. Y. Souftootl al I n^lnir. South 
Australia, January, 1934, 

Itfiititfks: This species is very closely relaled to M. < K.) rlflorinisi sp. UOV., 
but differs markedly in Ihe smaller dorsal hairs and in tin- dimensions of the I'mul 



1. Dorsal body hairs oi* only one type, unmodified .. .. ... .2, 

Subgenus .1/ icyol vtnulnrf'nim Nailer s. si. 
Dorsal body hairs generally of two types, often slrongly modified, cup- 
shaped, bnlbale. spine-like or otherwise .. .. .. ..9, 

Subgenus \<]n< YtwthVOmTliwn Berlesc. 

2. Eyes wanting- , . .. .. .. .. , . ..3. 

Eyes present, two on cadi s i f I f • , sessile . . . . . . I. 

3. Vrpmi tarsi four tones as long as hi^h Palpal tarsus elnbbed. Dorsal body 
hail's relatively fewer and stonier and uo1 so long ( el', fig. ) , Palpal libia 
with :» accessory claws. Legs IV mm-h h.nevr ihan body. .1/. attoluR (Banks). 

Front larsns four times as long as linrh. Dorsal body hairs more numerous 
Cel'. tig.), longer, and more slender. Palpal libia with 2 or 3 accessory claws. 

kegs IV only slightly longer than the body • • M". ImrrinQitnense Hirst. 

4 Front tarsus elongate, almost parallel-sided, slightly more than Iwiee as lorm 1 
as high. Palpal tarsus not clubbed, Crista with posterior area. 

.)/. irrstntfif use sp. now 
Front tarsus elliptical, not parallel -sided .. .. . . ...5. 

o Body hairs short and broad. le&f-likf, with lateral hairlets. Front tarsus 
twice as long as metatarsus, slightly nmre limn halt as long again as high. 
Accessory claw bf palpal tibia as large as claw and followed by 4 or 5 spine- 
hko setae . . . . . . , . M. nuinnirmu sp. now 

Body hairs not as above . , . . . . . . . , (; 

fi Hairs on dorsnm short, stout, oval and pointed, with short hairlets. Front 
tarsus twice as long 1 as high. Palpal tibia with One accessory claw followed 
by a more 01? toss irregnlar group of at gong seine. Palpal tarsus clubbed 

I/. paniiiHin Hirst. 

Dorsal body hairs not as above . . . . . . . . . , 7. 

7. Dorsal body hairs rod- or spine like, numerous, with milv indistinct, close- 
lying- hairlets. Fronl tarsus iwicr as long as hig-h. I/, apimtum sp. nov. 

Dorsal hairs nol as above . . . . . . _ . . 8, 

s. Front tarsus slightly more lhan 3 times as long as high and much longer than 
metatarsus. Hairs of dorsum as figured by Banks. Palpal tarsus not clubbed, 

.]/. tu f/i(<r/is \ Banks). 

Front tarsus 2.1 limes as long as high, metatarsus nearly as long. Palpal 
tibia with one accessory claw followed by a series of graduated spine-like 

setae. Body hairs slender and delicate .. .. W.affim Elirst. 

Womrrsley— Australian Mites 1 99 

Front i H t-sns less than fwico as long as high* metatarsus as long as tarsus is 
high. Palpal tibia with afieessory claw and a series of six «toii1 setae. Palpal 

tarsus nol clrihbecl •• •• •• •• 47. I<'(ti rirn<-ix sp. now 

9, Larger dorsal hairs cup-shaped ,. .. .. .. .. 10. 

Larirer dorsal hairs not eup-shap«d .. .. .. .. 1:;. 

10. Smaller dorsal hairs cup-shaped, with minute denticles . . . . 11. 
Smaller dors.d hairs nnl cup-shaped! .. .. ». ..11?. 

11. Larger dorsal hairs with stem suddenly expanding to form the cup. Front 
tarsus :{.l limes as long as high . , . . . . 47. (K.) simile Hirst. 

Larger dorsal hairs with stem gradually expanding from base to cup. Front 
tarsus loss than 3 times as long as high . . M. (E.) Iiirsli sp. nov. 

fit Smaller body hairs vory irregular, usually with small lateral processes. Front 
tarsus mure than 4 times as long as high . . M. (E.) irt/dndrfn Hirst. 

Xnmller body hairs more rouular. rod-like. Front tarsus more Hiau 8 times 
as long as high . . . . . . . . M. (EJ rollinniu Hirst. 

13, Longer dorsal hairs either branched distally, bushy, or ending in two scale- 
like or leaf like halves. Front tarsus twice as long as high. 

.1/. (E.) k/inrthtrnuv Hirst. 
Longer dorsal hairs otherwise ,. .. .. .. .. 14. 

14, Longer dorsal hairs vrvy long and spincdike .. .. .. 1.">. 

Xot so .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ., Ki. 

15V. Smaller dorsal hail's tapcrinp' to a point wilh comparatively short hairb*N. 
Long bail's with only indistinct (dilations, 200 \x long. Front tarsus Iwo and 
a half times as long as high and one-fourth as long again as metalarsus. 

47. (E.) vi.clofif'vst' sp. nov. 
Small dorsal hairs not tapering, blunt a1 apex, and with relatively long hair- 
lets. Longer dorsal hairs only 80-82 ;<. in length. Front tarsus twice as long 
as high and almost Iwice as long as nielalarsus .17. (E\) HOUthfotti sp. nov. 

lb. Fronl tarsus elongate, parallel-sided, 4 times as long as high. Body hairs 
relative!} short, the longer ones hi- or tri-f ureal e apically. 

.17. ( h\) /•> Irnlns ( Banks). 
Front tarsus elliptical .. .. .. .. .. ..17. 

17. Longer dorsal hairs clavate wilh long hairlels. Fronl tardus lesslhan twice 
as long as high and twice as. long as metalarsus . . M. ( F.) fteUW-fl-lU HJ), nov. 

Longer body hairs, no! elavatf 1 although parallel-sided, wilh short hairlels. 
Front tarsus more limn twice as long as high, and about half as long again &H 
mrtatarsus .. .. .. .. tf. ( E .) adehidicum Rp T nftv< 

TfcOMBTrUIM l.erb'se. 1905. 

TuoMlilcrLA SIOXATA sp. 1IOV. 

Dt srn'jffimi : Length 1*2 mm. Colour in life probably red. Crista and seu- 
silbiry area as in genus M. fig.). Eyes one on each side, large, and placed glow 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

to but slightly posterior of tin- sensillary area. Front tarsus two and a half times 
as Long as high and one-third as long again as metatarsus. Palpal tibia with the 
usual apical claw and two accessory claws cis well as a number of" strong setae. 
Palpal tarsus sloul. hardly blubbed, and not quite Peaching tip of elaw. Body 
hairs of one type as figured and 40 a in Length, 




Fig. 51-54. TyoDiixoihi ,sif/)t<if<t n.Sp.t o\, sensory hnirs ajlfl eyes; 52, palp; 53, fnmt 
taraus and metatarsus: -"4. floi'sal hair, 

Type: A single specimen collected by myself in Western Australia in 1931, 
precise locality uncertain, but probably Perth district. The preparation is in tin 1 

Month AnsI ralian M nseiini. 

Caenothrombium Oudemans, 1928. 

In this genus the crista is entire, with a medial sensillary area, a thick pos- 
terior stem, and a broad, somewhat Y-shaped anterior plate much wider than the 
sensillary area. The anterior margin of this frontal plate is straight or only 
slightly sinuate. In Oudemans' drawings the centre of this plate is shown as 
unchitinized, the arms of the Y being joined by an anterior transverse band or 
rod. Tn the Australian species which I rel'er to this gemis the whole of the plate 
is more or less ehitinized and the anterior margin a little more sinuate. The tarsi 
are without pulvilli or pseiidopulvillar hairs. The eyes are two on each side and 
pedunculate as in AUdthromhvufib. 

WoMriKSLEV Australian Mitks 201 

TO this geilUS I would refer all those species placed by Hirst in Dinothro'u- 
hnnu Minlt'iimiis (= TrombiriiH m le-rlesc. 1#32, nee. Kal>r.. 1893). hi all spe< i 
men's h NH tln)>l<" of Hirst's types the crista has been disacettjd an<l examined- 
They have all been found to conform io that deiwritfoil by Otidein&nti for Cueiio- 

thrOMbium. The name Dinofhrombmm is now used For Trmithnlntiit | Kahr., IS!);! 
nee. 1 775 ) Beriese, R>T2 r and Serieoihrowbwm Uerlesc, 1910, has been replami 
by TroMbidmm Kabr., 1775. 

In his paper ( l;: ) Oudemans on paire SI compares his genus X < iiolltruinftithii 
to Dinotkrombmm as follows: "Die Crista isl uieht in drd Telle jzvieilt. Vim- 
Utfjnihiiun wird also bciseite geseliqben**. Vet, in his key to the genera tti Trom- 
bidiidae in the same paper I page 90) he places Itinvthvmnhium in the section "GI. 
Crista uugctent M . This is obviously an error, for Dmijfhro-inbhiw [Trombidiuni 
lierlese) has three distinct parts to the crista, as is distinctly shown by l.ierleso's 
(igUTC I Trombidiidae. Redia, 1912), In CttfnothrOmlmtm the crista is entire, 
except in so l'ar as the anterior plate can be considered a distinct part. In Ditto* 
thrombium lhc anterior purl ion is also platedike. hut of an entirely dil'i'm-enl 
shape. Furthermore, the tarsi in Binothmmbmm are furnished with a small 
cluster of hairs al the tip, forming a kind of pseudopulvillus, as is described later 
for the melius A i/sfrofhrouihitoii Lien. now 

S\ n. Tfomhiilitaii sri-icdfuni Rainbow. 1906. 
Qinoihrombiuw *}>!< >><ii<(it>ii Hirst, 1928, 

Dinothvonibimi mntrieosum Hirst, 1928. 

Of this Species I have been able to examine Rainbow's type material in the 
Australian Museum. This consisls of 8 specimens of rather varying size*, the 
largest being a gravid female of about 4- 5 mm. in length, the others much smaller. 
The type of Hirst's I), spli mlidum is in the South Australian Museum, and con- 
sists of three microscopic slides of various parts. There is also a mount of the 
front tBg <>f nnolher example from Mnlh-wa. Wesi Australia, in 1 1 1 « • iHdtilO col- 
lection; while a mount of the palp of tins specimen was found amongst the Hirst 
material left in Adelaide. The type material of I). VMltrico&um llirsl. consisting 
of three slides <>\' the palp, hrsl leg and cephalic area, is in the Australian 

A careful study of the above material reveals no essential differences between 
the three species, and Ihey are therefore regarded as synonymous. In Rainbow 's 
description then- arc distinct errors, the most importaul beinii his siatmimnl thai 


Records of the s.A. M use-cm 

the eyes, two on each side, are sessile. A dually they are placed on distinct elon- 
gated peduncles, as in other members of the genus. 

The following additional characters are takes Croua one of his specimens: 

front tarsus parallel-sided, 1-S limes as long as high, 6TG /* by 140 fx, metatarsus 
500 f L long. Eyes two on eaeh side, pedunculate. Dorsal body hairs uniform, 
90 // long, with parallel sides, stout and blunt ai tip. Palpi as in Melius. Crista 
as figured. 

Fig, 53 58« Cat iiollimiiihiiim sertcutum ( Kainliow ) : 55, <-risl;i; .10, j«il|>; 57, Hunt toFKUfl 

ami mct.M tarsus; 58, po&ttirior dorsal setae. 

hi the above details it will be noticed that the tarsus is somewluit longer in 
proportion to its height than given by Ilirsi for />. aplendtduiU, but the use of 
this character must not be pressed too far. The body hairs are also rather longer 
than in I), spfendidum, 60 «, but are otherwise similar. 

CABNOTURQMftlVJV! Al'OUSTAE (Hirst. 1928). 

Byn. Di'MthmmMum (mgusfae Hirst, 1928. 

This is one of the more easily distinguished speeies (ef. Key). The type is in 

the South Australian Museum. 


(\\i:\'!>Tiii;<>MinuM toijimdum (Hirst, 1.928), 

Syn. Diiiofhf tmibiuw torridwm Hirst, 1928. 

Dinihrombium hn/lori Hirst, 1928, 

The type of />. frorrtdwm is in the South AitstraHan Museum, while among the 
Hirst material left in Professor Harvey -Johnston's possession were favo mounts 
()£ the cuticle and chelieerae of J), htij/ori. The remainder of the latter species I 
have not been able to obtain, but From a study oi' what is available there appears 
to be no essential differences between the I wo forms. Four other Specimens from 
Adelaide, South Australia, in May, 1083* and two from Wmi-ooiuj. Wcsl Aus- 
tralia, in November, I93l } all collected by myself, can be referred to this species. 

Oaionotiiijombii'm lVioNTivAorvi (Hirst, 1928). 
By 'n. Mierotrombidiuni mQwtiviHjmn Hirst, 1928. 
Diiml It ruiiihuuii nmnfirdtjuni Hirst, 1929. 
/)inolltn>iii(>iniii rainbow Hirst, 1928. 

This species was originally placed in Ihe ^enus Mivrolromhifllum ( : '"i. hut 
later llirsl removed it to Diit'tlliromhiuni ( 10 ). The type specimen, minus one 
of ils front tegs, is in the Australian Museum. The missing leg was found as a 
mount amonust the materia] left by Uirst in Adelaide. The type of I), rambowi 
is also in Ihe Australian Museum. It is undoubtedly' synonymous with tiwnti- 
r</(jnui, which has slight page priority. 

A single specimen collected by myself at Mullew.i, Wesi Australia, in l!t')l, 
and another from Buckland Park, South Australia, in August, 19ft3, are to be 
referred to this species. These specimens are row in the South Australian 

('AKNoTiiuoMmuM cimssum (Hirst, 1928), 

Syn. Divnthromhiiuii crasxinn Hirst, 1928, 

The type is in the South Australian. Museum collections, while a inoiinl of a 
piece of Hie euliele whs amongst the Hirst malerial. 

( 'AHNOTiiiioAinuiM noiule (llirsl, 1!)28). 
Syn. Dinothrotnbwm n<>l>Hr Hirst. 1928. 

The type is in the Smith Australian Museum, and a piece of the cuticle was 
amontist i lie Hirst material. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

CAlixoriiK-oAir.iiM ALBUM sp, nov. 

Description: Size small. 1-65 mm. in length, 1*2 mm. wide at widest point, 
Anterior legs longer Hum body, 3*Q nun., posterior legs 2*25 mm. Colour bright 
rod, with a large white patch on each side of the posterior portion of the broad part 
of the body, and another, less defined, at apex of body. Legs yellowish. Palpal 
tibia with strong but comparatively short claw, palpal tarsus elongate and 

Pig, 59 62, Oamotftrombvwm album n.sp. : 59, entire animal; JO, palps 61, dorsal 
82, front tarsus and metatarsus. 

clubbed and very much overreaching claw. Front tarsus elongate, lour mikI ,i 
half limes as long as high, metatarsus three-fourlhs the length of tarsus. Front 
tarsus 780 /x by 175 /*, metatarsus •">;>() />. long. Hairs of uniform type, slender and 
tapering, slightly curved, with long hairlets, 60 /». long. Eyes two on eaeh side, 
pedunculate. Crista normal for this genus. 

Syntypes: Adelaide, 1933, in tin 1 South Australian Museum, other specimens 
from Denmark, West Australia, in -Inly, 1932 (Jl W.i, and Eiverton, South 
Australia, 1933 (Il.W... 

WoMEksi.EY — Australian Mites 205 


gym. I)iii<>flir<)nil>i,uii 11 ijiKj'i hchsc Hirst, 1928, 

The syntype material of 1 his species was amongst the Hirst preparations left 
With. Professor Harvey Johnston, and is now in the South Australian Museum. 

Pig, <;;;. Camoihrombium wyngmenxe (Hirst): crista. Fig* iu-w;. GawwUhwrnbitim 
toiintatv/m tt.8p.i "4, palp; <»r», front tarsus and ineta,ta»sus \ <*><>, dorsal seta. 

In life this speeies has the white dorsal patches as in the preceding, bu1 tiny 

are not so well defined. 

It is apparently a fairly common and widely distributed species, and in thr 
South Australian Museum arc examples from the following loealities: 

Two, Adelaide, 1933 (H.W.); a nymph, Mullewa, West Australia. Sep- 
tember, 1933 (Il.W.) ; five, Dyne Swamp, Narraeoorte, South Australia, Septem- 
ber, 11)33 (J).C.S.) ; one, (den Osmond, South Australia, \%V.\ (II. W.). There is 

206 Records of the S.A. Musfi m 

also a specimen in the Australian Museum collection collected in the National 
Park. New smith Wales, October, 1$33 (A. Musgrave). 


beseriptttmi Length !•"> mm. Colour in life fed, Prists present and of the 
('<!< notlinnitlmiiH type, 200 /.'. lollg. Kyes I wo on each side, pedunculate. Legs I 
ami IV 1,^75 /./ Long, II and III 1,22") j,, long. Palpi normal, as figured, wilh 

slightly clubbed tarsus overreaching the lip of claw. Front larsus long and 
rather parallel-sided, -170 \x long by 120 /< high, metatarsus 2:>o // lon<r. Clothing 
dorsally of uniform st oi H and blunt setae which are strongly (filiated; these setae 
are much stouter fluin in (■. uyinjuiieiist and not so numerous. Length of setae 
95 /*. 

Type: Ftoin moss, liclair. South Australia, May 18, 1933 ( JIA'.S. ) : in the 
South Australian Museum. 

h'iiunrhs: This species is closely related to C. forriditni. (Hirst) and 0, 
ui/nffffnt its* f Hirst i. From the former it Hi Iters in size and in the dorsal body 
hairs, from the latter in size, in the dimensions of the front tarsi, and in Ihe 
dorsal body hairs. 

Key to tiii: Apstrapian Species of OaENOTHUombjcm. 

1. Dorsal body hairs of two distinct sizes. Front larsns :{ limes as lotig as 
high, \27) f x long .. O.moniivagwn (Hirst), $yn.D»rainbowiIlir&t. 

Dorsal body hairs nni form .. .. .. .. ..2. 

2. Front larsns wry elongate, about 7 times as loie_r as high. Length of animal 
2-4 mm. .. .. .. .. .. ('. <tu<j><st<ic (ll'ivst). 

Front tarsus much shorter, not exceeding about 4.] times as long as high 2,. 

.'). From and hind Legs much longer than body. Front tarsus U times as 
long as high, 7 -SO f >. by 17") /x . A large, well -defined white patch on each 
side of broadesl portion of body and another a I apex ('. albutn sp. nov. 

Front and hind logs scarcely longer than body .. ..4. 

4, Smaller species at)1 exceeding I ■•() mm. iri length . . . . . . B, 

Larger species more than 4-0 mm. in length . . .. 6. 

fr« Front tarsus 4— U times as long as high. Dorsal body hairs GO-IK) t i long, 
slender, tapering, with loiig hairlets. 

C lorri'/um {Hirst), syn. P. huilori Hirst. 

Front tai'SUS almost 4 times as long as higfe. Dorsal body bairs stont, blunt, 
and strongly ciliated, 35 ^ Long. . . . . ( K mmvatum sp. nov. 

Front tarsus 2.1 times as [dug as high, Bqcly hairs fairly stout and reaching 
65 }i in length . . . . . . C. iiijiii/atn h&v ( Hirst ) . 

\\\>\lJ<k'Sl KV AT'STRAUAN MlTES 207 

(>. Posterior dorsal hairs short and sloul. parallel-sided, with sliorl hairlrts. 
often slightly swollen dislally. 50-60 fi long, and slightly curved. Front 
tarsus tj I inios as long as hi*>'h. 

0. seriwtum (Rainbow), sy4« I). spkniUdum Hirst, I). r< mtric&suwi Hirst. 

Posterior dorsal hairs longer and Ktraig-hter, 75 ju long, more tapering, and 

iiiv er swollen dislally. Front tarsus 3 1 imos as long as high, C. rrussuni Hirst. 

Posterior body hairs longer still. 150 ( e, slightly curved, more tapering and 

delicate. Front tarsus 3J fciines as long us high . . (?, nobUe ( Jlirsi ). 

ArsTkoriiKOMHiUM gen. now 

This new g&UUH is characterized by the peculiar sha[)e of the anterior plate 
of I he crista. This plate is very UiUCh broader than the median sensillary area, 
and has its anterior margin very deeply excised and the Lateral margins sloping 
strongly inwards and backwards; so that ihe plate appeals to eonsist largely of 

two forwardly directed prongs. The crista is entire, with a moderately thick- 
ened posterior stem. The tarsi are without 1 a 1 rue pulvillus, lnil have a number 
of hairs, some 5 or (I, which form a kind of pseudnpulvilhis. This is similar to 
that figured by Berlese iKedia, UM1\ p. b, fig. lh) for Diiiotltrmithiiim {Trtnn- 
(ntlniin). In Dinothrombium the anterior plate is straight -sided and the anterior 
margin is only sinuate; the crista also is divided behind the sensillary area, so 
thai if the anterior plate is regarded as a (Separate part it can be said to be 
divided into three parts. 

In this genus I place Hirst's Altothrombium (Mcsuihroiiil'iinn ) fttl it nsc, 
A. (J/J insujm. ami A. (M.) Loiulinimu. One might have kept Hirst's name 
Mesothrombium for this genus but that the genotype of Wesoihr&mbium is .1. 

'M.j Mltipodumum HirSt, which is a true Allothr(>mbmM l and not congeneric 

with the other three species. 

ArsTiatTiiuoMian.M australiense (Hirst, 1929), 
fSyn. AHoUiroiubimn (Mfsotltfomhiitm) <ivslntli< vsc Hirst, 1929. 

The two syni.\ pes ol' ihis species arc in tin 1 Australian Museum, hi addition 
to the spirit material two prepared ions of the front leg and the palp exisl, and 1 
have made further mounts of the crista and a portion of the culiclc. 

Hirst ( ,0 ) stales thai tins .species is closely Pel&ted to Alhiihrnmhunii tmt'h 
pndiaiwm Hirst, but a slndy of ihe generic characters will show that this is not 
the case. 


ArsTia>TiiKP\imr.\i inskjnk (Hirst. 1928). 
Syn. Allolli ruiitbiinn f M< •sollirmiibiuw ) insit/m Hirst. 1928, 

The type is in the Australian Museinn. This species is very closely related 

t<> 1 he above, and although a study of the available material confirms all Hirst's 
minute diiferenees if seems to nw doubt fully more than a variety. The palpal 
tarsus is slightly longer in proportion to its height 1han In A, falsi ralu ust and 
there are small dillVrenees in the si met lire of the dorsal hairs. 

ArsTiarniiiOMi'.H'.M BONDINIUM (Hirst. 1928), 

Sy3i» Allot htombiwm (UteHothrtimbium) antipodiawum \\ kondinium Hirst, L92S. 

AUodirombiirm ( Mesa! hrmnbi urn ) kondinium Hirst. 1929. 

The type, which I have not been able to see. is in the Perth Museum. West 
Australia. Other examples, however, whieh I refer to ihis speeies have been 

Pig. B7. dtostrttlhrombiutn amtraHen$e (Hirst): crista. F\^. (J8 69, Amtvothramblwn 

iflVU/m (Hirst): (>S, crisf;i ; \'-,\) r lip of SeCOtffl tardus. 


collected by myself from the following localities: Armadale, West Australia, 
July, 1931; Mullewa, West Australia, September, 1931, and in the Porongorups, 
West Australia, in September, 1932. 

The following details are taken from the Mullewa specimens : Large, 6-8 mm. 
Entirely red. Crista entire, with medial stigmal area and broad anteriorly 
pronged front plate (cf. fig.). Tarsus of front leg three times as long as higll and 
a little longer than metatarsus. All tarsi with pseudopulvillar hairs. Palpal 
tibia with only the apical claw; palpal tarsus long, reaching tip of claw and 
slightly clubbed. Dorsal body hairs of two forms, a long type in which the hair- 
lets are longer distally, giving the hair a clavate appearance, about 60 /x long', and 
a smaller type, which is stouter, pointed with a bare apex and smaller hairlets. 

The above specimens are now in the South Australian Museum. 

Allothrombium Berlese, 1903. 

Allothrombium guttatum Hirst, 1928. 

Syn. Allothrombium ornatum Hirst, 1928. 

In 1929 Hirst ( 10 ) gave a key separating these two species on slight differ- 
ences in colour and structure of the longer body hairs. 1 have been able to 
examine his type material in the Australian Museum, which consists in the case of 
A. (jul lain in of 1 hree slides of the crista, first leg, and the palpi, with the remainder 
of the specimen in spirit. From the portion in spirit I have made a mount of a 
part of the cuticle. Of A. ornatum there are three slides of the first leg, palp, and 
the remainder of the specimen. 

A careful examination of this material fails to show any good differences 
between the two species. At the best A. ornatum cannot be regarded as more 
than a slight variety of A. guttatum. The minor differences in the structure of 
the longer body hairs are of little value. In support of this view we find a speci- 
men in spirit in the Australian Museum material, No. K. 58215, collected by 
Messrs. A. Musgrave and T. G. Campbell near Cutler's Pass, Williams River, 
New South Wales, 23/30/26, which was referred to by Hirst ( 10 , p. 172) as 
A. ornatum. The actual specimen, however is labelled as A. guttatum. I have 
mounted a portion of the cuticle of this specimen, and find that it agrees with 
. 1 . guttatum. 

Allothrombium antipodianum Hirst, 1926. 

Syn, Allothrombium antipodianum var. olorinum Hirst, 1926. 
Allothrombium parvulum Hirst, 1929. 
The type of A. antipodianum v. olorinum, and also a nymph labelled "A. 
antipodianum, var. ?" by Hirst, are in the South Australian Museum. They are 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

both from the Swan River district of West Australia and marked as found "with 
ants". From the original descriptions I can find no valid differences between 

these and A. pfimil inn Hirst. Although I have not seen the type of the Ias1 
species 1 have specimens from Pinjarra. West Australia, collected on October 1, 
193*1 (i), which I had provisionally determined as .1. parvut-um, bni 
which equally well agree with A, afiiUpoiHtmum* 

It is possible that Hirst's A. Icrr<ien<)inac may also be synonymous but I have 
no material available. 

Ai.umih'oMiat'M wvaxdkak Hirst. 1928- 

The first leg and palp of the type of this species were found amongst the 
preparations in Professor Johnston's possession. They are now in the collection 
of the South Australian Museum. 

To this species 1 refer specimens collected by Dr. K. -I. Tillyanl on Mounl 
Kosciusko, E\(XT. ? in December, 1929. 

Allothromiuum delioatttlum sp. now 

Description: Length 1-0 mm., elongate oval in shape. Colour reddish. Eyes 
two on each side, pedunculate. (Vista of typical form (cf, fig.), Front tarsus a 
little more than twice as long as high and rather longer than metatarsus. Palpal 
tibia with apical daw, palpal tarsus slightly clubbed, hardly reaching tip of 
claw. Body hairs of one type resembling those figured by Berlese Tor .1. meri- 

Fig, 70-74. Allnthrnmhiinii drliral nhi m n.Sf)*: 70, outline of :i n im:i I ; 7 1, cnsUi; 72, palp 

m. flout tarsus and E&ot&tarsiiB: 7 1, dorsal si'ta.. 


Sipif m>( s: Two specimens collected by Mr. I). C Swan at Bridgewa.tcr, South 

Australia, June (i, HKI2; in the South Australian Museum. 

Iu murks: Very close to nicrid ioimh Berleso, hut differs in size find in the 
dimensions of the fronl tarsi. 

Kky to THE ArsTiiAUAN Species QF Allothko.miuim. 

1. Wry small species, 1-0 mm., sparsely haired. Hairs uniform and with few 
loflg secondary hairs . . . . . , , .A. (Ifli<><t(u! inn sp. nov. 

Much larger species , . . . . . . . . . 2. 

2. Dorsum wilh a distinct pattern of red and while. Some of the body hairs 
y<>vy much elongated .. A. (juHulvni Htrstk syn. A. omfttWM Hirst. 
Colour entirely red . . .. .. .. .. :;. 

3. Body hairs of two distinct lypes . .. .. .. ..4. 

Body hairs uniform, short, plumose. Front tarsus twice as lotfg as high. 

A, ir !,iav< hut < Hirst 

-1. Longer hody hairs more clavalc apically, axial thread thicker. Shorter hairs 

more tapering apicaJly . . A. anUpQdiamim Hirst, syn. ,1. parvuluwi Hirst. 

Longer hody hairs less clavato. I lie hairlets longer near the hase, slalk Appar- 
ently shorter. Short hairs not tapering* ipieally .. A* .tetTQjpreffilMW Hirst. 

Key to the Atstuatjan (Ji:\i:i;\ f>p Aoiu.t Tijom luruioAE. 

1. Hody with hderal prominences ., .. ChyZi ?Hfl ( finest rini. 1807. 

Body WlthOltl these . . . . „ , . . . . it 2, 

% Without a crista .. .. .. TrombeUd Berlese, 1887. 

Willi a crista ; sensiliary hairs not clavate . , . . . . 3. 

•'!, OHsta with two sensiliary areas and four sensory hairs . . . . 4. 

Crista with only one sensiliary area and two sensory hairs . . . . 5. 

I. The sensiliary areas scparaled, one a1 each end of crista One eye on each 

side and placed in front of anterior end of crista. 

Mi/nirieolroiiil'iitm <>en. nov. 

The sensiliary areas adjacent, behind one another. Two ryes on each side ( 1 i. 

Dipldthfombmm Berlese, 1910. 

5. Eyes one or none on each side . . .. TrOWbir-lUo Hcrlese, 1905. 

Kyes two or noiir on each side . > . . . . . . . - 6. 

(>. Eyes iwo on ericli side, pedunculate .. .. . , . . fJ> 

Byes, if present. Mien sessile and Iwo on each side . . . . . . 7. 

7. With a distinct nasus .. .. .. Keotrambium Leonardi, 1901. 

Without a nasus. Lc"s I and IV shorter than the hody .. 8. 

(i) Tn the yviius Hojmuliia Oinlrm.-ois UMl. tlie posterior sensiliary area is separate from 

Ih'C inir.-ii..!-. I»ul pJnCCd in Hie middle t)f tile 'iis!;i ;oul on a lirond t r:i ris\r rso plnte. There 
UtC tWO eves on onrli side. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

8. Hairs feather-like and unmodified .. MievotromMdwrn s.str. HaHer. 

Hairs of varying form with minute ciliations. 

Microtranihidiinii. SUbgen. Em ■•uwllirotuhviuii Belize, 1910. 

0. Tarsi with distinct pulvilli or a group of puivilla-like hairs . . . 10. 

Tarsi without these. Crista with broader anterior plate with straight or 
sinuate anterior margin. Crista entire with median sensillary area. 

('(tvmitltrthhbhitu Oudema us, L928. 

10. Tarsi with distinct and true pulvilli. Crista in three parts, the median sen- 
sillary area broader and more characteristic AllothromMum Berlese, l'H):5. 

Tarsi with 5-6 puh-illa-like hairs. Crista entire with medium sensillary area 
and much broader anterior plate with I'orwardly directed arms or pronu's. 

.1 Hslro/Jitoiithiuui gen. now 


Trombicula Berlese. 

Tkumbk i i.\ !in:sT! S;imbon. 1927, 

Of this species, the 'Mi-tree itch mite" of Queensland and South Australia. 
there were two slides each of two specimens in the Hirst materia] left in Adelaide. 
The specimens were collected ai Kobe, South Australia, by Mr. Stanley llirsl in 

Pig. 7.1-77. Tromhicvfa Mrsti Smubnii: 7-">, vi'iifr;il yiQvr; 7<>, <lnrs;il virw 
sliii-M < rill afh»r Bamboia ). 


1928. One slide is now in the South Australian Museum. Another slide contain- 
ing a number of specimens has also been presented to the Museum by Mr. 1). ('. 
Swan, These were collected in the sane locality in 1934. To facilitate deter- 
nunation of these mite Snmbon's figures arc reproduced. 




There were rtaany slides of this species amongst tin? Hirst material, all taken 
fi -urn [he ears of R&Hus greyi from D'Estree liny. Kangaroo Island South Aus- 
tralia. These should probably all be regarded as syutypes. Some of them bare 
been presented to the South Australian Museum by Professor Harvey -Johnston. 

Fig, 7S-SI). Troiiibiriilo nova* holJandiai Hirst: T8 t dorsal view; 71', central view; 80, dorsal 
shield (all after Hirst), 

Other specimens in the South Australian Museum were oblaiued from the 
ears of PotaniS Iri'Iiirli/lvs. collected at liotlnvcll, Tasmania, by Mr. 11. 11. Fin- 
layson in August, 1931, Hirst 'a figures are reproduced. 

SenoNoASTiA Oudemans, 1910. 


This species was obtained by Hirst from the ears of Rattu* Qrefji from 
lVHstrec Hay, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Many of his synlypes were 

Fig. S] SB. Srhotiffnslin n ,i I ipntl in n inn Hirst: SI, <lois;il view; N'_\ vent nil view; 83, Qlirsal 
shii-ld I a II- i Hirst). 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

amongst the material h£i in Adelaide, mid some have been presented to the South 
Australian Museum. For comparison Hirst's figures are reproduced. 

SciioxuASTTA ('0(>k<>\*<;k\si<: Hirst, 1929, 

Hirst described this species from specimens taken from the ears of a rodent 
at Robe, South Australia, in December, 1926. His syntypes were amongsl the 

material left in Adelaide, and some have heen presented to the South Australian 


Pig, 84-86, Scltonf/axlia roonnu/rnsc Hirst: 84, dorsal view; 85, vent nil view; N(>, dorsal 
shield (after Hirst ). 

S< imxuASTiA DASvcKia'i Hirst, 1925). 

Prom the ears of Dasycereus crisiicauda, from Ooldea, South Australia. The 
synfypos were amongst the materia] left in Adelaide, and some of the slides are 
now in the collection of the South Australian Museum. 


■in. -iii (a 


fir, III, 

ffastiu dasi/rcrci 1 1 i i s1 : 87, dorsal view; 88, ventral view; Si), dorsal 

Womersley— Australian Mites 



Description: Sensory hairs of dorsal scutum eloiljJHtt', clavate, with numerous 
fine eiline, resembling those of ST. dasffcerri Ilirsl. Anterior lateral hairs of 
senium shorter than the ttiftdiau anterior hair. Poslerior lateral hairs of seutum 
Yi'vy iortg; abatlt three-fourths the width of seutum. Tosterior margin of seutum 

sinuate ami medially emargiimte-; anterior edge lightly eoneave. Eyes paired 
but indistinet. Dorsal body setae about 50« short, slightly eurved and feallmred. 

F%. flO-tyl. SfhoiiftastU! WCSrtmUen&t n.s|>„: i»n, dorSttl shield ;nul eves; <H, tip of poljj. 

.about 8 p lpIXg. Hairs of palpi as in TmmhicHht, I > u 1 those of the palpal tarsus 
arc long and ovcrreaeh the elaw. Palpal elaw with two ai-eessory elaws. Hairs 
of le^-s long and Strongly ciliated, bill there is no unfeathered hair as is described 
Edr S, (lasifci rci Hirst. Length of body 525 U>1 ,n ' s1 teg (excluding eoxae) 210 //. 
second 2Ifl /*. ; third 290 }J. : dorsal senium in middle 55 p long, width 105 /<- ; 
sensory hairs of seutum 38/a, anterior media] hair BO /,«., posterior lateral hair 

76 ( a. 

Locality: Ears of a eat from (ireonbushes. West Australia. August, 1931. 
Stpil tux**: In the South Australian Museum. 

KrnoNOAsTiA iM;ri;<KiAi-r: sj). nov. 

Description: Ddrsal scutum trapezoidal, the anterior margin Straight and 
short*']- than the postei'ior margin, which " s slightly sinuate medially. Sensory 
hairs globular with very fine eiliae. Other hairs of seutum comparatively short 
and Strongly feathered, little longer than the sensory hairs; 1he posterior Intend 
hairs are a little behind the sensory hairs. Even paired and equal. Dorsal body 
hairs very numerous, pointed, slightly eurved, and with long seeondary hairs { el*. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

fig. i. Palpi as figured, the longest feathered hair of tarsus overreaching tip of 

daw, which claw is tri furcate, begs vvithoul anv unfeathcrcd hairs. 


Pig. 92-95. Sclwngastm petmgale n.sp.: 92, dorsal view of animal; 93, dorsal shield; fH, 
palp ; 95, dorsal hair. 

Length 420 ji, breadth 270 ^ slightly constricted just behind the le^s ; front 
legs (excluding coxae) 220 //, middle leg's 180 //, hind Legs 230 p. Length of 
scutum 38/*, width posteriorly 92 (i, anteriorly 74//,; length of sensory hairs of 
scutum 20 fjt, } of posterior hairs 37 //, dorsal body hairs 35 /a. 

Locality: Musgrave Ranges, South Australia, July, I933 3 on scrotum of a 
wallaby, collected by Dr. C. 'J. Hackctt. : Tn the South Australian Museum. 

Pig. 96 i»S. Li iiircnlux l.iii r<tli< its/ 1 Hirst: JK5, dorsal shield and cvi's; '.»7, p.-il|>; DS 
t ip ol' inrsus. 

Womeksley— Australian Mites 217 

Bewwks: This speeds differ* twin all hitherto describe**! forms in the shapu 

o!' the dorsal scut uni and in the number and Structure of the dorsal body setae. 

LeUWENIIOKKIA Oudoimms, 1011. 

Li:r\\i:.\iioi:KiA ATJSTKALUflNSE Hirst, 1929. 

I have not been able to locate tin- types ol ihis species, bul in the Sotitli 
Ausi i-.-j I i<i ii Museum are specimens from the ears of a cat. colleelcd a1 Glen 
Osmond. South Australia, by Mr, l>. 0. Swag in November, 1931. 


1. Willi only one anteso-medial hair on scutum . . . . . . 2. 

with two antero-meclial hairs on scutum .. (leu. hcuwewfioekiu Quds, 

(iHs/ni/if. n sr Hirst. 

2. Sensory hairs ol' scutum long and fine with secondary hairlets . . . . :;. 

Gen. Troiuhicnhi Burl. 

Sensory hail's of senium clavate or edobose . . . . . . . . 4. 

Gen. Scho/ii/iisim ( >udfc. 

3. Dorsal scutum about one-third wider than long; The sensory and posterior 
hairs approximately in the middle line of scutum. Dorsal body setae 
2-(i-(J-l-2. Posterior angles of senium truncate. Smaller species. 

T. hirsh Sambon. 

Dorsal senium at least twice as wide as Lofigf. Tim sensory and posterior 

hail's of scut uni in a line well behind the middle. Dorsal body setae 
2-()-(;-(J-(i-(i-l. Posterior angles of scutum rounded. Larger species. 

T. )mr,/< h<>f!<iih/iar Hirst. 

•!. Sonsorv hairs of scutum elaxale not QfioboSG . . - . . . '). 

Sensory hairs of senium globose not elftvatc . . • • 6. 

."». Front margin of scutum produced Slightly medially; lateral and posterior 
margins evenly rounded .. .. .. :* & (tast/ccrci 1 1 irsl. 

Ptonl margin <>f scutum slightly concave, lateral margins divergenl pos- 
teriorly, posterior margin sLigbtty siuuale medially. & >n si ral i.< >is, sp, nov. 

fi. Body hairs wry numerous, comparatively short, and wilh long secondary 

hairs. Ordinary hairs of scutum comparatively short. Posterior edge of 

scut uni longer than anterior and Straight Ot* slightly sinuate. 

>s\ petrogale sp. iipv. 

Body hairs not so numerous. Longer, and with only short secondary hairs 7. 
7. Dorsai scutum widest behind Ihe middle. Posterior edge of senium Slightly 
sinuate medially. Sensory and posterior scutal hairs on line of gredtcsl 
Width. Lateral edges of scutum produced outwardly on line ol' ejrealesi 
width ►, . . • • . . ft • • * s '- rt>nrov</< nsr Hirst. 

Dorsal senium widest on posterior cdire, posterior hairs at poslcro-lateral 
corners and well behind ihe sensory hairs which are submedial. Lateral 
edges of scutum straight. . . - . . S. aiiiipo<(unn<tn Hirst, 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


Erytiiraeus Latreille, 1800. 

Erytiiraeus (velerii'es (Rainbow, 1906). 

Syn. Bhyncholo pints oelenpes Rainbow, 1906, 

Leptus imperator Hirst, 1928, 

This species was described and the entire animal figured by Rainbow in 
1906 ( 14 ). Tile type material consisting' of about a dozen specimens is in the 
Australian Museum. Lepfus imperator was described by Hirst in 1928 without 
any* figures. His type is in ihe collection of the South Australian Museum. 1 



V I 






r 'U 

-/I ( 

1 00 

Fig. 90-103. Mrythraeua erleripm (Htrfwbow) * 9$, crista ;m<l eyes; 100, palp- KM, Pronl 
tarsus and metatarsus; K>i\ second tarsus and metatarsus; 103, dorsal setae; 

have been able to compare this material, and without any doubt the two species 
must be regarded as synonymous. Both descriptions, however, are nol satisfac- 
tory, and I have therefore draws up Ihe following fresh description from 
mounted specimens of Rainbow's material. The figures arc also from the same 

Bedescripiion: Length to 3*8 mm. Crista distinct, linear, 1,480 f i long to 
tip of nasus, with two pairs of sensory hairs on enlarged areas at the extremities. 


The anterior ;i i*«*n Of crista is produced info a conical nnsus EuntLsht'd with a 
number of loiig set^if; The shield of the crista is indistinct. Eyes four, two on 
each side, sessile, slightly behind the middle of the crisia, the anterior ej'C of each 
pair is slightly the smaller Lcus I and I V very mneh longer thftD the body, I 6 7 
mm. lc>ng 3 II '5-S mm., Ill 4-°. mm., 1 V f>-!> mm.; front tarsus 850 p fc«MJ li y 
270. ji high, metatarsus 1,500 p, second tarsus 410 p by 110 r . tarsal scopolao fairly 
distinct except on front tarsi. Palpi as figured, with apical daw and short tarsus 
Which is scarcely longer than wide. Dorsal body hairs snort, curved, spiniform, 
40 // tellgj not ciliated; ventral hairs louder, reaching 120 /./. Long setae on nasus 
indistinctly dilated. 

Lnculitirs: In addition to the localities given by Uainbow and Hirst the 
Writer lias found this species under Kucalyptus bark at Armadale, WVsl Aus- 
tralia. August <>, 195J2, while Professor W. M. Wheeler has collected specimens m 
Kind's Park) Perth. Wesl Australia, in September. 1!KH, In the Australian 
Museum are two specimens collected by Mr. A. Mus<rrave in the National Park, 
\ew South Wales, on October 2, 1&33, 

lt< murk*: In life this species is often of a dark Shilling metallie-^reeu colour 
with a lighl dorsal stripe. 

ErYTHKAKIS l{E(JIN r AK (Hirst, 1928). 

Syn. L> pins rJ&ymae Hirst, 1928, 

Leptus a/niipodimw Hirst. 1928. 
The syni\])es of /,. wyimc and the type of h anfipod'krnw were amongst Ijie 

Hirst material m Adelaide, and are now in the Soutli Australian Museum. A 
critical study of Ibis malerial fails to show any significant differences between 
the two species. They were both described in the same paper in which /,. reffimu 

has page priority* 

The synty pes of /,. Vi (jhuii are from the Parklands. Adelaide, on December 2, 
1927, but amongst Hirst's malerial were also specimens from P.arrin«run. New 
Smith Wales, in .June. 1927; Bourke, NfcW South Wales, in An-ust, 1827; and 
frum Oranire, Queensland, for which no dale is givgti, The type of /.. imUpwli- 
amis is from Tanunda, South Australia, on March 24, 1927. In addition the 
writer has four specimens Collected by himself on Kottncst Island. West Aus 

trali a, in January, 1931, 

As both descriptions are inadequate and without fitrures, a redescript ion and 
figures drawn from the syniypes of /,, i-c<jiuuc are jz'iveu. 

Redescripiwn: Length to 2tQ mm. Crista lortg and linear, with two enlarged 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

areas each bearing a pair of sensory hairs, one area a1 each end of crista. Crista 
without a distinct sheath. The anterior area of crista is produced into an elongate 
nasua furnished with a number of Long strongly ciliated setae; Length of crista to 







Fig. 104-107. tirythracus r<</n<u< (Hirst): lot. arista and eves; lor,, pal]); 1.01$, fro»1 

'rjrsus .jikI metatarsus; ntr. dorsal seta. 

tip of nasua 1,200 /.<. tiy<> two on each side, sessile, on a distinei plate. Palpi 
normal, as figured* Leo- s I and [V longer than the body, I 4*3 mm. long, II Z-JJ 
mm.. Ill 3*3 mm., IV 5*4 mm.; trout tarsus 540 /'. long by IBS (X high, metatarsus 
83Q /<, tarsal seo])ulae fairly well developed; Dorsal hairs scale- or leaf-like, 
pointed, and broad with minute ciliations. 30-35 /./, long. 

Erythkaecs imlosi's (Hirst, 1928). 
Syn. Leptua pilosus Hirst, l!»2s. 

The type, from Dubbo, Xew South Wales, collected by Hirst nu August 7. 
1927 3 was found amongst the material left in Adelaide. It has now been pre- 
sented to the South Australian Museum by Professor Harvey .Johnston. A I'ur 
ther specimen w;js found by myself under » , um-tree bark in 1 he grounds of the 
Waite Institute, Adelaide. South Australia, in September, 1933., and in Ihe 
South Australian Museum are also Ihree specimens collected at Helair, South 
Australia, in January, 1934 (K.V.S. >. 

As in the preceding species it is necessary to redescribe this form, and figures 
drawn from the type arc given. 



Redeseripfion: Length 2-2 mm. Crista lineai* 3 650 ^ long, with enlarged 
stigma! areas al each end. Tile anterior area is bulbous aud not produced into a 

nasus; it is furnished with a number of Long pointed strongly eiliated selae. 
Eyes tWO «m each side, sessile, on a distinct shield and plaeed fairly close to the 


l;irsiis :iikI 

1 1 1 < ' 

111. Erythremia p&o&uh (Hirst): L08, aiista anO eyes; 109, palpj lie, frunl 
tatai'sus* ill, dorsal seta. 

crista but behind its middle. Palpi normal as figured. Legs I and IV longer 
than the body, I 3*35 mm. Long, II '2-5 mm.. Ill 2*5 mm.. IV 4-2 mm., front 
tarsus 450 ^ huiir by 120 fJ . high; metatarsus 665 ft. Clothing of long, pointed, 
Strongly cilia led setae 200 /.l Long, 

Ekythraeus derbeab sp. noy, 

Description: Length 2*6 mm. Colour dark, slightly reddish. Crista well 
ehil inized. 750 fi long, with anterior and posterior sensory areas, the anterior of 
which is bulbous and nol produced into a nasus, furnished with a number of 
lone;, finely ciliated, blunt setae. Eyes two on each side, slightly behind the 
middle of crista, sessile, ocular shield not! distinet. Palpi normal, as figured, with 
fairly strong daw and long, clubbed tarsus reaching to or slightly beyond tip of 
claw. Legs I and I V longer than body, I 3*75 mm., II 2-4 mm.. Ill :H) mm., 
IV l-r> mm., front larMis 550 \t. Long by 150 p high, metatarsus 825 ^. Clothing 

2 22 

Records of the S.A. Museum 

of numerous dark, strong setae, which are strongly ciliated and bhmi apically, 
variable in length up to 200 ^, more numerous than in preceding- species. 

SynliiiHs: Two specimens in the South Australian Museum, collected by 
myself under Eucalyptus bark in the grounds of the Wnile Institute, Urrbra«\ 
South Australia, in September, 1933. 

Fig. 112-114. Eri/thrarus urrbrnr>.: L12, palpj 11S-, brant tarsus aud metatarsus; 114, 
ilors;ii seta. 

Remarks: Closely related to the preceding but distinct in the nature of the 

Key to the Australian Species of Erytitraeus. 

1. Hairs of dorsum short and leaf- or scale-like, pointed, with short dilations, 

E. rcgiiKic (Hirst ). 

Hairs on dorsum not as above . . . . . . . . 2. 

2. Anterior end of crista with a long- nasus. Dorsal hairs long and spiniform, 
pointed, and only indistinctly ciliated. Tarsus of palp short, not longer than 
wide . . . . . . . . . . E. ciUripcs (Rainbow). 

Anterior end of crista withoul nasus. Palpal tarsus long and clubbed . . 3. 

3. Dorsal hairs fine and tapering lo a point, of more uniform size. 

E. ptlosus (Hirst ). 

Dorsal hairs stouter and blunt, not tapering to a point, of variable length. 
E. urrbrae sp. nov. 



Leptus Latreille, 1795. 

This genus differs from Bflamtntm in the eyes being placed before the 
middle of the crista, the crista being' without any shield, the absence of a nasus. 
Mini in the structure of the dorsal body hairs. 

Leptus. wakrkuensi: (Hirst, 1928). 
Syn. ficltiusl in in irdrrif/ciisc Hirst, 1928, 

The syntyp45S of this Species were found amongst the Hirst material in 
Adelaide, and are now in the South Australian Museum. The following rede- 
seriplion and figures are drawn from the synlypes: 





Fig. 116-118. Lepim warrcffewv (Hirst): 115, crista and eyes; lit"., palp; 117, front 

1 ;j i sus ;iii<I mrf :i1 ;t rsiis ; IIS, (lorsnl sH;i. 

Eedescription: Length 1*575 mm. Crista well developed, linear, 440 p long. 

without shield, anterior and posterior sensillary areas each with the usual pair 
of sensory hairs. Eyes one on each side, plaeed slightly behind the anterior 
sensillary area. Palpi as figured, with small tibial (daw and long, clubbed tarsus 
overreaching lip of claw. Legs not longer than body, 1 1,660 p, II 1,050 //,, III 
L225 i-l, IV 1,450 p; front tarsus 300 p long by 110 ft high, metatarsus 
275 fjL long, all tarsi wilhout seopulae. Hairs on legs long, pointed, and strongly 
Ciliated; Oil dorsum 35-40 /*. long. strongly feathered, rather blunt, and not as 
bushy as in the following species. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 
Lei'Tus ornatus sp. nov. 

Description; Small, length 1*35 mm.. Width 0-9 mm. Colour in life reddish. 
Crista distinct and well developed, 420 p Long, with anterior and posterior scn- 
sillary areas each with the usual pair of sensory hairs, anterior area of crista 




? '! 



\\ l\ 


Fig. 119-122. Lcplus unuttus n.sp.: Ill), crista an<l eyes ; 120. palp; 121, front tarsus 
an. I pal|>; 122, dorsal sola. 

elliptical but without nasus. Eyes one on each side, placed just behind the 
anterior sensillarv area. Palpi as figured, with strong but small tibial claw and 
long and stout tarsus scarcely elubbed but overreaching tip of elaw. Legs 1 and 
IV slightly longer than the body, I 1,500 H , long, IT 900 ^ TTT 1,200 ,x, [V l,(>f>0,t, 
front tarsus short and elliptical, 260 p, long by 120 \i high, metatarsus rather 
longer, all tarsi without scopulae. Dorsal body hairs short and thick, 27 /./. long, 
slightly curved, strongly feathered so as to appeal? bushy, mainly very dark. Inn 
there appears to be a medial patch where these hairs are light. 

Type: From Rottnesl Island, West Australia, January 31, 1931, collected by 

The above specimens are now in the South Australia)] Museum. This species 
can be distinguished from the preceding by the structure and dimensions of the 
front tarsus and the nature of the dorsal clothing. 



Belaustium v. Ueyden, 1826. 

Belaustium newmani sp. nov. 

Description Length 1*65 mm., width I»3 mm. Colour in life reddish. 
Crista distinct and well developed on a narrow elongate shield, with anterior and 
posterior sensillary areas, the front area produced into a blunt nasal process, 
sensory hairs short, about 40/x long, crista 4:50 p. Long. Byes one on each side. 





Fig, 123-126. Hrhmslhim newmam n.sp.: 123 crista and ryes ; 124, palp; 125, front tarsus 
and metatarsus, L26, dorsal sda. 

sessile, placed slightly in front of the posterior and sensillary area. Palpi as 
figured, with strong, short tibial claw and shorl, stout tarsus. Legs 1 and 1 V 
scarcely longer than the body, I 1,700 /*, II 1,200 ^.111 1,200 ,,„ TV 1,860 p, fronl 
tnrsus 'I'M) f i Long by 95 f x high, metatarsus 360 /a, all tarsi without scopulae. 
Dorsal setae ciliated as in B. littoraJc sp. nov., but stouter and straighter and 
apically blunt, sparser and more scattered. 

Type and paratope; Perth. West Australia, collected by myself in 1931, now 
in the South Australian Museum. This species is named after Mr. L. J. Newman, 
Government Entomologist 1o West Australia as a slight mark of esteem. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


Description: Length 1*16 nun., width 1*75 nun. Crista distinct and well 
developed on an elongate shield, with anterior and posterior sensillary areas, 
each with the usual pair of sensory hairs. Length of crista 330 /', ol* shield 430 /*i 
t lie anterior sensillary area produced in a blunt nasns, from the tip of winch the 






Pig. 1-7—1 :;0. Ilrhivsf him (/hiiKili n.sp. : 127, riispi ;in.| c ws ; HNX, palp; [29, front tmsiis 

.'in.l metatarsus^ ISO, dorsal setae 

length of the crista is laken. Sensory hairs 1 1 5 //, long. Eyes one on each side, 
sessile, on m Level with the posterior sensillary area. Palpi as figured. All legs 
longer than the body, 1 2,820 fh II 1,600 n, ITT 1,760 p, IV 2,820 ft front tarsus 
120 f i Long by 110 /< high, metatarsus 490 ,, long, all tarsi without scopnlae. Dorsal 
hairs sparse and short, 30 p. long, not tapering, and more blnnt than in previous 
species, indistinctly ciliated. 

Type: A single specimen IVom Perth, West Australia, collected in 1932 by 
myself. The specimen is now in the South Australian Museum. I( is named in 
honour of Mr. L. J. Glauert, Ourator of the Perth Museum. 


Description: Small, reddish. Length 2-4 mm., width 1 >85 mm. Crista well 
developed, linear but thick, on a narrow elongate shield, with anterior and pos- 

Womersley— Australian Mites 


terior sensUiarjp areas each with the usual pair of sensory hairs, The anterior area 
of crista is produced i t H <> a blunt nasus, and the length bf the crista from its tip 
IS 650 //.. Palpi as figured, with small, strong tibial claw and short, stumpy tarsus 
Kyrs one on eaeh side, placed slightly in front of posterior area of crista. Le^'s 
not longer than body, 1 2,400 ,,,, II 1,S00 ,,„ 111 1,850 /<. IV 2,f>00 ,,.. front tarsus 
elliptical* 300 p long by 150 /' high, metatarsus 420 p long, all larsi without 
scopulae. Dorsal body hairs lone/, 60 //, curved, slejider and point ed, with cilia- 
lions on one side only, fairly numerous in good specimens. 





Al' ))' 
« lit' ? 




Pig. \'M -134. />'• htHsliitm It/loralf n.sp..: 1M1, <*nst;i tuul eywj i:;2, palp; I:;;;, front tHfsua 
.iinl m< t:it:.!'sus; l.'i I. floi'Bal set ti. 

7'///>' and ])(ir<ihi/)cs in the Smith Australian Museum, and collected under 
seaweed on shore at Point Perron, West Australia, April (>. 1931, by the writer. 

I t '<iii(irl,-s: This species is very close to the European species 1\. quisqitiliupum 
(] let-man), as ascertained by comparison with an English specimen of that 
Species, Herman's species has slightly shorter and perfectly plain setae on fcllU 

pKLArsTiuM iii;i-:vi m sp. nov. 

Description: Length 1*245 mm., width 0-83 mm. Crista distinct but shield 
rather obscure. Anterior and posterior sensillary areas present, anterior with a 
slight nasns. The sensory hairs of the crista are 11.") ^ lone;, the crista itself 
•'520 //.. Byes one on each side, sessile, and placed behind the middle of the crista. 
Legs I ami IV tatter longer than the body. 1 1,600 ,,., II 1,060 f i, III 1,245 ,/. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

IV 1,660 fa front tarsus 260 // long by 130 n high, metatarsus 290 /./. long, all tarsi 
without scopulae. Dorsal body hairs sparse, 75 p tong 4 fairly thick and bluntly 
pointed, slightly ciliated. 

Type: A single specimen from Riverton, South Australia, September, 1933, 

collected by Mr. W. G. Johnston; in the South Australian Museum. 




Pig, L3$- 188, I'xhtust him hr<rnrn n.xp.: L3|>, cl'ista :mmI eyes; L36, palpj P>7, front tiirsu- 
;nnl metatarsus; L38, dorsal seta. 

Belaustittm niriroLA sj>. nov. 

Description: Length ^00 /t, width 350 /'-. Colour in life bright red. Crista 

distinct with anterior and posterior areas, but with hardly any indication of a 

shield. Each area of the Crista has the usual pair of sensory hairs, which are 
very finely ciliated- Length of crista ISO /' and Of sensory hairs 45 ^. The Ironi 
area of crista forms a small nasus furnished with a few long setae. Eyes one on 
each side in a line with the posterior sensillary area. There is a very distinct 
-i i lure behind the cephalothorax. Palpi long- and straight, as figured. Le^s 
I 610 fx long, II 400 /x, TIT 435 u, IV 570 //, front tarsus elliptical, 110 n long by 
43 (i high, metatarsus 90 \x Long. Clothing of moderately numerous pointed, 
curved setae, 20 // in length, and under a high power slightly ciliated. 

LocMify: Amongst herbage on banks of Uindmarsh River, Victor Harbour, 
South Australia, in January. 1934 (H.W.). 

Si/n!if/>rs: In the South Australian Museum. 



Fig. 139-142. lirhmsl nini ripicola n.sp.: 139, dorsal entire view; 140, crista; 141, palp; 
141!, front tarsus and metatarsus. 


Description: Length 810 /a. Colour in life reddish. Crista well developed 
but shield indist inet, with anterior and posterior sensillary areas each with the 


Pig, 143—147. Jlrlauxliuiii instilarton n.sp. : 143, crista; 144, palp; 145, front tarsus and 
metatarsus; L4C>, second tarsus and metatarsus;; 147, dorsal seta. 

230 Records of the s.a. Miskum 

usual pair of sensory setae. Length p£ crislti :»S0 ,«., belwecn sensillae 130 ,/<. 

Legs I 800 ,, lone-, n 7l';> ,l. Ill 75Q /<, l\ T 1,01 d ,/.. from tapsus elliptical, 130 />. 
long by 82 /> high, metatarsus 180 p long; Dorsal setffe i';iirly numerous, stonr, 
a tittle wider at some distance from base, strongly ciliated, and .'!f>— 10 ,/ Innir. 

7'///>< ; A single Rpecimgp collfeeted Oil Roltnesl Island, West Australia, Janu- 
ary ill. 193] (TT.W). 

Remarks: Tflifi speeies is vcr-y closely related lo 11. hn rvi\\ sp. now. hoi 
differs in the structure of the dorsal sclae and the proportions of the Front tarsi. 

Kl<:Y TO THE AUSTRALIAN Sl'KCU-'S (>!•' PiKLAUSTll ' \\ . 

1. Front tarsus elongate, almost parallel-sided, nearly I limes as Iflng as high, 
rather more than 4/5 ihe length of rtietatHi\sus. Dorsal hairs fairly long; 

indistinctly ciliated, hlnnt ended. Le^s \ and IV more than twiGe as long 
as body . . . . . . . . H. ffhun rli sp. no\ . 

Front tarsus short and elliptical .. .. .. .. ...2. 

2. Front tarsus at leasl 2\ times as lontr as high . . . . 3. 

Front tarsus not more than twice as long as high . . . . A. 

ft, From tarsus _' times aft lotfg as high, metatarsus more than twice as long 
asrain. Dorsal hairs slmit, tapering, indistinctly ciliated, almost straight and 
s]>arse. LfcgS I and I Y only slightly longer lhan body, fit. in tammi <\). noy. 

Front tarsus slightly more than 24 times as Long as high, metatarsus shorter 
than tarsus. Clothing of moderately numerous pointed seiae. 20 i< long, and 
indistinctly ciliated. Lcirs I and I \' shorter than body B. ripicoUl sp. nov. 

4 Front metatarsus only very slightly longer than tarsns. Body hairs stout, 
not tapering, bill parallel-aided, hlnnt at apex and slightly ciliated* Small 

species 1*25 mm, ,. .. .. .. 7>. hn rum sp. nov. 

Front metatarsus quite half as Long auain as the tarsus . . . . .">. 

:1. Body hairs slender, curved, and point. -d. only indistinctly ciliated. Larger 
species np to 2*5 mm. . . . . . . . . I!, littoral? Rp. nov. 

Body hairs stout, strmiLdy ciliated, and broadest a1 some distance from ha so. 
small species ()-s n ,,,L , , . . . . . . fi. ivsiilannii sp. no\ . 

Sti-ii.U'KoruiMirs r.eilese, TDK). 

This immis is v<:ry close to Ih laust iiini v. ITeyden, 1826, I'rom which it differs 
chiefly in the almost spherical and large tarsus of the palp. The crista is linear 
mi ;< narrow shield, and lias the usual two pairs of swollen ureas at the exl remit ies, 
'•a<-h with two sensory hairs. The eyes are one on each side, placed behind the 
middle of the crista. The dorsal hairs are somewhat spiniform and only indis- 
t incfly ciliated. 

No species has previously been recorded from Australia. 

YVomeks ley— Australian Mites 



Deaeripfiom Length 1-425 torn,, width 0*83 mni. Colour in life red. Crista 

well developed on a narrow shield wilh anterior and posterior sensillary areas, 
without luisus. Length of crista $J0 jit-, of sensory hairs 135 /<.. Kyes one on each 

Fiji, 1^8 ]">-. Spina roloplni.s ir<'.str<i!i< u.sp.: MS, dorsul cmfiTB view; 1-U>, Crista j 

inn, pnlp: 1 5 1 , front tar&Ufci ;ukI mcia tarsus; 152, dur&Hl s<?trt< 

side behind middle of crista and ai ;i considerable distance from it, Lc«>s longer 
than body in first and fourth pairs, I 1,378 ,* lrtHg> II 1,000 ,,, III 1,080 ^ IV 
1,660 /', front tarsus ISO p lon^ by 7-5 ,x h%fe, metatarsus MOO /» Long. All tarsi 
With indistinct senpulac. Palpi as figured, liody hairs lonir. finely pointed, 
slightly curved, Sllid indistinelly ciliated, variable in length to 110 ft, fairly 


Type rind parai !//>< from r>ridgeinwn. West Australia, December M, 1930, 
collected Uv the? writer. and now in the South Altfttralian Miisimiiii. 

Mi* -iiosm Aifis Ilirsl, 192G. 

r rh is genus was erected in 1926 by Hirst, when he described Micvosinctvis 

mirandus ( r ' ) from ( 'hristchurch. New Zealand. In 1028 ( s ) he added a second 
species. 1/. <i<nnnutc, from Adelaide, South Australia, but unforl unately without 
(inures and wilh a very poor' and inadequate description. The genotype was, 
however, well described and figured. 

212 Records of the S.A, Museum 

The syntypes of M. (/oaitiui, were found amongst the Hirst material in 

Professor Harvey Johnston's possession, ami have now bft*(fn placed in the Souih 
Australian Museum. Amongst the materia] collected by the writer while in West 
Australia, and now in the South Australian Museum, are a number of specimens 
which belong to this ^mis. Four of these agree with Hirst's descript ion of I/, 
ivirarxlus, while the remaining two are a new species, to which Hie name Micros- 
maris hirsl i is given. 

A study of this malerial enables us lo more definitely define the characters 
of the ircims and also lo mlescribe .)/. </otinnnt -. 

Iii:i)F.riNITIO.\ Of (,' K\TS Mli'K'uSMAKIS. 

Of comparatively small size. M.OUth-part« styliform and but little retractile. 
fntegUTftenl Only lightly ehitinized, devoid of ornamentation, but clothed with 
small simple spine-like setae. ( 1 rista obsolete, bul two pairs of sensory hairs pre- 
sent, widely separated, One eye Oil «*aeh side behind ihe middle of where the crista 
wotdd be. Legs generally not much longer than the body, unmodified, with simple 
hairs, tarsi with only indistinct scopulae. Dorsum with two pairs of large sensory 
pits a\^^\ with scale like setae; one pair of pits situated medially and sublatcr- 
aily, the oilier pair closer together and siibapieal. 

Miua>sjYiAKiK mikaxdus, Hirst, 1926, 

Four s|>eeimens collected by the writer at Mullewa, West Auslralia, in Sep 
tember, 1931, and now in ihe collections Of the South Australian Museum, aun-e 
in detail with this species. 

M« 'KUSMAU'IS IIOANNAK Hirst, 1928< 

This species was described from spcciiin-iis collected by Miss Joan Olebmd 
and Air. S. Hirsl under Fucalyplus bark in a garden at Adelaide. Il is mimed 
aftpr Aliss rieland. and the speeific name has no relation to the Australian species 
of Varan/is. The syntypes were amongst t lit* Hirsl material in Adelaide, and are 
im\v in Ihe Souih Australian .Museum. In the same material was also a single 
specimen collected by Hirst at Helair, South Australia, in January, 1928, 
Numerous examples were also taken from under Fuealypt baric on Mount 
Osmond. South Australia. February o. 1<):>4. by the writer. 

The following redeseription is drawn from the syntypes: Length 1-4)5 mm. 
Crista obsolete, but two pail's of sensory hairs present, t&2 /j- apart, the hairs 
70-80 /<. long. Fycs one on each side behind Ihe middle of where the crista woidd 



be. Palpi as figured. hegH short, I 1,580 ,/ long, II 1,030 /A , III 1,180 ^ l\ r 
1,330 //., front tarsus 170 p Long by 75 p high, metatarsus 300 p Long. Clothing 
of numerous short, curved, spine-like setae, 20 /* Long nod interspersed, especially 





Pig, 158-355, fflicrosmaris goannut Hirst: 153, fmirj tarsus mul uat'tatarmtsj [54, palp; 
155, posterior dorsal setae* 

posteriorly, with iniieh longer setae, which reach 70 fi in length. Dorsum with 
the usual two pairs of sensory pits. 

The essential differences of this species from the other two are give in the 



Description: Length 1-0 mm. Colour in life red. Crista obsolete, but two 
pairs of sensory hairs present, 112 /» apart and the hairs 70 // long. Eyes one on 
each side, behind the middle of where the crista would be. Legs no! longer than 
body, I 1,000 ^ long, II and III 8:50 ih IV 920 ,x, front tarsus J35 fi long by 
G5 /* high, metatarsus 164 /* long. Palpi as figured. Clothing of numerous short, 
curved, spine-like setae, M0 fi long, posteriorly the dorsum has some slightly 
Ionger bu1 similar selae which reach 40 // in length. Dorsum with the usual two 
pairs of sensory pits 35 /x in diameter. 

Type: Freshwater Bay, Swan River, Perth, West Australia, November 15, 
1930 (II.W.). 

I'ttrahf/H: King's Park, Perth, West Australia. September f>, 1931 (HAY. ) 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fig. L56-15& Microsmaris hirvti lusp.i 156, palp; 157, front tarsus and metatarsus; 158, 
posterior dorsal setae. 


Description: Very small species 0-825 mm. long. In life reddish with a 
distinct green shimmer. Legs 1 and IV distinctly longer than body, I 1,320 **, 




Fig. 159-164, MwrofmarU minut-us n.sp. ■ 159, anterior portion of dorsum showing sensory 
hairs; L60, palp; 161, front tarsus and metatarsus; 162, second tarsus and metatarsus.; 163, 
one of the dorsal pits, posterior dorsal setae. 

Womersley— Australian Mites 235 

II 660 n, III 740 fi, IV 1,050 /x, front tarsus more than twice as long as high, 
120 fx by 55 /x, metatarsus 260 /x long. Eyes on each side placed medially to the 
two pairs of sensory hairs. Crista obsolete, but with two pairs of sensory hairs 
120 fi apart, anterior hairs 50 /x long', posterior 80 xt long. Dorsum well clothed 
with two kinds of setae, mostly short, 30 /x long, but interspersed with long ones 
reaching 55 /x in length. Dorsum with the usual two pairs of pits lined with 
scale-like setae, but these setae are not so broad as in other species. 

Locality: A large number of specimens taken by sweeping herbage on Mount 
Lofty, South Australia, January 1, 1934 (H.W.). 

Syntypes: In the South Australian Museum. 

Key to the Species of Microsmaris, 

1. Legs I and IV much longer than the body. Small species 0-825 mm. 

M. minuhis sp. nov. 

Legs 1 and IV shorter or not much longer than the body . . 2. 

2. Dorsal setae sparse, of uniform size, small, about 15 /x long. Front tarsus 
three times as long as high ... . . M. mirandus Hirst. 

Dorsum posteriorly with some longer setae . . . . . . . . 3. 

3. Longer dorsal setae only a little longer than the others. Front tarsus as 
long as high. The pairs of sensory hairs closer together M. hirsti sp. nov. 
Longer dorsal setae about three and a half times as long as the others. Front 
tarsus slightly more than twice as long as high. The pairs of sensory hairs 
wider apart . . . . . . . . • • M. goannae Hirst. 

Calyptostoma Cambridge, 1875. 

Syn. Smaridia Latreille, 1817. 

Fessonia (v. Heyden) Banks, 1916. 

Calyptostoma prominens (Banks, 1916). 

Syn. Fessonia prominens Banks, 1916. 

The type from Ocean Grove, Victoria, taken by the late Mr. A. M. Lea in 
association with the ant Iridomyrmex nitidus, is in the South Australian Museum 
collections. Amongst the Hirst material left in Adelaide were four other speci- 
mens collected by Hirst at Menindie, South Australia, and labelled in pencil by 
Hirst as "Banks' genus". A further specimen was found by the writer under 
bark in the grounds of the Waite Institute, Urrbrae, South Australia, on Sep- 
tember 3, 1933. From these additional localities the association of the type 
specimen with ants would appear to be accidental. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Excellent figures of the eephalothorax and dorsal hairs air given by Banks, 
but no other details. Drawings of (lie palp and front tarsus and metatarsus are 
now added, while certain morphological features are described which are not 
mentioned in the original description. These details, however, are not taken 
from the type, which is in poor condition, but from the specimen from the Waile 
Institute. Another example of this species was collected by myself at VictOT 
Harbour, South Australia, in January, 1934. 



1 65 

Wg. 165-166, ('(iijtp/.o.stnnHt promnwH (Banks): Ltf£, [>alp; Kit;, front tarsus ami metatarsus. 

Length 0*65 mm. Palpi as figured, with long, slender claw and shorter but 
elongate tarsus which is not clubbed. Leg 1 670 /* long, II 330 //, III 330 p, IV 
500/*, front tarsus (missing in type) 105 p. Long by 38 p high, metatarsus 135 a. 
Dorsal hairs 20 /x long. 

Genus Caectjijisoma Berlese, 1888. 
Cakculisoma nasutum Hirst, 1928. 

r rhe type of this species, collected by Mr. A. M. Lea in the Cairns Districl of 
(Queensland, is in the collections of the South Australian Museum. 

The original description is very good, and little lu^ds to be added. As in all 
species of the genus, however, the crista is continued behind the posterior sensil- 
lary area for .some distance ris a kind ol" dorsal groove. As no figures accom 
panted the original description, drawings of the important details are now given. 
These drawings are all from the type specimen. The i'rnnl tarsi are missing, but 

Womhrsley— Australian Mites 


are probably longer than those of the other legn. The larsiis and metatarsus 
shown are I hose of leg IV. 

Pig, 167—171. Ciici-iilisoimi iHi.sniitin Ilirsl: 107, nista ami eyCBj 1(18, pal]' ; 169, I'li'ii! Leg 
viilunil Uumis; 170, larsus and metatai'BUS Of log IV; 171, two of tltO dorsal setae. 

Tin- species appears to be very closely related to CaecuUnofna tuberculatum 
Berlese Erora Buenos Ayres, but I have not been able to see the original descrip- 
tion and RgUrea of this species. 

C AE< IULISO M A M ON TA N A ( 1\ a i U b o w , 1 ! ) ti ) , 

Syn. BhyneholopJius montana Rainbow. 1906, 

1 am indebted to the authorities of the Australian Museum, Sydney, for 
Hi.' opportunity of* mounting and examining the type of tins species, which was 
from Mounl Kosciusko, F.O.T. The original description, which was accompanied 
by ci figure of the entire animal only, is quite inadequate, so that it is here re- 
deseribed and figured in detail. 

[iCngtll 3'0 mm., width 1*8 mm. Colour scarlel. Crista Long and Linear, 
with a swollen stigma] area at each end ; tin 1 posterior area is, however, continued 
backwards for some distance as a dorsal groove. Eyes, said to be two on each 
side, bu1 in 1lie mount I can see only one, as in other species of the genus, sessile. 
Palpi long, as figured, with elongate tarsus placed terminally on the tibia and 
subequal to tibia, tibia with a very small outer claw, begs shorter than body, all 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

tibia with tubercles ox discs on the middle of the outer edge, the third segment 
of log's II and 111 with a distinct constriction, tarsi elliptical, front t.irsns twice 
as long as others. Clothing consists of fairly numerous curved spinitorm seta* 

Fig. 172-17<5. Caccutttoma monttma (Jtainbow) j I7l\ crisia; 17."., palpj 174, lt»g I; L75, 

leg IT ; 176, dorsal setae. 

which taper to a point, but are surrounded by a narrow blunt-ended but delicate 
sheath. Legs very hairy with long hairs, tarsi with light scopulae. 

CabouLISOICA argus Vitzthuin, 1926. 

Dr. Vitethum described this species ( 1T ) from a single example collected by 

Dr. Dammerman in Sumatra. 1 j i the South Australian Museum is a single speci- 
men collected by Mr. \\. Y\ Southeott at Glen Osmond. South Australia, in 
January, 1934, 

This species is easily distinguished by the key. 

Cakculisoma ripicola sp. imv. 

Description of Adult: Length 1*17 mm., width 0-875 mm. Colour in life 
reddish-browu. Crista distinct, with anterior and posterior sensillary areas, the 
posterior area only a little prolonged backwards. Each area has two sensory 
Lairs, which are comparatively short and simple. The anterior area of the crisia 
has 8-9 long, serrated, scale-like setae. The crista is 850 i> long, sensory hairs 



30 /'. and the scaled ike H&tm Oil anterior area 40 f t lon<- Kyes one on each side. 

small, and placed befcind the middle tin*? oi tiia crista, L£#fi I and IV abonl as 

as body, II hjiO IN shorter. I l.L'U) ,,. long II 78Q ^ III 8f5 r- IV 1,22") , s 

ftponl tarsus elliplieal, slightly longer than metatarsus, 165 \i long by 96 /* high, 

metatarsus 152 p tang; second and others much shorter than front and than their 
respective metatarsi. II IV with distinet fceOpalae, all metal arsi willi the charac- 
teristic discs. Palpi as figured, with small tibial claw, which is much shorter 
than the tarsus. Clothing of uniform scale-like selae which have longitudinal 
series of serral mils ; these scales are \rvy numerous, and are not interspersed with 
simple spines, their length is 30 /.<. ; the scales are also present on. loirs I I IV on 
the outside, btsgipulllg al ihe metatarsi. 

■ 3$% 

Pig. 177 I SO. VtU'CVlkom-fl H'tHtVia n.sp. : 177 iSi adttJt: 177, t 3i T in- dors;* I \il-av; 1.7M, 

i-.-ilp; I7i*. i'ioiiI tarsus ami metatarsus From above; iso, tamia ami mc-tatai-sus of log M: 
|si, .•ii.-i.-i. isl' ix<; nympbt 1.82", entire ttaraif] vieiv ; is:;, ciisoi; 184, Front Uosus hAH mcta- 

1 a l sus ; Is.l; second tarsus ami inclutnrsuN ; 1SI>. tip of pjilp. 

PrsiT'/tiiort of Nytnpk: Length 0'875 mm., width D--5d0 n»m. Colour iii life 
brighl red. Crittta present and distinet as in adult. hu1 differs in that the sensory 
hairs ;iit short, finely ciliated and distinctly swollen apieallv ; the anterior 
sensillary area has fewer scale dike setae which are cpial in length to those of the 
dorSltW; bngth of erista 1!>2 //, of sensory hairs -o ,,. Kyes one on eaeh side, 
small, and somewhal hehind the median line of the -I'ista. Palpi as figured. 
kegS \<'i'Y thin, I and I V ahoul as Long as body, II and III shorter; front tarsus 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

93 p long by 46 (i bighj metatarsus 110 fx\ all metatarsi aye without the discs and 
there are no tarsal scopolae. Clothing of scale-like yetae with Longitudinal rows 
of serrations; these setae, however, are not so numerous as in the adult but of the 
same type; they are 15 ft tong, The relative abundance of these setae ou the 
dorsum of the adult and nymph is shown in the drawings of the crista. Scale- 
like setae are also present ou the Legs, but graduate into ciliated pointed setae on 
the tarsi. Legg T 610 p long* 11 435 ,,., 1 II 470 /*, I V 570 H .. 

Localities: Only one specimen of the adult was found amongst Large numbers 
of nymphs by sweeping the ti-tree shrubs alone; the banks of the llindmarsh 
River, Victor Harbour, South Australia, in January, 1934 (11. W.). 

Iu murks: If one is correct in associating the nymphal forms with the single 
adult specimen, then the character of the metatarsal discs is only to be found in 
the adult stage of species of this genua. The difference in the smsorx hairs of 
the crista in the two stages is also somewhat remarkable. 

The type of the adult and the syutypes of the nymphs are in the SoutIi 
Australian Museum. 

Uii;. LS7-192. Cnticitlisoma johvHtonin.9\).: lH7, enthus animal from ultove; 188, palp; 189, 

l-'nmt tarsus and metatarsus; LDO, second tarsus and metatarsus; L91, dorsal setfl ; !!>-, ventral 

Womersley— Australian Mites 241 

Caeculisoma johnstoni sp. ncv. 

Description: Length 1-38 mm. Colour red. Body widest in the hinder por- 
tion, 0-812 mm. Crista distinct, 800 /x long, with anterior and posterior sensil- 
lary area, the posterior area continued tor a long distance as a dorsal groove; the 
distance between the sensory hairs is 415 ti, length of these hairs 50 /x; the 
anterior area produced into a blunt nasus with about ten long, stout, serrated 
setae, which are slightly thickened apically. Eyes one on each side, placed in front 
of posterior sensillary area. Palpi long and thin, 520 p. tibia with a short outer 
claw, tarsus longer than tibia. Legs I 2,110 /.«, long, II 1,300 /x, 111 1,460 >, IV 
1,950 /x, front tarsus 290 [x long by 110 /x high, metatarsus 400 ,x long; all meta- 
tarsi with the usual discs and tarsi IT-TV with distinct scopulae. The peculiar 
discs are also present on the other segments of the legs, as described by Vitzthum 
for C. argus. Clothing dorsally of fairly numerous stout rod-like setae, which 
are strongly serrated and thickened apically, about 50 /x long; ventrally of plain 
curved setae of the same length. The stout serrated setae extend on the outside 
of the legs as far as the basal portion of the tibia. 

Type: A single specimen from under bark at Mount Osmond, South Aus- 
tralia, February 3, 1934 (H.W.). 

Remarks: This species is named after Professor Harvey Johnston, to whose 
valued help much of this paper is due. 

Key to the Australasian Species of Caeculisoma. 

1. Dorsal hairs feathered with long secondary hairlets, and interspersed with 
long, simple, slender spines. Large species 2-5 mm. 

C. sulcatum (Vitzthum, 1926). 

Dorsal hairs not feathered . . . - • • • • . . 2. 

2. Dorsal hairs as elongate clubbed papillae with short ciliae. 

C. clamger Canestrini. 

Dorsal hairs not as above . - • • • • • • i> - 

3. Dorsal hairs scale- or leaf-like . . . . • - • ■ . . 6. 
Dorsal hairs not so . . . . • • • • • ■ . . 4. 

4. Dorsal hairs stout rod-like with strong short serrations; ventral hairs simple. 

C johnstoni sp, nov. 

Dorsal hairs short and curved, spiniform with narrow sheath, of uniform 
size, not serrated . . . . . . (7. Montana (Rainbow, 1906). 

Dorsal hairs of varying length and not as above . . . ■ • • °- 

5. Hairs of two distinct sizes, 35 ^ and 190 /x, long, cylindrical, uniformly thick 
with short serrations . . . . . . G. argus Vitzthum, 1926. 

Entire animal with long, strong spines, all smooth above but strongly spmed 
on outside .. .. •• ■• C, infernale Vitzthum, 1926. 

242 Records of the S.A. Museum 

& Dorsal hairs scale- or leaf-Eke, with strongly chitinized mid-rib and a broad, 
less ehitixifaed, smooth-edged lamella .. r. ntwvtum Eirst, 1928. 

Dorsal hairs scale- or Leaf-like, with longitudinal rows of serrations, Mid- 
rib noi m.dnly chil inized . . . . . . ft , /> r ^ sp« aov. 

Genus Hirstiosoma <xen. now 

This genus is somewhat related to Calyptastoma and Vmciili&omiL The body 
is widest anteriorly, Crista present, with anterior and posterior sensillary areas, 
each with two sensory hairs. Eyes one on each side on the medial line of the 
crista, kegs long and fairly thin. All tarsi above the claws with n pair of 
strong, slightly curved, simple spines arising Prom disiinct papillae. No meta- 
tarsal discs. The dorsum is covered with peculiar three-winged short setae. 


Description: Length 1-015 mm, Colour ml. Body with a constriction 
medially, 570 // wide in front of constriction, rather narrower below. Crista 
distinct, 325 p long, with anterior and posterior sensillary areas, each with a pair 

Pig, 193 -UI9. mrrtwsoma scafarts A,g +1 ...s P . : id;;, entire animal town ohovfr: 194. front 
larsus and metatarsus; L95, second tarsus ami metatarsus; ]m, tip of Larsue trom nhow Lfl7 
tip o-l tarsus Crom side; 19$, sidti and top dew of dorsal mtttfej ig» m( ; , r M)m 

\\ Vimkksi.kv — Australian Mites 243 

of sensory hairs abot.i1 $0 p lortg afid simple Eyes one tm each side abonf the 
middle ( >i' cristn. Palpi short, tibia w it h daw which overreaches the thumb-like 

tarsus, 160 // hum. Apical area erf crista wilh ;i number of serrated scale like 
setae, Le-s I 1,100 r t tong, II 5<30 />. n] 500 /<• IV 995 /'. all segment* es&>p1 file 

larsi with serrated scale like setae; all tarsi above the claws with ;i pair oi' strong 
spines arising from distinct papillae as well as one or two other simple spines, all 
Other hairs i'ealh 'red. Front tarsus ISO ,i lonu' by 54 \i hijih. metatarsus 210 ,,, 
lnney Body hairs dnrsallv and vent rally short, broad, and three-winded, with 
serrated cdues, apieally blunt (cf. ftg.). 

Tufx : A single specimen taken by sweeping ti-lree bushes on banks of Hind 
marsh River, Victor Harbour., SOilth Australia, in January, 1934 (II. W.). 

Kiw to tki: Alstilmjan ( J i:x i:i;a ok Adult EBYtFHRA$n>Att, 

1. Kyes two on each side .. .- .. .- .. ..2. 

Ejnas only one on each side . . .. .. .. . . 3. 

2. Without crista, only one stiirmal area. (luathosoma drawn out. Legs 
shorter than body .. .. . . CdhjjilosloHtd Ci\\\)hv\(\<H'. 1 S7T). 

With erisla and two sensillary areas, (inathosoma not unduly drawn out. 

],<"_■> i ;md i\' often longer than body . , ffirytkraeus Latreille, 1806. 

'\, All metatarsi in adult with a pair of raised discs on outside. Le^s short. 
Crista produced beyond the posterior sensillary area. Palpi elongate, with 
Inter terminal tarsus and minute tibial claw . . Ctfecntiwmct Berlese, 18S.S, 

Metatarsi simple, bid tarsi with a pah 1 of stout spines on distinct papillae 
above claws. Dorsal hairs three-winded . . , . Hirsl iosmim iren. now 

Tarsi and metatarsi simple .. .. . , .. ..4. 

I. Clothing rather spa rse. Dorsum with two pairs of rather larjye sensory pits. 

V l i -rr>s)!i(iyis 1 1 irst , 1 926. 

(dothintr more abundant. No dorsal sensory pits . t .. f>. 

5. Byes placed in I'ronl of middle of crista « , . . /.e/j/w.s- Latroille. 1795. 
Kyes placed behind 'he middle of Hie crista . , . . . . b\ 

6. Tarsus of palp lar^v and almost spherical . , Sphaerohphw Dcrlesc, 1!U0. 
Tarsus of palp more elongate, clubbed ot hot H\ < hnislivni v. Ileyden. 1826. 


Ki;vmuAi:rs Latreille, 1806. 

Dorsal shield aa a rub' broader I ban Long and without a crista, in addition 

to the sensory hairs with 4-10 thickly ciliated setae; five -sided to round. One eye 
<ni rarh side, ('law of palp more or less forked, without veiilral tooth. Mandible 
wilh si rone; curved claw. Galea dnrsally With one pair of hairs. Coxae I and II 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

separated, each coxa with one hair, between the second pair of coxae with a pair 

of hairs, and between the third pair another pail" of hairs. 

Erytiirakus PEimn^NSE sp. now 

Description: Dorsal scutum with anterior margin depressed from the anterior 
corners, slightly sinuate, with three pairs of thickly ciliated hairs of equal Length, 
flic most anterior pair a! Hie extreme lateral corners, the others equally spaced 
therefrom and close together. Remaining portion of scutum round. Posterior 
pair of sensory hairs on the posterior edge of senium, anterior pair only just 


Fig, I'OO-LMi,",. /■:, l/ lhrani.s prrtlu n.sp.: 200, rlorsal scutum; gOl, palp; 202, front tnrsus 

.•Hid metatarsus; 203, lmii of dorsal scutum. 

within the anterior edge, Eyes one on each side. Dorsum with about 10 rows of 
10 short, slightly curved setae m each. These setae appear to be simple, but 
under high magnification are delicately ciliated. Palpi typical of the genus, as 
figured, basal segment with a long, curved, feathered seia, next segment with a 

shorter and straight feathered seta, tibia and tarsus with apparently simple hairs. 
Palpal claw strong and bifid. Front tarsus and metatarsus subequal, with long, 
simple setae. Tarsal claws three, the hinder one ciliated, pulvilliform. Length 

of animal 75Q , h of scutum 66 ,/., width of scutum 92 /./., Length of sensory hairs 
80 p, of ciliated scutal hairs 35-5 /*., of dorsal hairs 27 //. Length of from legs 

415 iK, middle legs 415 //., hind legs 41f> /t . coxae with one seta. 

Womerslkv— Australian Mites 245 

Habitat: King's Park, Perth, West Atistralia, September :>, 1931 

V'///^': In the South Australian Museum. 

ERtTHBABlJS i;hk«)i;anics sp. nov. 

It/srripliov : Dorsal scutum almost round with but slight anterior an^'b-s. 
with three pairs of fairly long, heavily ciliated hjajra. Anterior pair of sensory 
hairs placed a1 some distance behind the anterior margin of scutum, posterior 

EPig, 204 208. /•Jri/lhr<Kt<s hirl<>r<in nis it.sp.t 204, dorsal Kriitum; 205, [ifllp; -'(Hi, H;ivv nf 
uuuuliMc; 207, fronl t:n\sus antl nict:il;irsii;s ; 208, dorsal body BCtfH. 

pair suhposlcrior. The hind pail 1 of the ciliated hairs is <|uite 1\viee as far behind 
the second that these are behind the* first, tfyes one on each side. Dorsal body 
setae lon<r, slightly curved, pointed, and strongly ciliated, in aboul 10 rows of 
10 each. Palpi typical of the ^enus. as figured, with a feathered hair Oil each of 
tlie first three segments, tarsus with apparently simple hairs, claw bifid apically. 
Kronl larsns slightly shorter than nietalarsus, long and linn, with lou<: sin» [>K' 
setae, tarsal daws :;. the hind one pulvilliform. Length of animal 585 /', width 
830 /'-. length of sciirum 95 >*-, width 95 />,. length of sensory haii-s (>(i //. of ciliated 
seutal hairs 43 /a, of dorsal body hairs §0 /.'.. Front legs 620 p, middle 620 /<, hind 
Le£8 620 ^ front tarsus 135 p, metatarsus 162 /<., eoxae with one hair. 

Habitat; On an Acridid ( Jlvforania sp. h hem lYIullewa, West Australia, in 

September, 1031. 

Sif)th/i>rs: In the South Australian Museum. 

Ei[vnn;AF,rs DA8YP0D1A1S sp. nov. 

Description: Dorsal scutum longer than broad, 150 /< by 115 /( , with 3 pairs 

of moderately ciliated hairs 75 ju lonu'. anterior sensory hairs 57 // lone-, posterior 
115/i. The posterior sensory hairs are riirht on the posterior margin of scutum, 
the anterior sensory hairs in a line with the second pair of ciliated hairs. Palpi 

Records of the S.A. Museum 

Pig. 200-211. TSrythraeutt dasypodiae n.sp.i 209, dorsal scutum; 210, palpj 211, dorsal seta. 

ns Bgured. Claws of mandible strong and strongly curved. Legs uncertain, as 
the specimens are damaged. Dorsal body hairs sparse, simple, or only very 
slightly ciliated, 40 /* long. Length at animal 1,825 p, width 1,500 /■.. 

Habitat: Two specimens received from Canberra and Labelled as "taken on 
the Peacock Moth". 

Si/ n/ a pes: In the South Australian Museum. 

Lui'Ti's Latreille, L795. 

Syn. Acliorohjphvs Berlose, 181)1. 

Dorsal shield generally broader than long, without crista, besides (he sensory 
hairs with 2- I thickly eiliated bairs, more or less triangular in shape Eyes one 
on each side, Claw of palp simple without ventral or dorsal teeth, palpi not 
forceps-like, (law of mandible very minute, Coxae I and II separated, all 
coxae with one ha'n* and a pair of hairs between each pair of coxae. Hind claw 
of tarstlS pulvilliforni. 

Leptus CHELONETHUS sp. now 

Description : Dorsal scutum triangular, anterior margin slightly convex. 
lateral margins slightly concave, corners rounded, with two pairs of stout, com- 
paratively short, and strongly eiliated hairs; posterior pair of sensory hairs quite 
posterior in position, anterior pair slightly behind the anterior angle, sensory 
hairs delicately ciliated. Eyes one on each side. Dorsal setae in aboul 10 rows 
of 8—10 each, somewhat irregular. These setae are stout rod-like, slightly Curved 



and strongly ciliated. Palpi straight and typical of the genus, all segments with 
long ciliated setae, claw simple. Legs long, front tarsus slightly elliptical, a little 
shorter than the metatarsus and much wider, each with one long, simple seta and 
many rather short, stout, ciliated setae. Tarsal claws 3, the hinder one pnl- 

Mg. 212-216. Leptus chelonethus n.sp.: 212, entire dorsal view; 21 .'5, dorsal scutum; 214, 
];;ilp; 215, front tarsus and metatarsus; 210, dorsal seta. 

villiform. Length of animal 610 /x, width 330 /x. Length of scutum 55 /x, width 
66 [i, of sensory hairs 30 u, of anterior ciliated hairs 33 ,x, of posterior ciliated 
hairs 48 ,x. Dorsal body hairs, 42 ^ long. Length of front legs 850 /x, tarsus 78 /x 
by 24 [a high, metatarsus 80 /x, middle legs 330 /x, hind legs 420 /x. All coxae with 
a single hair. 

Habitat: On a Pseudoscorpion from Rottnest Island, West Australia, on 

January 31, 1931. 

Type: In the South Australian Museum. 

Remarks: Close to L. terebrans Vitz. from Sumatra, but differs in the scutal 
setae and dimensions of front tarsi. 

Leptus bathypogonus sp. nov. 

Description: Dorsal shield triangular with well-rounded corners and faint 
indications of a crista, besides the sensory hairs with two pairs of stout, short, 
and strongly ciliated hairs, the anterior pair shorter than the posterior pair; the 
anterior pair of sensory hairs is placed in a line with the anterior pair of ciliated 
hairs, the posterior pair is subposterior in position. Eyes one on each side. 
Dorsal body setae in about 10 rows of 6-10 each; these are short, rod-like, and 
strongly ciliated. Palpi straight as in the genus, each segment with the usual 
ciliated hairs as figured, claw typical. Legs long, front tarsus long and parallel- 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

sided, this segment and the metatarsus with one long, simple sola, but this is aol 
as long as in the preceding species, the other setae fairly long and strongly cili- 
ated, tarsal claws 3, the hinder one pulvilliform. Length of animal 660 /*, width 
330 /x, length of soul mn SO ; ,, width 93 /x, sensory hairs to /x, ciliated hairs 40 /.». 
length of dorsal body hairs IS fi ,. Length of front legs 670 fx, tarsus 133 /', meta- 
tarsus 144 f i, middle legs 520 //., hind legs 680 /i. All coxae with one seta. 






.- L> 

Pig, 217-220. Leptw h'lthi/pof/omi.s u. s|>. : 217, tlnrsa.1 scutum and eves; SIS, palp; 219, 

I'rnnl raisus ;m<i met ;it:i rsus ; L'1'0, dorsal seta. 

Habitat: On an Asilid (BatJiypogonm «p.), Perth, Wes1 Australia, in 
August 13, L93J (B.WC). 

Syntypes: In the South Australian Museum. 

Remarks: This species is still more closely related to £. I< >■< l>>-<n,s Vitz. It 
has the tarsi of the front pair of legs 8 limes as long as high, while in Vitzthum's 
species i hey are only 4 times as long. 

ITaupttm.wma Oudemans, 11)10. 

Dorsal shield generally broader than long, without erista, besides the sensory 
hairs with 2-10 thickly ciliated hairs, more or less triangular. One eye on each 
side Palpi forceps-like, elaw without dorsal or ventral teeth, Simple, with Lateral 

Womersley— Australian Mites 


accessory tooth. T-armtH of palp with distinct inner claw-like hair. Claws of 
mandible strongly curved. Coxae 1 and II separated, nil coxae with one hair 
and a pair of hairs between each pare. Claws 3, the middle thinner and Longer, 
m addition there is a pulvilliform hair. 

Hapi'Tmannma wkstkau i:\si: sp. nov. 

Dt scrip/ ion: Dorsal scutum rectangular, slightly Longer than broad, with two 
pairs of Ciliated hairs in addition to the sensory hairs. The Eronl pair of sensory 
hairs are situated in a subanterior position and the hinder pair a little behind the 

2 23 

Fig. 221-224. H&upt munnia wesimlie%in n.s] 
tarsus and im'tatarsu.s; 224 j dorsal seta. 

i. dursal scutum-; iiSti, palp; -.:;, from 

medial line. The anterior ciliated hairs are sublateral in position, and I lie pos- 
terior pair lateral and a little behind the front sensory hairs. Kyes one on eaeii 
side. Palpi forceps-like with a strong claw, which has an accessory claw later- 
ally; except on the two basal segments 1 he hairs on Hie palps all appear to be 
simple and not ciliated. Dorsal body hairs Long and thin and finely ciliated, in 
aboill 10 rows of ()-«S iii each. Legs tong and thin, front tarsus ninch shorter lhan 
melalarsns, elliptical, all setae Long and simple, not ciliated; tarsal claws 3, hind 
one long and Ihin, not pnlivilliform. Length of animal 760 /-*.. <>f dorsal senium 
120 u by S3 a high, of sensory hairs 50 n, of scut al ciliated hairs 40 fa of dorsal 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

body hairs 33 /<.. front tegs 370 /', tarsus 53 /.*. by 26 ,u. metatarsus 70 /'-. middle 
legs 60 fi t hind legs 68 fi. All coxae with a single hair. 

Habitat: Ohittering, Wes< Australia, October 16 1981, under stones i II.W ,), 

Type: In the South Australian Museum. 

I Iati'Tmaxnia m hi. u:\vaknsis sp. UOV. 

Description: Dorsal scutum somewhat heart-shaped with a distincl waisl 
antero-medially, with two pairs of pointed, ciliated hairs and two pairs of sen- 
sory hairs, nil of which arc placed in front of the waist. Byes one on each side. 
Palpi as figured, without ciliated hairs, elaw strong with lateral accessory claw. 
Portia! body hairs long, curved, and ciliated, in 6-8 rows of (>-8 eaeh, on venter 



Fig. 225-226. Uuuptwnnnia ffiuUavtu twin ii,sp.; --■">, dorsal scutum :mkI uvea; --<», palp. 

longer, finer, and no1 ciliated. Legs long and thin, front tardus parallel-sided, 
truncate apieally, shorter than metatarsus, with long, thin, simple setae, claws •>. 
the hind elaw long and thin, not pulvilliform. Length of animal 1,000 /<. width 
000 fj.. dorsal sent urn 235 pi long by 185 fi wide, sensory hairs 5*2 /./. long, dilated 
hairs 48 /./, dorsal body hairs 40 /A . central hairs 48 t i. Front le^s 600 •' lotig, 
tarsus !):; fl . long by 24 /* high-, metatarsus 130 m, middle legs 420 p long, hind legs 
470 fi. All eoxae wilh a single hair. 

Habitat: Mullewa, West Australia, in September, 1931, on herbage (HAW). 

Type: In the South Australian Museum. 

(Jenus ]>i:LArsTn\i v. (leyden. 1826. 

Dorsal scutum oblong, narrow, with erisla One eye Oil each side. Claw of 
inaudible strong and curved. Galea dorsally without hairs. Claw of palp with 
small ventral tooth. All coxae approximating. Three claws on eaeh foot, the 



middle one longer and thinner than the others; in addition there is a pulvilli- 
form hair., 


Description: Length of body 4-20 /<-, width 250 ». Colour in life red Dorsal 

senium indistinei but elongate and imrrowed slightly in the middle, 42 f i wide 
anteriorly and posteriorly. Crista distinct, with anterior and posterior pairs of 

b'ig« 227 230* BrtausHum emtatwm>,.: 227, dorsal senium, crista, ami eyes; 228, Croal 

tarsus an- 1 n i . • 1 ;i I arsUB ; _2J). claws; 280, dorsal scla. 

sensory hairs, Hie anterior pair within a triangular area. Eyes one on each si<le 
and slightly behind ihe middle of the scutum. Palpi normal for ihe geutts. Legs 
short. I 280 r .. long, II 240 ,,., Ill 280 /<. front tarsus 58 p long by 21 r , high, 
elliptical, metatarsus 30 /< long, Body liairs fine and pointed, indistinctly cili- 
ated on one side, 28 p Long, Claws of tarsi :;, the inner I One shorter and stouter, 
the outer .' one pulvilliform. 

Habitat; In large number* on Salvation Jane (Evkium plantaginenm L.) ut 
(lien Osmond, South Australia, September I, iGSfl (14. W.). Most examples were 
free, hut lmmy were attached to larval Jassids and other insects. 

Synlypws: In the South Australian Museum. 

Kockawtia Oudenmns, 1910. 

Dorsal shield broader than long, without crista. Claw of palp without 
ventral tooth, with small dorsal tooth. Scutum with two pairs of sensory hairs 
and 4 thickly ciliated hairs*. Eyes two on each side. Mandihle with strongly 
curved claw. Galea with one pair of dorsal hairs. Coxae I and 11 separated, all 
coxae with 1 hair. Tarsi with 3 slaws, the Lateral ones pulvilliform. 


Records of the S.A. Musei 



Description: Length 350 p, oval. Colour in life red. Dorsal scutum gener- 
ally much broader than long, but in the specimen figured much less so, almost 
quite round, no angles, length 112 p, width 150 /*, with the usual two pairs ol' 
sensory hairs, which are 65-70 //. long and finely ciliated. Dorsal scutum with 

Fig. 231-235. Boclsariic longipes n.sp.: 831, dorsal senium; 232, palp, 2B3. frunl fcarsiis 
ami metatarsus j 234, claws; 235, dorsal seta. 

three pairs of densely ciliated hairs, one pair on anterior edge 88 /<, long, another 
80 /i. long just posterior of the anterior sensory hairs, and a third pair 80 /'. long 
jusl posterior of the medial line. Dorsal body hairs rather numerous, 80 p long. 
stout, and strongly ciliated. Legs vei-y long, I 960 fa II 880 p, III 1,150 ;i. Eron< 
tarsus 162 fi long, melatarsus 285 fa Tarsi with three claws, the middle one long 
and thin and simple, the lateral ones pulvilliform. Eyes two on each side. Palpi 
as figured by Oudemans for II. kuyperi 

Uuhilaf : Along with tic preceding species at <iien Osmond. South Australia. 
September 1, 1933, 

Si/nlypes: In the South Australian Museum. 

Remarks: This speeies, although referred to Oudemans' genus, dors not 
agree in that it has three pairs of ciliated hairs on the dorsal senium instead of 
two pairs, as defined above. It also lacks the sinus on the posterior vd^ o\' the 

Womrrslky— Australian Mites 253 

Ki:v to tiik Australia^ I^ai;v.\i, Forms of Erythraeidae. 

1. Dorsal scutum long and naurow with distiiicl crista. One eye pn eaci side 

Three tarsal claws, middle one long and 1hin, outer one pulvillit'orm, 

/irhtHsfiuni ci-ishiliim sp. nov. 

Dorsal scutum broader than or as broad as lojig. Without crista . , 2. 

2. Dorsal sent uni broader iban lone;, with -1-6 eiliat < < J hairs. Eyes two on each 
side*. Both lateral tarsal claws pnlvilliform. Hfiflkartiti IdngipeR sp. nov. 
Dorsal scutum broader than lonir, with 2-10 dilated hairs. One eye on pacli 
side . . . . . . . . . . • • • ► ; >- 

."!. Dorsal scutum more or less pentagonal to round, wilh -I 10 ciliated hairs 4. 

(i-t'ii us Rii/lhranis [/atreilk'. 

Dorsal senium triangular or otherwise shaped, with 2 4 eilialed hairs . . 6, 

I. Senium with depressed sinuate anterior margin, wiih 6 eqtiftUy spaced cili- 
ated hairs . . . . . . . , Erylhrat t( s [xrlhn^c sp. nov. 

Dorsal senium almost round, with rounder anterior angles and convex an- 
terior margin, with 6 eiliat ed hairs . , . . . . ..-">. 

I) Dorsal senium broader than long, hairs heavily ciliated. Body hairs more 
numerous. Seutal hail's evenly spaced .. Enjthrm us hufoiti niit* sp. nov. 

Dorsal scutum longer Iban broad, hairs not so heavily ciliated, evenly spaced. 
Body hairs sparser . . . , . . Erythranis daxtfpodiae sp. now 

8. Senium Irianirular. Palpi not I'orccpsdike. Hind claw of tarsus pnlvilli- 
form . . . . , . , . . . . . • • • • 7 

ilenus LeptUH Latreille. 

Seipum otherwise. Pfi I pi forceps -like. Hind claws of tarsus simple and others 

pulvilliroriu . . . . . . . • • • • • . . 8. 

Genua Jlawptmannin oudemans. 

7, (Vista indisl inetly indicated. Fronl tarsus iflflg and thin. 

L< l>li<s hnllimxif/oniis sp. nov. 

Crista quite absent. Front tarsus shorn and elliptical. 

Lepiics cht'-lmif llms sp. hoy, 

R. Senium rectangular, posterior sensory hairs behind the middle. Front tarsus 
short and elliptical .. .. Han pi >»<nrni<t west >'<tli> ns( sp. nov. 

Senium pointed apmally and with a distinct waist. Anterior tarsi Longer, 
parallel -sided .. .. .. Rrmpfrmannia nmlh woomi sp. nov. 


1. Banks, \\ (1915) : The Acarina or Mites. Report 10B, Popt, Agric, I'.S.A. 

2. Banks, X. (19163 : Acarinns from Anslralian and Tasmanian A til s and 

A ill Nests. Trans. Boy, Soc, g. AusL, xl, pp. 224-210. 
:{. BerloBe, A. I 1912) t Trombidiidae. I\rdin, viii. I'asc. 1. 

254 Records of the S.A. Musetm 

4. Hirst, 8. (1917) : Arachnids and Myrlopoda Injurious to Man Brit, Mus. 

(Nat. Hist), London, 

5. Hirst, S. (1922): Mites Injurious to Domestic Animals. Brit, Mux. (Nat. 

Ilisl.), London. 
h\ Hirst, S. (1926) ; On some Now Miles of the Suborder Prosti<rmata (Trom- 
hidioidca). Ann. M<i</. Nat His). (9). xviii, pp. 609*616, 

7. Hirst, S. (1926) : Description of New Mites, including Four Xew Species of 

"Red Spider", Proc. Zool. Soa., London, pp. 825 841, 

8. Hirst 8, (1928) : On some New Australian Mites of the Families Trom 

bidiidae and Erytliraeidae. Aim* Mag. Nat. His!. (10), i, pp. 563-571. 

9. Hirst, S. (1928): On some Australasian Species of Tromhidiidae. Pror, 

Zool. Soc, London, pp, 1021-10:U. 

10. Hirst, S. (1929): Additional Notes on Australian Mites of the Family 

Tromhidiidae. Proc. Zoo/. So<\, London, pp. 165-176, 

11. Hirst. S. (1929)i Note on the "Tea-tree rteh-Mito" (Tronib,ruln hirsti 

Sambon = T. ps< ndo-akomushi Hatori ?). Ann. Mag. Nat. Ilisl. (10), 
iii, pp. 564-565. 

12. Oudemans, A. C. (1916) ; Die his jet/,1 bekannten Larven von TromWdiiden 

und Frythraeiden usw. Zool. Jultrhli., Suppl. 14. Hel'l 1. 

13. Oudemans, A. 0. (1928) : "AGari" in Fauna liuruana. Tnnhia. vii, suppl. 

2, pp. 37-100. 

14. Rainbow, W. J. (1906): A Synopsis of Australian Aearina. Pre. Anslr. 

Bins., vi, pp. 145-193. 
13. Sambon, L, W. (1927): The "Scrub Itch-Mite" of North Queensland; a 
New Species of T7iromlicula, Ann. Mag. Nat. If is/. (9), w, pp. 157-161. 

16. Vitzthum. Graf. II. (1924) : Die hentige Aearofauna <\or Krakatau-lnselu. 

Trruhia, v., pp. :^-370. 

17. Vitzthum, Oral'. H, (1926) : Malayische Acari. Trmhia, vii, pp. 1-lns. 

18. Vilzlhum, Graf. II. (1929) ; Ac;n-i in "Die TierweH Mitteleuropas'\ iii. 




Rec. s.a. Museum. 

\li;y\ndi:r m aj hi son MORGAN, M.&, B.s. 

Kt-:hni:.r\, T So 7 October, 193*. 


By Herbert M. Hale and John Sutton 


Dr. A. M. Morgan, Honorary Ornithologist at this Museum, died on October 18, 1934, 
after an illness of nearly two years. By his passing we have lost an ornithologist of over 
40 years' standing, and one of our most able honorary curators. 

Dr. Morgan was a South Australian, having been born near Adelaide on February 11, 
1867. He took his degrees at the Adelaide University in 1890, and apparently even at that 
period he had commenced his avian studies. He was not content to investigaate only the 
external features of his birds, but was keenly concerned with their anatomical and 
osteological structure. Furthermore, he familiarized himself not only with the Australian 
birds, but many exotic groups. 


op Dr. A. M. Morgan- 


Dr. A. M. Moi.'dAN, Honorary Qrtjithologtsl 41 this Museum, fliftfl on Qctbbw IS, 
L934j after an illness of nearly two years. By his gda&taft we h&ve lost an orni 
tholoe;ist of over 40 years' s1niulinvi ? and one of our most able honorary curators. 

Dr. Mni-u-nii was ;i South A iisi ralian. having been horn near Adelaide <m 
February 11. 1867. He took his fcgtafts at the Adelaide University in 1S!)0, and 
apparently even at Hint period he had commenced his avian studies. lie was not 
content to investigate only the external fealnres of his birds, bnl was keenly cim- 
cerned with their anatomical and osh -olo^'ieal structure. Furthermore, he fami- 
liarized himself nol only with t ho Australian birds, but many exotic groups. 

Dr. Morgan accepted the position of Hon. Ornithologist here in 1922, and 
at once commenced to arrange systematically our large collection of birds. Later, 
with the assistance of the present Hon. Ornithologist, lie prepared an up-to-date 
Catalogue. Our osteolo-rieal material was \^vy meagre in this section before Dr. 
Morgan's appointment, but he took yvrvy opportunity of adding to it, and in 
19&7 presenled his own collection of 700 sterna, crania, and other bones. In 1934 
this generous gj'fl was followed by allot her— the donation of a cabinet of BOO sets 

of eggs, all with accurate data, to which, later, he added 193 clutches. Apart 
from this he gave to the Board of Governors aboul 500 bird skins. 

The reorganisation and building-up of our avian material — both Australian 
and exotic — was made possible only by Dr. Moroni \s special knowledge. It is 

scarcely necessary lo stress the fact that it was ;in achievement entailing a great 
deal of work'. ;ind the whole-hearted manner in which it was conducted is a tri- 
bute to his systematic methods. Particnlarly, one remenibers that he became 
honorary curator of these collections with m view lo harrying oui research on the 
Material, but seeing the need for improvement, he decided to pul all m order 
first; as it happened. Hie result was thai he had no lime left for the studies to 
which he had looked forward. 

Dr. Morgan took an active part in all movements which fostered the scien- 
tific fftUdy of birds, lie was, lor inslance, one of the five foundation members of 
fhe South Australian Ornithological Aissociatiofl, the first President, and Presi- 
dent dwmg five subsequent sessions, lie became a member of the Royal Aus- 
tralasian Ornitholoo-ists' I'ninn in 15101, jiii.i was elected a Corresponding Fellow 
of the American < >rnit hologfet s ' I'liion in 1939. 

25S Records of the S.A. Museum 

Although his main interests in science were centred on birds, Dr. Morgan 
was interested in Australasian anl hropology, and Collected a scries of 147 weap- 
ons ami stone implements which he eventually presented to this &fn$e-um. lie was 
a foundation member ol* the Anthropological Society of South Australia. 

His genera* regard Fon Australia and the protection of its fauna and flora is 

evidenced by the fact that he was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society of 
South Australia, a member of the Fauna and Flora Board of Soulh Australia, 
and a deb-irate lo the now defunct South Australian Advisory Committee on the 
Export of Fauna. 

Dr. Morgan's published works are listed below. As mentioned above, he had 
Imped to add a greal deal to these during the last 10 years or so o\' his life, after 
he bad partially retired from medical practice. 


IN Till: SOI T/f .iCST/riLLlX <>HX ITIIOLiH'.IXT. 

A Note on Diiumtm hmindinaeenni and the Loranthns seed, i (1), 191 i, p. 21; 

Field Notes on three species of Miihaus (Blue Wrens i, i (2), 11)14, p. 9. 

Birds in a North Adelaide Garden, i (4"). 1914, p. 1.4. 

The Birds of Kallioota, S.A.. i (1), 1914, p. 11. 

Bird nesting at Blackwood, ii, ldl5, p. 9. 

The Migration of Swallows in South Australia, ii, 191(1, pp. 117 and His. 

Aquatic Birds breeding near Adelaide, ii, 1910, p. 122. 

An Ornithological Trip in St. Vincent and Spencer Unit's, ii. 191(5, p. 141. 

Further Observation on the Cormoranls and Bird Tcmperal u?-es, ii. 191b. p. 178; 

Notes on the Sonus Epthdanurdi ii. 191 b, p. £04. 

Notes on the Food and Temperatures of Cormorants, iii, 1917. p. 7.'). 

Birds on the River Murray, iii. 1917. p. !)9. 

Birds of Port Brou^hton, iii, 11)18, p 142. 

Some Observations on the Nesting and the You ue. of Cormorants, iii. 191*, p. 201. 

The Birds of the Sout h- Eastern pari 6l S. Australia, iv. 191!), ]). 7. 

The Weights of some Smith Australian Birds, iv. 1919, p. 91. 

Some Weights and Temperatures of Birds, v, 11)20, p. 48. 

A Trip to North-West Australia, vi, 1921-2, p. 104 and 141. 

A Trip to the Baudin Kocks. vi, 1922, p. 144. 

U< (juhu-us (/nimiuats, ihe little Grass-bird, vi, 1922, p. 170. 

Some Weights, Measurements, and 4Ymperat ures of Birds, vi, 1922, p. 174. 

CJiatunlrivs ntjicupi/l us. Bed-capped Dotterel, vii, 1924, p. Hi. 

Hale and Sutton— Obituary or Dr. A. M. Mokcan 259 

CharaJnits iiKhniops, Black-fronted Dotterel, vii, 1923, p. 40. 

Motes on a peqiiliar Petrel skin, vii, 1923, p. 78. 

Some notes on PuffinUS h mdrosf ris. vii, 1923, p. SO. 

The Nest and Egg& Of Amytornis hjiilis un/al, vii. 1924, p. 159. 

The Peelinaie Middle Claw in Australian Birds, viii, 1925, p. 44, 

C'niclo.snuta rasianofuni clannn { Chestnut-backed (1 round-Bird i . A new guh- 

speeies, viii, 1926, p. 138. 
Kangaroo Island Birds viii, 1926, p. 239. 
The Butcher Bird (Uraciicus lorquatiisj and the Striped llonoyeater (PUctdr- 

In/urha la ncrelala ) nesting in company, ix, 1928, p. 163. 

Notes on the Distributiou of Four species of South Australian Birds, ix. 1928, p. 

The Nesting of the Spotted Nightjar (Eurostopodw gutlahisU x, 102!), p. 82, 
An Outiie_r on Yorke's Peninsula, x, 192!), p. ST. 

The Bustard or Plain-Turkey (EupQclotis anslralis), \, 1930, p. 215. 
A Trip to the Diamautiua, x f 1930, p. 2(>3. 
A Trip tO Moolawatana, S.A., xi, 1931, p. 53. 
Birds of Paratoo, S.A., xi, 1931, p. 141. 
The Spread and Weight o!' the Wed^c-l ailed Ba&le (I'muchis amia,r) % xi, 1932, 

p. 1 :><;. 
Rudimentary Win^-Spur in Jiirds, xi, 1932, p. 189. 
Xoles on some species seen on a Trip to Kangaroo Island from 24th February to 

71 h March, 1932, xi, 1932, p. 203, 
An addition to the Introduced Avifauna of South Australia, xii, 1933, p. 31, 
A Trip 1o Maiinahill, S.A., xii, 1933, p. 53. 
lunumerahle P.ird Observations. 


List of P>irds colleclod or observed in the neighbourhood of Laura. S.A. Trans. 

Roif. Sue, S. AusL, xxi, 1897, p. 22. 
A Noli 1 on the Nest and Eggs of I'onana !luinin<<t, Trans. lint/. Sac, S. Ansl., 

xxii, 1898, p. 193. 
When- Swallows Build. Emu, Melb., v, 190&, p. 205 
The Birds of Kangaroo Island, A r m7/, iMelh., v, l!)0(i, p. 224. 
Kc Cormorants, Em%, Melh., xviii, 1919, p. 211. 
The Origin of Some Bird Names. Emu, Melb., xxiii, 1924, p. 322. 

260 Records of the S.A.. Museum 

Chenery, A. 

The Birds of the Rivers Murray and Darling and District of Wentworth. 
S.A. Ornithologist, v, 1920 ? pp. 41, 69. 
Cleland, J. B. 

Albatrosses and other Birds seen between Melbourne and the Bluff and 
Dunedin in N.Z. 8.A. Ornithologist, ix, 1927, p. 89. 
McGilp, J. Neil. 

The Nesting of the Banded Stilt (Cladorhynchus leucoccplialus). S.A. 
Ornithologist, ix, 1931, p. 37. 
Sutton, J. 

A Critical Description of some recently discovered bones of the extinct Kan- 
garoo Island Emu ( Dromaius diemenianus ) . Emu, xxviii, 1928, p. 1. 




By Norman B. Tindale, B.Sc. 


During the past five years systematic attempts have been made to gather information 
relating to the natives of Southern South Australia. The work has been carried out during 
such brief opportunities as have occurred in the course of official duties, from funds 
provided by the Board of Governors of the S. A. Museum. The urgency of the task may be 
realized when it is considered that there are now fewer than 30 full-blooded aborigines 
living in the whole of the area of South Australia east and south of Port Augusta, and it is 
essential that any information required should be gathered as quickly as possible. 




During the past live years systemat ixj attempts have betffl made to gather in- 
formation relating to the natives of So.uth.ern South Australia, the work has 
been carried out « 1 1 1 1 - i 1 1 *_•* suck brief opportunities as have occurred in the course 
of official duties, I'nmi funds provided by the Board of Governors of the s.A. 
Museum. The urgency of the task may be realized when it is cionsidered thai 
there arc now Fewer than HO Cull-Wooded ahftrigiiiea living in the whota of the Area 
of South Australia east and south of Tort Augusta, and it is essential lhat any 
int'oj'mation required should be gathered as <|nickly as possible. 

In 1930-3] a small Language Committee was formed at the I'm versify of 
Adelaide, eoiisis! org of Prof. J. A. Kit -/Herbert, \)r. O. ( 'hew ings, and the pre- 
sent wriler; after mneh eonsideration, a working list of phonetic symbols applic- 
able to the general slndy of Central Australian language^ was compiled. The 
value of this system in the writing of native words in several dialects has been 
suffieienl to warrant its more general use, and in the last few years numerous 
texts have been transcribed in the lamruages ol' the Tanganc. Jaralde, Raniiml- 
jeri, Puandik. Po1 nniwiit j, and allied tribes of southern South Australia. The-r 
will l>e j)ublished as opport unities permit. 1 am indebted 1o Prof. Fit/Herbert 
1'or his advice in the preparation ol' litis texl for publical ion, pari irularly willi 
regard to the selection of the phonetic symbols. 

The accompanying sketch map shows a small portion of Naming Peninsula 
on the eastern shore of Lake Alexandrina fliOng. 18JT It)' E. ; Lat. 35/ 30 / S. ) to 
illnstr;iie the approximate track- of Wai.jungari in his flight with his Iwo Stolen 

women. The native place frames include a few of 1,200 newly-recorded for the 

coastal districts of this portion of the Stale. 


Records oy the S,a. Musm m 


The alphabqi of Hm International Phonetic Association was choseu as n basis, 
owing to its widespread and mcreasia* use in papers dealing with phonetics nn 

well as in books of ehmmntary instruction in European Umiiiuims. The phnnrlu- 
values of the vowel symbols are defined in-low. Two GOHftulerations have weighed 
in tjieir chores fai jhe availability of fypu and cftitspqiienj ease rrf Efrfoting i.n 
South Australia, and (b) the nVsirabilil\ of pivsrrvniir legibility for {general 

^V- (Tap&ij Landiny 

.U^-- (Point MocLetwj 

l\? Ata&n Station 


(Pt, MacLeay 
(Landl/xi PlactUZ 

Kaipcr, Hill rfr 


</«**> W"* fr**lkm 





PtLTlNDJrp i 
*^v. CLAN 



ijuturj (lagoon faacWi* r ) 

v Markurun 

rj (-Salt lagoon) ^^ 

Polpoieran^ "" • 

Kartarj *jpf p ^periar Tartamvar Hill 




- r "iioi/itiicran 




Muit.huny / tiQqtea^s'p?' 


•* rwr'- 



[Narrunq jf^^O'tOn 

(BAD >«. «•»*» ' 


r a 




• Ju:ntur 






SX*~*J L,nO, nif ) Kurupayk 


Tawu/^^urur, (ALBERT) 

Wiranan ? , H J«'t» 

' .' n I 11 ki; AM « 

workmrs, who may dcsirr to obtain h nanlablr account, without eoJictfrjiing tbeill 
*clvrs wiih fho lium- shades of pnMHinmation. When- native ttigpnete tit* publ ishwl 
in Joui-n;iis wliirli musf liavr a ,i>vnrr;i] appeal f liis ;ispi'H is of spe<-ial ItlipOFrtailiBO. 
Many isystpKWS have li'MMi proposal for llio transm-ipl ion of Smith AusJ r;ib:ui 

irorjim^vs. TeichdxnariB and Sehftrmauii j 1 ) grave an ei?lj acoiinr. unci wWU« 

1,1 l'"i'-'i'"ll»irOMi. (. (J. ;in.| NrlMiMi,;uih, O. \W, Onlli.irs p! ;i ^t.mhih;,. v<h;. )>.i j;i ,-\ , ;m,m 

ehr«WH»«lti40 uf tlw ahorighin] lauguagu m' Snuii, An tralia, sjKikor i.\ Hu» natlvjra in and Ec»i tuiun 

ttlM!filiiHJ .'I-i.imI A.l.' A,lrlai<K\ I«4(J, 

Tinmalf— LFf.F.\i> of \A r AijuN<;,\Ki 263 

Iheir s\ si rm did nol (lis* in^nisli between either [tig], | ng* | . and \ng\, [6] 

1 • and |th|, or [rj mid |>], it was far in advance of ilmt mployed by 

some iv.-ni-d.Ts of vocabularies, who, up lo Comparatively recent years, tended to 
use hybrid mcihods based on Fancied resemblances to t'aiuili;ir English words.. 
We in fiv takf ms an illustration tile following: | 'papulbiwi | rendered as ''bubble- 
dowm" by one who had the Word "bubble" in mind, and as " hub-bull derby ' ' by 
another whose mind by chance lingered more on words of soologjcal impori. The 
rapid disappearance &f the natives him.!, in many eases, the impossibility of re- 
checking the records of sneh material prevents ns from ignoring the work. 

Schmidt, | "-' i in his writings, attempted lo interpret mii.1 correct many o, these 
errors. 0. Sirehlow (*J used a phonetie sy.sfem, upon whieh Gratti I ') parlly 
based the k * Kent her-Xirehlow System" which he used in writing Ids Diori irram- 
mar. This syslem. in prael ice, show* little advance on that ol' Teiehehnann and 

•>bick i ■ •"■■ ") i 1 1 101(3 and 1t_><! ,, ihlished a series nf short vocabularies, in 
which be applied the lufernalional Phonetic Assoeiat ion 's phonclir ayateiil to 
South Australian Languages, The principal difficulty eneountcred l.y ihr Com- 
mittee ill attempting to make use of his proposed vowel sysiem is thai of general 

legibility. The importance of this lias been stressed in an earlier paragraph. In 
oilier respeel.s t he su^eslinus of lilaek have been t'redv accepted. T. (J. II. Slreh- 

low has in preparation a detailed study of the phonetics of the Aranda language, 
which will assist materially in classifying our knowledge of the subject. 

The grign | : | has been employed to denote a vowel or consonant is length- 
ened, e.g. |keini;l. 1u:l, jap: urumi|. Stressed syllables are preceded by an 
accent, e.g. | 'keini. 'lohlu'wall. 

The palatal nasal consonant has been recorded Tor Australian tribe*, and n 
dmilillrss exists. Nevertheless, many of thOSC responsible l'or placing native place 
names -m OUT maps, and some author* of voeabidaries have habitually written gn 
when they have heard I he velar-nasal \h</\. whieh is by far the more comnmn 

The following list embraces all the sounds found to be required l'or the Irau- 

seriptioji of Jaralde texts i 

i " ' Schmidt, P; \\\. Die ffljedmmft <i<t Auatraltahen &g>r#di: n. wj, n, mm. 

(« ! ) Htl't'lltow, C, UU< Ai-;hh|:i iiii.I I ...rit y-i si ri mum.- hi Z< nl in I A u>\ r:i lien. Prank hi ft :nn 
M;nn, 1907-1 PJ& 

1 rati i. <; .. ItU Inign;. [>Mil'i. I0-MK-, |.93<| 

IU:i<-k. .1. -M.. Trans. Roy, Si,,, s. Anst., xli, 11M7, p. 1-1H. 

;l " IM;m-i.;, .1, v, Traps, Rcrwtioc. W. Auat. sdiv, LfttJfl, pi*. "6-03. 


Records oP the S.A. Museum 




Bather, Maim (Ger.) 












allez (Fr.), almost they 


at home 


earth, nurse 




it, machine 




comme (Fr. i. almost not 



obey, almost oak 



full, food 




trilled or rolled r 

you, yarlu 


spirant (red, as common] 

ai | 


pronounced in Southen 

an | 

llaus ( t-rcr.), ill most house 







".'/ 1 

king ( 7 ) 
green god 

fag,ng) fin & e1. 

I: 1 

indicates lengthened vow 

or eonsonanl 

Letters and single words written in the phonetic seripl are placed within 
square brackets when they appear in the ordinary text. 

The range of pronunciation pf certain words, even wit Inn the limits of n 
single tribe may be vevy marked. During many Anthropological Field Expedi- 
tions of the Adelaide I'mversity and Museum the obtaining of details for sociolo- 
gical data cards has presented opportunities for writing down phonetically, from 
the lips of many different individuals; words sueh as the tribal name. As an ex- 
ample we may note that the range of variation of the tribal name Pitjandjara. 
from recordings in the Mann Range and at Ernabclla in 1933, is as follows: 











. . 





'Pit jandja'djara 

. . 






» • 






- • 






. . 



The table indicates that the degree of variation of the pronunciation may 
differ from place to place and that, while the Pitjandjara who were encountered 

( V) Lack of n set of the 1] sign lias nocossilatcM 1 the use of I lie alternative form tu/ 1o deimh' 
litis sound in the bodv of the text. 

Tinoale Legend OF WaIJUXCAKI 265 

rathe Maun Ban^e me toore than S7-; aonKEfteni in the use of the form ['Pit- 
jan'djara |, the eaatet*M members of their tribe who are in etascr contact with the 
Jaakuudjara tribe were only 5&% cpnsisienl in ihe u&? of this term. 

The securing of a standard pronunciation which would exactly reflect that 
of the majority of the persona of a tribe wonld 1 hu>, appear to be a BQiiKiclerable 
undertaking, and it is to be not h-cd thai in many cases individuals vary their own 

In some words ihe consonants [p] ;md |b|, |k| ami g | . |l| ;, m | |<|j do not 
appear to the native car to be Significantly affluent, and may be used indiffer- 
ently, although in other tribes they may either lend more lowards the one than to 
the Other, Or are particular to rlearly slress the difference (in some words, if not 
in others). Recorders tend to respond differently to Uiis situation so that in 
practice tWO schools seem to have arisen, firstly those who tend always to wrile 
such wnrds wifh |b| \<x\ and |d|, and secondly those who use |p| |k| and |1|. 
Teiehelmann and Sehiirmann, <'. Strchlow, Luther, and immy recent workers 
have followed flic latter praetiee. The matter should he systematized, for the 
I - 0^ the -r-neral reader, otherwise we will continue to get such needless varia- 
i ions as Itjukurj and |dju^ur|. 

In preparing vocabidaries it has been found eonvmnent to record both, if 
thqy OCCU^ and bh 0Otnbine all words eomineuein.o- with |b|, | o- 1 . .- , i * < 1 |d| with 
tlie letters !p|, |k|. and |t| respectively,, [JcfttH, gada ; gawi, kawi| would all 
appear in tlie \<>eabulary under |k|. In genera! writings the |kala| and | kawi | 
forms w <»ul«l he gave*! preference, beeause. while in some native dialects |h|, |o-J, 
and |d| are praetirally uon-exislont, |p], |k|, and |1 ;] are always present. 


The iirsl aceount of the legend preseided in this paper is that fold by the 
Kammd.jeri people of Encounter Hay, and detailed in Uiuilish by Mry^v (*). hi 
this story f Wai^fcgngart " is rhe son of lw Xin-aropc" ? . and was made by his 
mother. She fashioned him from red-tinned excrement which she moulded ini<> 
the form of a man. who showed siryns of life, u,id laughed, lie was l * kain.jani ' ' 
because of his v^\ colour. His brother "PnnjrHim" had two wives, and lived near 
flic sea When " ' f 'un^ane" was absent, his wives found his brother, woke him 
from sleep by prefmdiim In be emus, and embraced him. Waijun^ari \ mother 
was enraged, and went to I'un-ane, who. in vexation, placed fin* upon tin- hut 
while the three were absenl. saying " lunula jmr\ meaning: ''let it remain but 

i s ) Meyer, It. A. lv. Manners and eusioms of tku aborigines ui thr Bn&ouutci: Hnv rrii.e. 
sunih Australia, ns-m. p. L2-. 

266 Etfei i -■'■■■ OF mi S.A. Mtsrt m 

not Burn mnnrdiai( k l\ The sleepers awoke* and throwing away their kangaroo 
skins escaped to the sea* where Waijungari thre^ into the wfcy lirsi a plain spear 
which fell down again, and then a barbed mir. which remained faal m the sky. 
j if q] Imbed up* and the two women wenl after him. Pungane and his mother 

followed, m lid 1 li<'\ all remained in tllfi Sky. 

The second accirtml of the l<*geiid is a brief one given by Wyatt ( M ) '" the 
language of the people ql the Kaurna or Adelaide tribe* i«, whom Wajjiingiufi was 

known ;is ' * Momma ' '. Il US short, and may he transcribed in Eull : 

Monorria aratje kaia pexnaw, ea pemane, on pemane, pnra 

Momma many spear ihrew here threw here ihrew bye-and-bye 

kaiji kur:,-i peniane, kaia km-:a jewane, k<*tiu:e kaia 

spear npwartla threw Rpear upwards stuck-fasl again »pear 

jewamt; j>nr<i jcrta jewane; Monana kaia 

st uek-fasl bye-aml-bye in-ground stiick-fasl Momma spears 

late : in 1 kur ; a wine ; n. 
climbing upwards went. 

The third accounl of fchisstory is that briefly told in English by Taplin (*") 
in his aecounl of Hie so-called ,f Narrinyeri' 1 complex (tf tribes. This is the Ver- 
sion of tile daralde tribe, and in the main i! seems to be a paraphrase of the legend 
ir.-nnleii by Meyer. According to Taplin. '*Wyttngare M lived at "Kamvoki'". 
and went down to , M.)ulawar n where he drank wilier through a vrrd. He ran 
away with "NepeDeV wives and hid in the mud at i4 Lowany.-n »*. losing first 
a harbless and then a barbed spear with a line alta<'lied, he climbed into the 
heavens. He si ill sits then- and fishes Tor men with a fishing spear. \W\ru people 
stall in their deep it is thought to be hee;iuse \Vaijuim;iri lias tmiehed them with 
the point of his weapon. 

The story here given was related first in Bullish and then taken down dir- 
ectly in .(arable phonelie seript fetoH the dictation of Frank "Ulackmoor" and 
a word-for-word transition made. ' « BlackttlOOr w is an ae;ed full -hlooded abori- 
gine ni* Prltnii^k* (Section B29.. Hundred Df Malcolm t. lie belongs to the behind 

jeri elan fan offshoot of the R^nglirintljcri Clau) of the .laralde Trihe. In his 
anxiety to have an aeeiirate transerip! ion he repealed his story the same evening 
loa younger educated native, and Mibseojientlv produced for inspection a mann- 
seripl Which served as the basis ior a Second m<.re detailed phonetic 1 ra nsrription, 
Aa Klackmnor's own .) arable mannseripl is i he only example of its kind that we 
have had the opportunity of examining, it. lias been printed without alteration, 

\\>;itt. W.. Snnif ; ( .M-niinT i > f tl.c i.i.-.miici> :< ioI siiii.-rsl it i<uis of I In- A ilftla iile niH I Kiir-niiUri 
I'.riy ; 1 1 k ► i - i S4 1 1 1 : 1 1 t r i I h -s. A • Ii- 1;t i-l'.'. I*7!». 

(10) T,||,|mi, <i., in W.hmU., .1. I).. Xrilm TriU-s of Suiitli A list ralia. 1879, p. ."it",. 

Ti\i>ale— Legend of \\ aijunc.ari 267 

and placed aftet 1 the main published phonetic version. Where the te»1 departs 

trpm thr prineipal version il is at bitUt, llm error having beeti left unaltered in 
Iiis mannseripl. 

A spoken version of the Wni.jnny.ari legend has also heen r**eoiil«(3 on 1 wo 
EcflSOti wax eylinders i in !hr custody of the Hoiml for Anthropological Researeh 
Hi the I'niversily of Adelaide), and it is hoped lhai il may eventually be repm 
CiUCecl in a nmiv permanent form. 


'Nwpifdtt* 1 *! riei 'w;iratj Leweimb '//.r/nlawar. K^ntfifl mimane/o/ 

Nepele sal nn-X^awtdnwarii. His women -two 

'lew) 11 k;ir ' j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . W'nujrii!/ ngop-zWO lolllm 

•s;i1 together, Then-tliey two desired-lo-walk down-there 

'Wangaj-awai'.' 1 -' 1 'Lnk : ei /,'.>/ a lolihn w#Op : \\)i<i Mo^orah, 

ti) W.-in-Hi-awar. Tluis-i hr-t\\ fl down -I here walked fresh -w ;if er-mnssel- 

Kitj waltll leweimh ' Pnlawei wa If ll ' ' :: ; ' Wa i.jmo/ari 
u'alheriiio-. There sat al I'arlowew anok Wai.i iin'^iri mithde- 

na'ramhi a korn. (1 " 'Wimjitj loltlin w#opi \mg Wa.ngara war. 

we.arineM-ed-oehre man. Then down lie-walked to Wan Tarawa r. 

'Wanjil 'mill : wan itjarn 'pere/M/oke \\\i\n<i ' |)ranka nf/n\. 'Wanjitj 

He drank his wafer with reed-stem. Then 

kuru'wf/uruil it.i pe're-n^oka 'Lamha'larn iH'////iili'ori, nak : n/o/ il.jarn 
reddish-heeanir water. 1 1 happened fhey-lwo saw 

pe'rCTflOke knriuo/n Immhitj. Waiije//// lak j<jb : an«\ 

Watei: reddish had beeome. Then-they twn i| M is said, 

"Alura //^alamb itjarn |)e're// r /oke 'net.j lak 'jimum/' E.:! w;inje,o/ 
"flOMrfiHl reason waiter Ihus appears." Ah! then 

iOTOWal n?ik:i:l itjarn narambi korn. laimbnlan neng 

above they two-percwvtfd rotf-nehru num. It-happened these-iwo 

I " i |.V'|»:eir| (smnetimcfl hott<» iwlewl as | X<-}> : il | > . An ;...,., sir.»t man ftf the 

Jawlde fill.'- vvlm liv-'.l at Xoavvulinvnim (north-ens! cDrncr of Section -HVs, Iinmlrc.l of l;;ik«..i. 

\gflWIlIlIlW)rti is :ilKd i-;t IK . I XVnlnwn i in I lie m;i nusc li |»t . Nc|i:He wns I lie rider hn.lli.i t)f 

W ni.jnnn,nri 1 ami [it»e«e6NR(1 tW(l wives; itmOJlg It.- Rfimillrijeri people In- was kimwii as | Puugnm*-] 
i Mrvor .Ov.'S thVQL* different spellings: 1 r tmg'Uttga no, I 'mitf nyaiie, I ';i DgTlgn< .• | . 

(1$) | Wnl)gnr;:wnr|- -the northern |i0illt llfSeHilin 469 Ilumlrnl f)f linker. Xep: ulefortoi'te 

hi* wives to go in.iihvvnid a Twig tlic shores ()f Lttko Alrxnmliiiei IiuviimIs \\ :i u-n i .^vni . 

(i-'i | l > :irlowe\VJJ////k|— S«-<-tinn ir,-.., 1 1 mi,i l0 « I of Il.-ik-i. 

p-i) | na 'r.'iini.i a fcornj Wai.Jangari wi4 H youlli undi'r^fjiug ; , stngc of initiftHoni h£» tvsis 

<I<tu!.-i1(mI with rc,| nrluv ;ind mini ml. During this \wv\(u\ lir'\v;.s a | ' kai n«l j;i ni | , :unl 
f na'rninl.i |, n \ wliicli ni;.\ be I >;nisl;i1e<l r.s 4 ' ,-n<-n<) ' '. A | k:i in.l |:i ni | must imt | >( > peetl 
l-y Winilrii; lirin-c I hp ;i n v ir| v nf \njirnle tlinl \vi\ns shnnl,] n..l go In Wa n^.-i i ;i u ;. r. Mnvi-r 
^ivex three <lin\r.-n1 spellings fVir tlm iinnn- | Wa i.ju>///a ri 1 , n;i ai-l v ' W.-iL [lingii ri . Wnijunglin*. 
ami WttijUtfgngflH. 

268 Records Of the s.a. Muse-uw 

tal:i.l. "A:! korni a»^alanji/ J Wanjitj »0Pp.:oil Ididu'wal 

desired, ''Ah! man beltjngiog-to-us/ 1 Then he-walked d.cywia'^bo 

' ////<i \wi 11 flm //,'/. ' 1 ■'" 'Wan'jmgiileani 'waiving*. 'Waujengulearii 'nafe : einab. 

liis-camp. Tho-lwn-oF-then) followed. The-tWO watched. 

"A: ! aetj 'japmleil ' /7//n wain lam/." 'Wanjengau 'npopri fl 'lorowal 
,k Ali ! lit* has-enteivd eatlOp." T hen -I he-l wo walked tip 1o\\anK 

/^/awanda>n/. r Wan'jeilpilttarB 'nak: w*ff 'ftjaro .i a t > * n'niini. Wanjil 
camp. Thed wo-of-them saw the-erit?ance. Then 

em/ngi ; 1 pfa ; til, ri,/ TT; and 'fugnla?nii 'iii;ir! wanjam 

remarked elder-sister, "( ) v<T-t hen- stand younger-Hister ! then 

f 1 1 lovt ?ini lok : arar 1 :l,i> naraju waiju ka ' iuau'djera 'kon'u'a/'ncimal. " 
throw-down your mussels noiselessly ofh^vwme hrar In* niM\ . 

"'.Y'/ap 'aldjaru fangulan. M '\Vanja>///al lak 'kaikubi my elina ' pt'i in I jiila >///. 
"I here will-stand. Thou-thii-hVO tlllW CHllpd-Otll like emus-l wo. 

AYrin.jcm/ 'kaiknlam/ wanjitj tuHang. "A: 'inariueaii!" Wanjil 
Thenrthey-two called he mistook-it, "Ah t'ood-fftr-me ! ' ' Then-he 

morokrang itjarn kaik:ft. 'Wanjitjau tarup? ultrrig mnrangu aijuka 
seized 1 1 is spear, Then- he fttarted-to-coine-onl very-softly 

mcliimir tarupu lelitja wan'jmgulearn ' j)ii "hyrndu/M/- Wanjil 'runny il 

when hc-eame-ouf Hic-1 wo-ol"-theni *ri*J | > | x k < I -Ii i n i Then said 

pra r til " A • korne 'avn/alan. 'Mo'4'Ok : flttg '/n/alangearn 

elder-sister, "All: Man belon<2'in<r-|n-us. EI-old-hilll for-us 

m&'nendjii'aijttlcA.'' Wanjitj flrm'noiup: arlaim itj korni 'Waiju 'tf.£(ari. 
rightly-very, ,? Then-bi weakened the man Waijungari. 

Waiijarau japruli:! junth en ' /wawaudallh. Itjau jap : ulelitj 
Then-i hoy-all entered toother the camp. He entered (set) 

nangi. 'Lanibulan nar 'lanteil. 'Wanjar 'tupniSig amaM0 

sun. M luippened they slept. They covered with 

'wanka/'iula ' vf/av. Waujitj wilkeilil j '\Vp ; ele. "M;ai^nipi)/f/ 

kan«jaro(>-skin i-iiL'^ Then-he looked abonl Nepele. V4 \Vliere 

nap: eingt 7 Waujiij loldu 'nflvp^tmj 'Puht'weiwalth jty/a'IeiuiatfY/ 
wives-two t* f Then-he down walked to-Parfrvwewangk finessing 

clila W.-injila/ u 'nak:an^ tanteimbar. Wanjitj pultung in 

he-did. Then-he-tbeni saw asleep-thcy-were, Then-he reached \'^v 

kciuali. Wanjil tu'riunthimg aui wa'laki aijar. Wanjilani jup: mis- 
fire. Then-he plucked some grass. Then-he some 

(is) | .Vr/;«wMiitim/j//| -The I /'//uu.-mili | or lint. itiMclc of toga rui.l brushwood, belonging to 
Waijuiigari w:is situated ui P-arlawivwattgk, a little inland from the. watering pltwv frroong thi 

ii'iils at W.'in^Mifiwar. 

(10) [lek: ;irnr| — The lok; nci or fresh water mussel is / nw U <!>btt/itu,s. 


on : 


oratl 'vWBYrim&m amk 'lanlai. WVinjiliani 'jaiiiiniiulii/^/ i1 Jh/ii 

placed-over gaiap where ftiey-slept Then-lie talked m-Mie 

kttini lnk:i, "TTn.*/ 'kom/onein'darn ////</ ronknl wan tarn . * ' 

lire I ike-thin, "When hear-ymi thm, snoring thetl-bltl'Ht- ( inf o-Mnnir j . " 

"\\v\: imo- rtf/o^ronkoleilar wanjhj tam sang. Wmijltj jn'rankeii iij ngtorwdi 

Sn-when simre-Miey did Mien-il burst. Then -il hnml camp, 

'Wanjar lerlan^'. Artk 'Mi ! lenib ;ir 'waz/j/kanniar. 'I,«»]'(i\v;ir 'kalHiei.l 
Then-Miey spranoynp. They camed skins, i'p-to-wanls they ran 

r.jenbarta//</. MTl ljjuk peinkiu/// j;ni] wankannlU 1 S) II 'arnnk 

Fjunbicrtaiig. There fell (ma skin. lle-Miem siiil 

I"' n,||,i • 1 'keini : 1 itjarndn pe' revoke tarnpnleinib rn : vnimSnd. 

chllSfid brr iis wafer eameont oi' irroiiioL 

'Arnkar pmmnjvml, av wankannlar. II armik 'ware ambil 'keini ; 1. 

Thr\ IVII our hy-one 1 he-skins. II,- theiu Ktill-fnUoWCd 1 he-fire. 

'Wf.njarau larnpnlnm/ 1 i *•' ! '\laIbin'<Ijora////.< -"■' \ar fanikmnleilm 

Th<*ir-i)iey came-onf at-Malbuidjeratig, They divftd-hrta 

"UUietaga < s; Kilj 'nwiij 'krint inii'nanai'kiilnn. 'Arnk "HiQiideol 

]uni] - n« Still Mie-fire ra.iml-arnnne!. Tln-y stooping 

111 , ' : ' Jl1 Wanjileani 'iniinini lak 'enaa.</i, lv Wfik : a 'Inr 

S'al Mip-K.-tlir-lrrrli). Then-he women Mms said-lo. u See-now 

ja//</ifj 'fceimV 3 \Y\-mjil lak \vii'nntha//ry, "Wt.j abljahm il j keini. " 
whnv-i.s fire." Then thus answered, u Ut? still-licrr the fire/ 5 

Wanjar nmniw.-n tal.ang' nin'lawai pi : . '\Y;m,H, 'pariiaw/J 

Pti9re£DM stooped fcfcey yet a-HtttcMime. Theivil dead'' 

ftj 'keini. Wanjar 'uiarn.! Janipnli ; I . 'Wan.jaran '.flffop't eil 

haeame fee. Then-they from-iuidei- came-out. Tlieii-fliev walked 

,, .' ,7 '' I 'i .i'"iK,ri ; i^ v i Section K. Hmid.r.i c«f Baker, &m? of the- fiigbesl print* <n. tfAmnui 

I '•ihdsiiIm; ;1 & ;, | mv> pa rl I y <-<nis(did;i t rd sa nd-dlino rovorod with V-i-t;. I ivr srrijh. 

(IN) | vv;,.ik,-,nh|i| —skin of kit Kg* 1*1)0. Kangaroo skins wore 08«l mk rugs fcTlfl Honks- Tin- 
1MTOV0 larthrtflof piv|.;.mi« t ho .kins <-o„sisf ed of p: ^-ii.- Ilnnn mil m. the ground, fur si,!.- rln\Vll 

and covering fhm witl.nsl.os. tIk-v wore- af t.erwft*b rim ti stick and Wftapert. Th,. nintitur." 

PXOdlAff trOITI 0»< skirt u-ns likr.n^l f. sbfllklnv ivat«f till n fl«1 Ittgomi, k. ■»...,- iii 11. In storv n 

«»e t i»PHj5t- ttjfo, ill.- skins, HH th, n ffcll. lH,-;,n,.< s;,lt ln S o„ns. which impcdV,! the tfrOffrete uf 1hr 
riljpitt fire ^^wlliell tli- rhn-,- fugitives ,r,r ,s,-;,pin-; 1 hr ruuntrv bfitWWh K;.l, -:.,..■ (See 
too. _.)S; and MAlbTM^uroilg (Reel ion 4!)S) is in ,|:,v COVjM^f] will, Hits:- l;i-c.i.s. 

("»Hh_irn].nlii//,7| C«nt' C»Ut Ijf lh<" ll.i«-k ynccn n.wl ti tr^ s--»-n|i <oi 1o the shorr tt| 1.,.., 

Albert. I ins won! k,s the nun; mot us the wcm\ | ', ,;»/,//<, | us^l bv Pitj«ut]j»m iwen in rin 

ri'-i-H. w* si ,.t Smith AiNnli;. (,, i,w| 1( - ;i lc th- |» ; ,ssi„^ of Ihc ;i nccst r;i I It, ino' nit(. the grfniflcT. 

I lL '" ) r»-,Ji.i.,-d>.riii/f/|- -»no-tl. <.)i(| of SentJOia 4!»S, ll.indiv.l «»f H;»k,-i . A pnint mtinitlff out 
1o Htro.nsr; ,| ,-;, , dor- .mfrd ninon^ 1 1,o .-, |„ M -iyiiii-s lor its fhick, Safl iim.l <h'|..nsits, into whiH. i mi . 
Kinks dco])ly; t lie nnini- rfstflf nn-nns, -''innddy |d;o---". 

'' l f,,: M--'<'''tli- Tin- |d, ..,-r „,,,,,,,, liu.raMv, - Up to tfit? (.-.,11, in wnt.-r" This 
I ..rrrr.j.ui.ds to nnr slnnci j)1m;jso f, ii[. In the pVes' '. 

270 Records of the S.A. Museum 

nan : aweil itjarn 'ru ; we , '-'- M ' jnron\n\i^Hr\\. 'Wanji lau n.ik : ung' itjam 
examined the ground way-tO-gO. Then-he saw the 

waieri il 'Waiju'w/aril. 'Wanjil 'eilftnff, ' k Lnrowal a'//r/ani." 

sky did Waijungari. Hte said, "Up-there we-will go. " 

Waiijilearn 'jam 'kaik : e jaaz/kundnr.* ' - ; ' ' Wanjilearn Ink j &in/ itjarn 

He one spear untied. Then-lie spared the 

'•waieri Wanjitj keilawsreil. Wanjil kitjami 'kaik 'ja//;/kiindnr 

sky II eaiiie-l>ae.k-a.»'aiii. He another Spear untied, 

'Wanjil 'kitjanu 'kaik lak : a/>,'/ lorn waieruwar. A: 'tanpuleititj 

lie another spear tbrew-up towards sky. AJi! held-it-did 

'kaifcte. 'Lamhulanak netj 'pin#keilitj ' wafer i. Wanjitj pulliing in 
spear. Sotiu F1 fell the sky. Then-he reached for 

"kaik: alt. Wanjil j 'jap : tilling in wairait. Wanjil 'iuin:;nviu/f/ itjarn 
Jijs-spear. Then-he elimhed fofc t he-sky. Thence Uioketl-abatij the 

"ru ; we "Kiljalj ngnni/kuv] ru : . 'Jap : llW 

ground (of thti sky). "TlliiHS good g^OUlld, eiimh-you-two 

'linvunr-a//ul. Wanjengr 'jap: tilling*" Nar'waral 'lewinal Svaiern'war: 
also, Thcn-they alimhed." They-irp-therr sil in-sky. 

'Nangnn ;irn iuik: un'ela fogra'nep: a* arar ferldar.*- I: ' Metj uxo 
You there may^see three stars-. There in 

\uruU\itffk tang'ulun itj \V;j i jnv/r/n ri. 

middle standing is Wtrijimgdri 



Nepeie sal (camped ou the hilltop) at Ngawntuwaru. His two wivfcs s<it be- 
side him. H happened thai they lx>th desired to walk down towards Wangarawar 
(which they had been forbidden to do). While they were gathering fresh-water 
mussels (hey noticed thai they hjul arrived there. It happened thai there sal 
(camped) at Parlowewangk a (newly initiated and therefore red ocbred) sacred 
man called Waijungari. Waijimgari walked down in Wangarawar also. There 
be drank water through a peed-stem. The water became reddish (from the ruddle 
which fell from his body). It happened that the two women noticed thai Ihe 

(--) | ' ru : wo j — ground, es i tli, count ry. \V;0 jun^n ri and llic !wu run-ri w:i y wFvhh ilf Ni |>: I \& 

ft :n-. •! the anger of Nop: ele, and searched for ;i means of escape. 

(-'•'>') j ' jniikiJiidur | nnfiod liis bundle ilf sp. ;m-s. He cirrird ri Inmdle of these \vc:i pons ; in 

some vcisii.ns uf tin- legend 3 when spearing the sk.y. lie used n string tied fee the butl of bno sbitffl 
to enable htm ht liaultlte^kj down toward* tnc* earth; the RpbI spear, which failed, waft un barbed, 
the second was made of shea oak wood, and bori a series >d' barbs down one side, 

[terldar] — star ('oilier renderings arc tu-uwlrta and tn:i>i<i\. Only one of the three 
"stars* 1 fins been definitely identified. Waijungari is the briglil planel Mars, 


water bad become red. Then the twjQ women Said fo each other, "Why has the 
water beetwue tike this?' 1 Above them they then p&rgfcwed the tBtl-ofelne-maii 

(standing on the hank). The two thought |i, m V( . r y . b'sirahle, "Ah! he is ill. 1 
man wr wjiiiI". Then Wai.junimri Uvho 1 1 m < 1 no( perceived them) walked Iuh-Iv 
to his camp. Both f of the women | followed. They watched. "Ah.! be has en- 
tered his hut (tyutLfr). Then the ttTO ( women) walked nearer to the camp. They 

saw tjie entrance. Then safei the elder sister, 'Stand Ayta* there, ytnrager rfsttir, 

and place yoivr bug Of mussels noiselessly down so that lie ma\ not hear you. I 
wilJ stand here" Then the two imitated llie noises of emu. lie mistook their 
calls. "Ah! there is food for ine'\ lie OoqIS Up his spear. He commenced |o 

meah urn \r V y (| metly; as he emerged the two (women) seized hold of him : '<> 

his penis). Then said thr cider sister, "This man belongM to us. [Iold Hill 
firmly". Then the man Waijune;ari yielded. They all three entered the lint to- 
gether. The sun sel. live and bye I hey slept. They had Cptferttd themselves with 
kamraroo skin rims, Xepele bcjran to be suspieious i'and look ahont for 1 racks.). 
•Where are my two wives' \> Then, puessipg their intention, he Walked down to 
I*arln\\ewaii<rk. He saw that 1 hey were all asleep together. Then he seized a tii" 
Stick, lie plucked some grass. These he placed oVfcV lh* ^"'ip where they slepl. 
He spoke to the fire in t his strain: "Burst into flame when yon hear fhem snor- 
iim*\ They snored, and it minted. Il burnt their camp. They fled. They 
carried with them their kangaroo skins. They ran (at first south-east \\ ards) to- 
wards Tjenbartan<r. On,- of ihe kangaroo skins fell from their urasp. The tire 
still raired behind them, Imt 1 1n- water ( from the kaimaroo skin) came out oil the 
gTOUHd. The kangaroo Skins Fell one b.V one as they fled. The tire still ratred 
behind them. They eame out ( of t he sernln a1 Malbindjeranij;. They dived into 
the mud. The fire raged ahont them. The\ stooped down. They eowered \\\) to 
their teeth (in waler ,,ih! nnid). Then he ( WaijuiiLrari j said to the women. "-Bee 
\\\\rvr the fire is rapine; now' 1 . Then they answered him. kk The (ire still Imrns 
neai' ns ? \ Therefore they remained QDwering I'm- a fnrlher space of lime. The 
fire became dead. They came mil from under ( 'the water and mud). Then Hi'; 
walked about examining the couuhy anil (souiiht a I way to escape. Then Wai- 
.juntrari looked up towards the sky. lie said, "We will go lip there". 3d he mm 
tied "nr of Im's spears. Then he speared the sky. The spear fell back. Be untied 
another >-pear. lie threw this other one Lip towards the sky. The spear held fast. 
Soon the sky fell downwards (towards the earth). Me was able to reaeh np to 
his spear, lie climbed up into the sky. lb- examined the land in the sky. (He 
said) "This is gftod ground, ('limb up. Von two mus1 elimb up also". Then 
they hoi h elimhed. They still remain there in the sky. You may see three stilTS 
there now. The central one is \\ T ai.jun_mri. 

112 Khcukds of iiih S.A. Museum 


I r.hiekinoors \<>n-rii<Mi»'iir Version. I 

Xrpilrc ney wur ich Icw-amh nu'irlau ar. KaiJgfri i» u iMit- i 11 -iiii^i lcwinur Kar 
\oonth. Wiin-yiiii*!' [igtipfog lol-thoo wiunr-nr-a-war. Luk an^ a -lolthop ngopfrlg 
logeT-tiltll. K ich wnlth low-amb 1*001 fl wulth Wyoon^urric nrumbcc a korn. 
Wunyich toll ihoo ngopUBg Wun^ur-awar. Wini-il tdQOthlWg irhurn Pr#jig-OQkM? 
in mm' i'runk un<r-i. WltK-ich kroon<r-ool rhu» icli pranir-ookic. Ijumbil-urn 
iiMTitrooli ui'i) nuking ich-urn p*&ng-O0]n€ laMMinir-il-anib-icli. Wun ang look yurn- 
in«r. Moor-mm-ul umh ich-urn pranjz'-ookio noch look yoorniu. Bjfi: wun-yan<r 
loroo-wul nuk col ich urn Nrumbic korn. Luin-bil-urn imim thil-ool ah knrn-c- 
im<r-ul-iin\ Wun-ich imop-col lol-thoo-ul ngftw-ltti4htm£. Wun ariir-ool-o-nm 
wur-rcunir. Wu-nanyonl-rurn nukainb ah noch yupgol-eel. Wun-an^-ow -ngop- 
ed lor-oo-ul ngon-mt-tlLung. Wun-img-ool-e-'iurii mik-in^ ich itm yup-ool-oraft-Je. 
Wun-il (MXltlg hr-l I "in -til. Oo-tUlcl tluuitf-ool-nniio nia-i*. Wun-uni thrort urn 
lork-cr-ur-nri-oo-i-ook-on in-un.jiri koon«r-urn com-ul. N^up-ul-juru Ihunir-onl 
urn. Wuu-uim-ul look ki-koorl-un^ ol-in TNm-ii jiul rHi<r. Wun-Bing ki -kool unir 
wuu-ich turlmiji' ah mcm-cc-uru. Wun-il uirok-un^' ich-urn ki koc. Wiiii-ich how 
thnr -pool -Xing inning iu-l-ook-iirf ncl $(&g thur-pool irh-uch. Wiin-anji'-ool-c- 
urn ploorti-doong, \\un-il-fnnin<r rcl Prart-il. Ah korn-oo uni2-ul-ine. Mrorl -ting 
n«rnluiiji'-oo-urn inniii^-joo-1-ook-ah, "Wun -ich mrnopurlin<r-ich kornoy Wyoon 
•iiirric. Wun-ur-ow yup-oorl -oi-l yoonth in nirow -unlhulth. Ich -ovv yup-ool -.-1 
ich ntiligie. Lmn-bil-nrn unr turn-lccl. Wun-ar tnop un^' urn ling wurn-kurn- 
<i iiiLT-ur. Wun-ich wilk-ool ich \cp-il-cc. Yuiur-un-nnii; Nap-an<r. Wuu-ich lol- 
flioo niropiuiu' I'ooluuAvay-wullh nirlani -in«r cl-il. Wun-il urn nukun<r turnt-auib- 
\\tj Wun-ich pool-thing W kairn-ull h. Wmril-urn yoop-unyyor-ou Qgcrw -unth- 
inio' nr-ook lurnti. Wun-II-o-urn yurn-iin-m-<1im<r ich-urn kairncy look-cc. Oonji'. 

fcqong-tii*ii-eenfl-nrii Hgtonlcool wun-iuni. Weloong pgrong-kodrl ar p wun-ich 

hint -■irn«r. Wun-irli \ •riin» r » -<•<•! ich n^ow -nnt hcc. Wun ar tirlmji 1 l'r ouk Ihacl- 
iiinh jir wurukurmlar. Dpr-00-UT fclth«-W?I Chili bur-loim. Ich-ook pinkintr yinn 
Wurn -kurml. Kd arn-ook prcltliy-c«'l k;iirn-ill ich Lirn-doo prcno-ook. Ar-ow 
nur pccminir-anil) ur \vui-n-kurn-(hn-. Ed-nrn-nok wury anil) pel kairn-i!. Wiin- 
ar-f*w thur-pul-unir MTn1bin-;tef-ling. Xui' 1l)ooi'k-orrnd"cI in innianji'-iill h. Fvich- 
o\v ich kairncc. l'r nek mon-tlial. Wun-il cc-nrn niccm-incc look cn-unir-cc nuk 
ul-loor yunu-ich kaiiuicc. Wun-il look wriu-Uiuim ncch uljul-urn-ich Ivairncc. 
Wiiu-ar mor-un-iin htrl-lmg ml"\v-i pp.-ft, Yun-ich porn -unir ich kairncc. Wun 
ar inarnd 11mr-])ool-ccl. Wun ar ow ngopeel nim-ow-cl ich -urn roiu- yur-ow-il- 
anL'-urn. Wun il or on mikuttg n-h-urii uy pt& ee] Wyoon^-ur-il, Wun-il-cn-in-- 
lor oo-w id un.L! urn-cc. Wun il-cc-urn \ urn ki-kc ynrn-koorn-door. Wun il 

TlXPALR LEGEM) OF \Y Al J N( , A R I 273 

Inking ich urn wy-er-rec. Wnn-ieh ke-]l-iuj*r mm! . Wnn il kieh uni-oor kike ynrn- 
knrn-door. Wnn-il kich-nrn-oor kike hiking lor-oo wyer -on-wnr. Ah turnppol 
eal-ich ki-kee. fjinn I nl-iu v rj-nJv n(*ch ping-eel ich wyer-ree. Wmi ich pnl-tluncj: 
in ki-knllh. Wiiji LcJl ynp-ool-in<r n, wyer-nlth. Wnn-il nun ow-nne- ieli-nrn roue. 
Kieh-nch njtfunkeri rone. Ynp-oorlnlno • OOllg-OOl, Wiiii-;iii^ ynp-oiirl-nn*;. Nnr 
wnr-nl lew-in-cl wyora-wnr. Xmijr-oorn-iini nnk-in-el-ee iigap -ul thnr Ihel-lhur. 
Nech ooiii toorot ;m;4' thnner-oorl-oon ieh WyoOBgtirrie. 


The association of the legends of (.lie Southern AuatraliaD tribes with o-eo- 
graphiqaJ features has not been stressed sufficiently in the Gflrlfer accounts of their 
mythology. There ' s marked icteiitifieAtimi with the tocography of the country 

in which ihey are related. They are in this FiPSped little different from many 

stories of the wandering of the totaua aaieestors of Hie Cfcntral Australian peoples 
such ,-is have been so ably detailed by C- Strehlow \- :, '\ and others. Their heroes 

are irrt'rif men who ;nv only otJCaflion&tty identified with totemic animals; in this 
ami Other peapeeta they differ materialh from the Central Australian stories. 

The Jnralde legends of Waijnn«/ari, like all the Tories of this ami allied 
tribes, are intimately linked wilh physieaJ features. Ihe oritrin and tfigfttfficanee fl] 
Which they incidentally allempt to explain. For example, Ihe lagoons scattered 
along the track where the man and two women fled in litis story aiv the kangaroo 
skins which Waijnnjran dropped in his haste. The lagoons mark the line Of his 
Bight The partienlarly muddy southern shore of fjake Albert at Malbindjeranii' 
was eonjnred up as a refuse Tor him. The tendency of bush (ires commcncine- on 
the shores of Lake Aiexandrina to sweep fiercely through the swampy land with 
its thick undergrowth, and to rush wildly before the hoi north and north-west 
SUminer winds towards the pomer where Waijiucrari and his paramours had tied. 

are determined by the geography of the peninsula. Lifted from this setting they 
l<»s<- ;i greal deal of their significance. When we discuss 13ie gr£a1 story of Ngur- 

omleri. of which a detailed aeeonnl is reserved Tor a later occasion, we learn thai 
Ihe eanoes ol' thi- ancestor still lie in lite position in which he abandoned 1hem. 
They have been metamorphosed into (he Lalaie^entiid, two greal fixed sand 
hilfsaf Afounf Misery, lieHldethe main road at Section 219, Hundred of Malcolm. 
Tim shoals upon which the grpaf Murray Cod of the Ninn-iindcn legend was eul 
up to folifl the smaller (Mies, still lie in Lake Alexandria as ,k proof" of the 
veracity ol* the legend. Without COfltimrinjis the argument too far. it may be re- 

•-••;■ Sfrdi low. 'V Die Aran. la u n CI Loiil j r sOitnriie in Zi'iil I :il -A usl r:ilioii. Frankfurt am 
.Moin, 1907-19161 

274 Records of the S.A. Museum 

marked thai the legends, when associated with tliuii- geographical context, enable 

us to understand the people in 8 manner denied to those who know only the angli- 
cized, generalized stories. 

11 is a matter of particular regret, Iherefnre, thai non localized versions, pnr 
porting to he authentic myths and legends of the Ausir;dian aboriginals, and in 
trocTueing Hitch amazinir conceptions as chariots of fire and the angels of Semitic 
mythology as well as other paraphernalia, should have been published. Sllt»h 

stories are nndonhtedly based on authentic legends, hot have been so distorted in 
their new setting thai they will become recognisable only when, or if, native texts 

ran he obtained. 

The identification of Waijungari with Mars, the vn\ wandering planet of the 

heavens, has been confirmed from several native sources. The other two "stars"' 
have not been identified. The (lovernmem Aslronomer (Mr. 6. F. Dodwelll lias 
made tlm suggestion that the story of the two women of the legend may have ori- 
ginated from observations of the planets. Tie snigge&tS lhat tlie two women may 
l)i> identified with Jupiter and \'enus. both of which wander over the heavens 
and come into conjnncl ion with Mars, travel with it, and are together kk over- 
whelmed" by the fiery orb of the sun, re-appearin-' after a lapse of time ms even- 
ing stars. Maeo-raith ( - (r ) has shown that the Australian aborigines have a re- 
markable interest in the movements of the planets and the appearance of the 
principal constellations, so that there is some probability in this attempted ex- 


The legend of Waijmigari is set out in the language of the Jaralde Tribe, of 
the eastern shore of Lake Alexandria. South Anstndia, together with an English 
translation. Details are giveD of the phonetic system employed in the transcrip 
(ion of this legend and of numbers of as yd unpublished soii^s and stories relat- 
ing to the Iribes of southern and western South Australia. There is a discussion 
on the significance of the geographical settings of Ihe legends, nnd a knnwled<jv of 

local topographical detail is shown to be of fundamental importance in coining to 
a detailed understanding of native mythology. 

(a«) M&>g*aith, B. GL, TnuiK, Boy, 8o& 8. Aust., lvi, U>:v_\ pp. m 56, 



By Norman B. Tindale, B.Sc, South Australian Museum 


Elhamma Walker. 

Elhamma Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus., vii, 1856, p. 1561. 

Perissectis Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, iv (2), 1889, p. 1119. 

Elhamma Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep. Het., 1892, p. 887. 

Perissectis Pfitzner and Gaede, Seitz Macrolepidoptera, x, 1933, p. 841. 

Male with antennae stout, each segment expanded laterally and compressed 

longitudinally on one side (fig. 1). Labial palpi two- segmented, first as long as wide, 

densely clothed with slender hairs, second segment three times as long as wide, clothed 

apically with short, clubbed hairs (fig. 2). Maxillary palpi rudimentary, composed of a 

single small subspherical segment. Forewings with R x anastomosed with R s for a short 

distance before and after branching off of R 4 , thus forming a small cell. Hindwings, in 

male, depart greatly from normal Hepialoid form ; R x fused with R s to, or beyond forking 

of R 2 and R 3 : only two M veins present. M x and M 2 fused (causing obsolescence of M x ), 

Cu 2 reduced ; only one analis vein developed. In the female the venation of the hindwings 

is unlike that of the male, being practically identical with Oxycanus except for the 

absence of any trace of 2A. 



PART HI,* 1 ' 
Hv NORMAN b\ TINDAtE, fcfc-j South \r-i k.\i,ian Muskum. 

Fin-. Mil! >. Walker. 

Elhamma Walker, List Lepi Ins. Brit. Mus., vii, 18fi6 3 p. 1561. 
Periaseefis Meyrh-k, Prbc. Linn. Soe. N.S. Wales, iv (2), 1888, p. inn. 
Elhamma Kirby, Syn. Cat. Lep, I lor., 1802, p. 887, 
Ptrissectis pfifisnei* and Gaede, Sehx Macrolepidoptera, x, 1983, p. 841, 

Male wiili antennae stout, each s^egi»eHl expanded laterally and compressed 
longitudinally on one side (fig. 1). Labia] palpi two-segmented, nrs1 ;|s long as 
wide, densely clothed with ^lender hairs, second segment three times as Long as 

wide, Clothed apieally with short, elubbed hairs (tin. 2). Maxillary palpi rudi- 
mentary, CNttftpoSed &f a Single small subspherieal setrmenl. K(ircwii]<i's wit Ii R.j 
anastomosed with K s for a short distance before and after branching olT of H,, 
Ihus forming a small cell, llindwin^'s, in male, depart greatly from normal llepi 
aloid form; Rj IHsrd with K s to, or beyond forking oi R^ and R ;i : only two M 
veins present. ftt 3 and M- fused (eausino' obsoleseenee of Mj )., Cu_. reduced; 
Only one anal is vein developed. In the female the venation of the hindwiiurs is 
Unlike thai of the male, being practically identical with O.rijcnnHs oxerpt for the 

absence of any trace of 2A. 

Genotype : Wliavama inconclma Walker, synonym of Hcpialti$ ttustrnlasinc 
Walker, nominated by Kirby, 1892. 

Willkcr placed five species ( sub r<irta, invalid Lisa , si<ftr<tf<i, th h nn i imht. and 

antipoda) in this gefiu& On a subsequent page of his K Iji»t M he removed one 

species, sukvuriu, to o.njv<iiui,s. liutler in 1S74- placed tigwia in Porim, In 

(l) r.-iif I was published in Bee. S. Aust. Muwuin, iv, \\r.\J., pp* 497-5315, Pig; L-G4. Kwata iij 

1)31*1 i :mv: hi Fig, 26 showing venal ion of Jim 11 1 imlcs h //<// i nut us til; 1 analis wins :11c wronglv 

niarkra. i.\ sin. hi. 1 read v,, L ,, -j.\ is LA, and 3.A is2A, Part II idem v, 193c!, pp- 13-43, Pig. 1 0£. 

bJnatfJ 113 [Wi ii are: p. 1$, Hue IS, n-a<l " rufchniniK <l" not ■ ' ntfohni n m' ' ; page 2I>, rig. H(J, 
i rail "male", nol " IVmali'"; [1. 39, the U'gt mis of Lfte, SO ami Si am transposed. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

1589 Meyrick placed d< ti rminal<i ill /'oriiw and inrfntclnsft in his new genttS /Vm 
sectis, as a synonym of atfstrahisiuc "Donovan". Meyrick did not nominate a 
genotype for ElhwttWiQt Kirby in 1892 selected iuconcl usa. PerhseeJis is thus a 
direct synonym. The generic description in Seife is applicable only to the Fe- 
male, the great difference presesl in the venation of the two sexes has doubtless 
Led to confusion. 

Pig. 1-4. ElMmma muitraUtekie (Walker)* ', portion Of a&le ;nitcnn;i ; i\ [atriftl palpi; 

:i, mule venation; i } 1'iifKi. 

Tliis is an endemic genus^ containing only n single spejeies, the distribution 
of whieh corresponds closely with the uniform rainfall areas in eastern and south- 
ern Australia where the rainfall exceeds fifty inches and the averse annual tem- 
perature docs nol exceed 70". 

K I J I A M M A A I ] ST R A L A SI A K j \V a 1 k \ ' r i . 

Pig. \-s. 

KepialiiH au&trala&iat Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus., vii. is"m\ p. 1 ">r>s (fe- 

ElhU'Mma in<wn>cpN,$0 Walker, I.e. \). 1562 (male; in index iiame is corrected to 

ineonclu&a) . 

Tindale — Australian Ghost Moths 


Perisseciis australasiae Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, iv (2), 1889, p. 

Perisseciis australasiae Pfitzner and Gaede, Seitz Macrolepidoptera x, 1933, p, 

841, pi. 76e (female). 
Porina banghaasi Pfitzner, Seitz Macrolepidoptera x, 1933, p. 841, pi. 78d (male), 
£ Head, antennae, and thorax brown, abdomen salmon-pink, at apex purp- 
lish-brown. Forewarns brown with an aim-led diffused darker baud from below 

Fig, -j-S. Elhamma austratasiae (Walker). ."», male, Sydney (typo of inconclmsa Walker, 
in British Museum Collection) ; (5, female, National Park, Sydney; 7, male, Moe ; 8, female, Aloe. 

apex to Mj near base, thence to base; a silvery-white streak follows r-m and ex- 
tends 1o M L >, numerous darker scattered flecks, specially abundant near margins; 
hindwings salmon-pink. Expanse 42 mm. 

9 Head, antennae, and thorax brown, base of abdomen salmon-pink, other- 
wise purplish-brown. Porewing's unicolorous brown with scattered minute flecks 
of dark brown; hindwings salmon -pink. Expanse 70 mm. 

Loc. Queensland: National Park (3,000 ft.) 2, 3( 2 >. New South Wales: 

(-) Numbers after the locality indicate the months during which the moths have been taken 
on the wing. 


Dorrijrn; BlacfclieatB (3JJ0Q ft.)j National Park 2; Roi^ 4; l'ymble 2: Manly 
2, ;;. I: Mosman 3< Stairwell Park 2: Killara 4; llornshy 2, A ; Uoseville 2. lij 
Waveriey M; Richmond o; Sydney 2. •'!, I; ldsmore ; dervis Pay; Kaloomha. 
Victoria : IMfoe 2; Caulfield 2; Melbourne ; Naruargootf ; fteaconslteld 2. Western 
Ausirali^ : King George SomnL 128 males, and 78 females have been examined. 

Walkers type of ff, iiicotic! t<;«t. a male in the I .ritish MuBeuiifl collection; \H 

figured (fig* 5), In this ftpediea the colour of the EorewingS may vary from •' dark 
Rbocolate-brown through gr-ej to aia oehreouwed. The oblique white diseoidal 
Eaaei&le mark is a relatively constant tVaiuir. The females have the Eorewiugs 
almost free from marking, and a-, in the male the ColpUJ? ranges from brownish- 
grey to oehroous red aiid yellow. The hindwings m both sexes tend to be pinkifch- 
tinged. Sydney is i he type locality and the aboVe description is drawn up from 
Freshly-killed specimens. 

In life the dolours are \< k ry bright with a tinge of purple, but the hues are 

evanescent and fade rapidly after death, In March. U>27. this oiotJi WHS observed 
in tin' National Park near Sydmv. Numerous freshly-emerired examples of both 
s»'xrs were clinging to we1 sword-grass and to y<^<\ stems in swampy places, at 
dusk and after dark. The species is variable; &J! the forms may be taken to- 

According to Mr. C. <J. b, GrOOdJQg this species comes sparingly to lights .it 

Moe, in company with Abantuides hyalwitftus. 

Examples from the Maeplierson Range, in Queensland, are perhaps brighter 

in colour, but they eannol be mainlained as a geographical raee. The WVstern 
Anslralian reeord is based on a single Haded female from tin- Australian Museum 

collection labelled k 'K (i.s.'\ With "n were associated two males withoiri data. 

These specimens are less well marked than usual, and have an QChtponH appear 
anee not ciiiiiiiinii in Kastern exani|)les. This may, however, be due in pari to 

their stale of preservation, 

The pupa Of this species ;\\i?. I } is 40 nun. in length and 6 miri. in diameter, 
pah' brown with darker chestnut brow n chit ini/at ions al the anterior extremity; 
When ready to emerge the eoloui-s of the adult are noliceable 1hroui»'h the re- 
latively thill epidermis. There are two dorsaL and one venlral series of minute 
I ransversc serrations on eaeh segment The foodplanl and the details of its life 
history are unknown, but the occurrence of the newly-emerged moths in swamp- 
suggests thai they may [y^'d on the roots of swamp gras&eg or reeds. 

Meyriek eouelndecl that the Pidits inrarnis of Walker belonged to Ibis 
species, but the type, a female, clearly belongs 1o a species of the gemtR <)., itca Hiifo 

and may be nought under ihe name 0. sordidus. 

TiNDAi.K Australian Ghost Moths 
Jeana gen., tiov. 


Antennae lone;, bipeetinate, pectinations Long, apex of each armed with Mirer 
io five stout hairs; in female less developed. Labial palpi long and slender (fig. 
10), three -wegtamted, basal segment longer than second, terminal one-half as long 
as second. Posterior legs only moderately hairy. Forewin^'s with R-j and R 2 sep- 
arately from aeax base, K ; >, II,, and K- out of R 2 ; I\._> and B 3 branching nmeh 
nearer to termer) than to junction with R, ; R :> from about two-fifths, Hindwings 

Sc R 



Cuib Mu M 3 

Cu, s 





Pig. 9-10. J'iiihi <h licahtta gen. e< s|). nov. 1), nmlo vciui.tion ; 10, male, lalual palpi. 

with R.j and lv> branching nearer to terinen than to junction with R 4 ; anal area 
with 1 A present as a short vein, visible only in cleared or bleached specimens, 2A 
absent (fig. 9). 

(Jenotype: Jeana delicatula sp. nov. 

The small size, different venation, in which the branching of R2 and \l : . is 
near the termen, and the Highly distinctive palpi servo to mark this genus off 
from O.ri/ciniKs. to which it is undoubtedly related. From Frtt-US it differs in the 
form of the wingSj venation, and in the stouter body. It resembles Ullirnnimt in 
that R a ami \l- 2 are confluent near the base of the wing, but differs from Hint 
genus in the absence of the sexual dimorphism of the venation. 

280 Records of the S.A. Museum 


Fig. &-12. 

A Antennae brighl yellowish-brown ; palpi smooth-haired, long, brown ; 
dead brown, thorax dark brown, abdomen doll brown, paler a1 base; Legs long, 
slender, smooth-haired, dark brown. Poarewinga ochreons-brown, brighter along 

veins and margins of the wing; costa to one-half dark brown; over most of Whig 
an obscure patient of subreetan<_nilar dark brown and grey spots, 1 he Latter ob- 
scurely margined with pale yellow. llindwin«rs dull brown, al veins and along 
margin ochreons-brown. Expanse 42 mm. 

9 Antennae shortly bipectinate, shorter than in male, yellow; palpi yellow- 
ish-brown; head and thorax dark grey; abdomen pale fawn, base of abdomen and 

Fig, 11-12, Jmm Micatuln gen. et sp. oov. 11, type, ;\ male, Moe; 12, allotype female, Moe. 
Ic-s clothed with fine white hairs. Porewings anbhyaline, sparsely scaled, grey, 

an obscure series of eream-mar<rined dark grey marks from near apex to hind 
margin at one-half, also a marginal series from near apex to near base, llind- 

wings grey. Expanse 48 mm. 

Loo. Victoria: Moe 4 (April 3, 1934, C, G, L. Gooding, type, a male and 
allotype female, April 17, 1934, I. 18849, in S, Aust. Mus.) ; Beaeonsfield t; Nee- 

rim. 6 males. 2 females. 

This species is probably widely spread in Eastern Victoria, but owing to its 
relatively small size it escapes notice. 

OxycANUS Walker. 

Pon'iKi Walker, List Lop. Ins. Brit. Mus., vii, 1856, p. 1572 (nee D'Grbigny, 

Mollusca, 1852). 
Oxycamis Walker, i.e., 1856, p. 1573. 

Tindale — Australian Ghost Moths 


Forma AM rick, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales iv (2), 1889, p. 1 1 1U ; Trans* N. 

Zealand Inst., xxii, 1800, p. 200 
Qxyranns Kirby, Syn. Cat. bep. 11(4.. 1892, p. 892. 
Pfirina Quail, Tnms. Kut. Soc Loud., 1900, pp. 411432 (life histories). 
rirtieamis Eye*, Ent Soc, Ahum-. xyH, 1924, p. 805, 

Antennae mndorale. strongly bipcelinatc, or feebly bidentate ; when strongly 
biped inale there is souietiines also a pair of short dentations at the base of each 


p„ Ma - Cui , 

Fig, \:>> \ l ,K IS, O&ywiitfs mtztmlti (Walkei), male venation, l l-Ii). Lahigl p;ilpi. 14 

0. WJfltif „. v ,-|,. nov.. Mo,-; IT), if, strlltnis S]). now, Coc k;H oo ; 1(5, (). Q, ■..■■//.< sp. rtOV., W. AllSt. ? 

17, 0. drpuA sp. uev., Fern tret? Gully; is, o. dinmptw (Walker), Ffewlcsville; li». 0. determmaim 

1. \\';(lkci), Swail River. 

segment, pectinations and dentations tenninatin<x in tufts of ciliae. Labial palpi 

moderate, porr&cted, with banal segment hvieetuslongas wide, second al leasl fchreq 
times as Long as wide, apical one slightly swollen at apex, and nearly twice as Long 

as wide, clothed with short flattened hairs. Maxillary palpi either present as a 
single rudimentary subspherical segment, or obsolete. Hind tibiae densely hairy. 
Kn re Willis with Iv-, and Kj separately I'roin near base, l\ :; , K | , and Rg onl of I\ 2 ; 
ll 2 and K : . branching nearer to K, than to terinen; LI- from about two-fifths 
HindwmgS willi Ro and II;. branching nearer to K, junction than to termen j 1A 
well developed; 2A present as a rudiment near base. 

(Jenotype: Oxj/cuhhs wustralis Walker, 1856, nominated by Ivirby. 1892. 

>, :' Records op the s.a. Muskcm 

This is the most extensively distributed of the Australasian genera* bring 

tpuild 'n all moist temperate and tyrpt suh-lropicai parts of Ansl ralia, in Xew 
Zealand, and al moderate elevafiotis in tin- mountains of New Gbxiuea, More than 
hi lit x- species are now described, of which thirty-nine are Australian, and then 1 

;iit in ;m 1*1 it ion others known of whirl) the mi;i t or i;i I is fcOO scanty nr poor t(J be 
described. By a strange rrn.r, Quail has alt rilmted one South A ust ralian species 
(0. niphmlin.o to Patagonia, 

In Australian species of QjoijamUH the TwrpM Off tip male jivnilalia are vari- 
ously developed, but on the whole offer Eew BharatstiWN suitable Tor specific notice. 
lu 0. sordiduti they are much elongated, slightly inpurvud al tie- apex, and feebly 

el;ivate. In other species tliey are bnly modem! ely well developed. 

The form of the tegumfin (Buchanan While, LB78) (*) is of special system- 
atic importance. In Orif,'<inns this st ructure consists of two lateral eliitinized mem- 
bers with dorsal membraneous connections*, developed from the highly modified 

ninth tergite as a hood for the anus and ij^nilalia. The inferior (strictly caudal) 
margins of ihis hood are strongly ehitini/.ed and arc frc.pienlly armed with hooks. 
processes, lobes, and Single Or Seriate HpilieS, This armature is readily made visible 
in the moth, without dissection, by gently brushing away some of the suhapii'al 
hairs from the venlral surface of the alulomeii. Inspection of tie- te'jumen facili- 
tates the deierminauon of members of an otherwise difficult ^eniis. Wat detailed 

v,<nk disscciions of the genitalia have been prepared and mounted in ehoral hy 

dmte within a cell. To assist in a ready examination, lie/ acCOIttpailyitlg drawings 
■ made of tin- margin ol' the lel'l latus of lie* fcegumen as though they were 
\irwed from (lie right postern-laieral aspeel, wilh tie- moth held ventral sui-f.M--' 
upwards: the caudal margin is, in consequence, upwards and the posterior 
.•Irirtly dorsal or postcm-dorsal > extremity is to the r'mht. and the anterior 
(strictly ventral or antero-vent ral ) end to the lel'l. The anteriorly project ijiii 
portion of Urn teyjimeu constitutes the susj)nisoninit of Ever. 

Several iiiciiiIkts <►)* tin- ucntis Qxyea M(,& are of considerable economic im 
portanee heeause of their depj edatinns on pasture trasses, l'art at leasi of fllfi 

damage attributed to Oncopem is done by 0. fuacomavnlaht^^ and several other 
spemrs are probably also grass feeders, in the Mount (Jambier diHfcrici of South 

Australia the larvae of (). fusronnioihit its were found in polato fields, and they 
btf-V€ heen elsewhere blamed for hallowing put those tubers. Several species of 
wattles have then- roots attacked by Kpeciefc qf this genus, for example Q. (imiinp 
(US feeds on Acav'ut Bwleyatia and .1. prosctiittln »s. ll is preyed upon by more 
Mian one species Of £lU5g durum- the line- of enirr^enco from the pupa. This oh 
servation, which was first mad.' by Mr. C, G« L. Gooding at Moe, has led to my 

i . : a i i;iiclwoi,-.u Wt.itr. I'., Tr.-ins. Linn. So.-. LbucJ. Zool., s.m . 'J, i, LS?8, |J. :'■■' 


Tindale— Australian Ghost Moths 


suggestion that the introduction of a species of toad into Australia miglil assist 
in the control of Oncopera and Oxycanus. The Surinam toad (Bufc a-gua) was 
introduced into Pfjrto Rico a few years ago, with some success, to assisl in the 
control of a f^iuul-btirrowing moIe*ericket (Svupicriscux vicimts Scudder). 

As in the study of previous g;emera 1 am indehled to the British Museum, and 
to Mr. \V. II. Tarns in particular, for photographs of Walker's typos; illustrations 
oi' some of them are reproduced herein. Most, of the figures are nalural size; in 
a few inslanees tlm\ gre slightly smaller; the degree of reduction may he noticed 
by eomparison wil h the dimensions given in the deseriptious. 

Ivkv to the Species of ox wants. 

a. Palpi moderate: third segment not longer than first. 

b. Caudal margin of fegum^n, viewed from side, father 
evenly semi-circular in outline; if armed, bearing 
serin te spines, 
e. Tcjriimcn noi ;irmed with eons[)i<*uous seriate spines, 
d. Te^'uiiien not strongly arched. 

e. Suspeiisorial process of tegttroen short, 

t Korewin^s wilh many silvery-white mark- 
gi Antennae with ventral surface concave 
gjf. Antennae with ventral surface nQt\ 

concave . . . . . . . • 1 

\'\\ Fnrewiim's with Only few silvery-white 
h. 'IVii'iimen with strongly ehitinized por- 
tion narrow and smooth, 
i. Forew iiiii's with strong longitudinal 

white fascia 
ii. For&whigfl without marked longi- 
tudinal whitfe fascia 
hh. T< k <ruimui with strongly ehitinized 
portion broad ami with irregular 

re. Suspeiisorial process of le^umen Icing 
(Id. Te<rumen slronu'ly arched 
cc. TotriiHHi) armed with cons|>icuous seriate spines, 
j. Suspcnsorinl process long 
jj. Suspeiisorial process shorl. 

k. Spines restricted to anlerior half of teoumen, 

I. Spines on te<ruincn four in umnher . . •! 

II. Spines on 1c<rumen more than four 
kk. Spinas not restricted to anterior half of 
m. Antennae with strong pectinations. 


f. hershawi 

inih rhoust i 









Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fig. 20 43, o.r;/c<uius. Latus of fcegumeii as viewed From Bide, anterior extremity to the left. 
lmi, o. australis (Walker), Lsnneestoii ; m, o. dtremptun (Walker). Ilcalesvilie; i!2, 0. waterhousei 

sp. no v., Killara; 23, 0. fj/rlli sp. nov., Elthani; -.'4, (>. pcnliliis sp. nov.. \Y. Aust.; 25, 0. MlvanitA 
sp. nov., Canberra'; 26, & hcnlns sp. now, Armidale; 27, 0. bdlislns (Turner), Mount Who; 28j 
0. ixiliu.r sp. nov., Dorrigo; 29, 0, awifex sp. nov., Dorrigo; 30., o. /kmV/x sp. nov., Gympie; Bl, 

0, n<ll<liis sp, now, Arrnidnle; 32 3 0. ;./<>!<l finch i sp. nov., Xonnanhurst ; 33, 0, rOHQWlM sp. now. 
Moo; 34, 0. hamulus sp. nov., Jervis Bu v ; Mo, 0. steUafm sp. nov., Cockatoo; ;j(i, 0. Upttflfa sp. nov., 
Ulackhoaili ; .''.7, 0. Iocs u-.s Sp. nov.. Odr-inii; 38, 0, nrchfrn I alls sp. nov., W. Aust.; Ml). & pnciicns 
sp. nov., Denmark, W. Aust.; 40. O. promiscnttx sp. nov., Denmark, W. Aust.; 41, 0. .sonli<h/s 
(Ili-rrivlj-SvliaenVr), Eaglehawk Nork; 42, 0, ftUKMMM sp. nov., .Invis Ba y ; 43, 0. b<ini<tr>Ii sp. 
now, Toownomba. 

Tindale — Australian Ghost Moths 285 

n. Abdomen and base of hin&wings sal- 
mon-pink . . . . . . beliistus 

mi. Abdomen and base of hind wing's not 
s;dmon -pink, 
o. Wings subh valine. 

p. Forewine-s yellowish - brown 

with yellow markings . . hallux 
pp. Forewings grey with yellow 

markings . . . . aurifcr 

00. Wings opa<|ne. 

<\. Fore wings oehreons brown 
with brownish -black 
markings . . . . naias 

qq. Forewings grey with 
creamy -white mark- 
ings . . . . . . geh'dus 

mm. Antennae with pectinations almost ob- 
solete goldfimhi 

bh. Caudal margin of teoumen, viewed from side, not 
evenly semi-circular in outline (owing to irregu- 
lar spines or protuberances). 
r Tegnmen with large median, usually outwardly bent 
projection or lobe. 
s. Median projection of teguroen acutely terminated, 
t. Suspensorial spine with recurved or hooked 
anterior extremity. 
ii. Suspensorial spine short . . . . rosacrus 

liu. Suspensorial spine long . . . . lurmalus 

H. Suspensorial spine without recurved ex- 
v. Tegumen armed near posterior \ 
w. Posterior portion of tegumen 
x. Only single posterior spine 
y. Posterior spine remote from 
median one. 
/. Posterior spine large . . sfrf/aits 
zz. Posterior spine x^ry 

small . . . . sparfir 

yy. Posterior spine close to 

median one . . Iocshs 

xx. Four posterior spines present occulnrfalh 
w\\. Posterior portion of tegumen lobed. 
<L Lobe large, with undulating or 
serrated margin. 
h. Tegumen with an external 

spine absent . . poettCUH 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

bb. Tegum&H with an external 

spine present .. promise u us 

an. Lobe small, with one or more 

spines . . . . . . sorrfulus 

vv. Teo'iimen not armed near posterior 

extremity . . . . . . nuptialis 

Pig. 43—53, Oxycanus. 44, 0. nitpturiix sp, now, male, Mt. Kosciusko, ventral view of 
apex of abdomen to show tegumen. 45—53. Latua of tegumen as viewed from side, anterior ex-« 
Iromity to left. 4.1, 0. nlphariias (Hayrick), Blackwood; 46, 0. good i Yl //' sp. now, M.oe; 17. 
0. Strpus sp. now, Croydon; 48, 0. xitbvafixx ("Walker), Ulverstmie ; 49, 0. lam it us sp. now. Manly; 
50, 0, spfiragidias (Meyriek), Lannceston ; 51, 0. rich nii/nni n.s (Walker), Swan River; 52 5 
0. fiiscomacvlatus (Walker), Launeeston; 53, 0. j<me*m sp, nov., Tuiiibanimba. 

Tindale -Australian Ghost Moths -7 

ss. Median projection of tog^uoexi no1 acutely termi- 
nated, hut rounded or* lohed. 
c. Median lobe of ten'itmen simple. 

d, barge post-median spine presenl < > incanuA 

'hi. Large post-median spine not present. 

i. Median lobe posteriorly directed .. Imrnardi 
K . Mediau lobe anteriorly directed . . nipkudias 
rr, Median lobft of tegumcn not simple. 

/. Serrations present on posterior 

margin of lobe . . . . flooding} 

ff. Serrations uol restricted to pos- 
terior margin of lobe . . $irpit& 

vr. Te<rumen withoul larirc median, usually oulwardly 
henf projeeliou or lobe. 
(/. Teinimen with anteriorly directed, post-suspeu 
sorial spine or |)rojee( ion. 
//. Median portion of teirumen arched. 

i, Anterior' siispensorial spine short and 

straight sulwarius 

n. Anterior spine lone; and curved .. hmniKs 

I'll. .Median portion of tej>-umeu straight .. s/tltruffirfias 

na. Palpi lone;; third Ncjnnent longer than first .. , . deternwnufm 

<>.n/<-<!Hits mam&oim* (FcMw), 0. (tcdcsimits (Turner), and 0. hiirrHs ( IMit/.ncr ) . 

Oxvcams /VTISTKALIS Walker. 

Fig, 13, 20, 54-55. 

O.ri/ranus <nist,-<i!is \Xu\kv\\ List Lep. Ins. lirit. Mus. vii, 1856, p. 1674, 
Porina cmstralis Aleyrick. Proc 3 Linn. Hoc. N.x. Wales, rv (2), 1889, p. 1121. 

£ Antennae reddish oehreous, moderate, pectinal ions :>, sel obliquely so 
that the antennae are flflneavc below. Head, thorax ami legft Jfrey; abdomen oeh- 
reous, towards hase a little mOro reddish. Korewin^s u'reyishdmowm eosta nar- 
rowly darker; a series of silvery-whit e spots over whole of whig mid a lonit'it udi- 
nal white t'nsein from b*W 1<> U- al ahout two-lhirds. 1 1 indwin^s uniformly orh 

reous, densely clothed with reddish-tinged bright oehreous hairs at base. Ex- 
pause 90 mm. 

? Anlennae oehreous. short, Feebly bidentate. Head, thorns, and apex ol* 
abdomen oehreous fawn, hase of ahdmneu dull oehreous. lA>rewini>'s with apex 

acute, pale ochreous-fawri with faint paler oehreous and grey markings somewhat 

as in male, hut larger and ohseure. 1 1 indwinti's with apex rather acute, hyaline, 
pale <rv(>\ with dense pale oehreous hairs at hase. ftxpanse KM nun. 

Records of the s.a. Museum 

l.,,r, Tasmania; Eaiffoml; kauhee&ton 3^ SbtffffrM; rjongfbrtl 4. Victoria 
(allotype female I. 18S5Q in S« Ausi. Mi^.i: Wilson Pronwnitoty 5j Brighton; 

Krwe]]; <:i|)|)sl;iii(l : MclboiTrJM 5. South Australia: Uol)«' 4; Mount Bainbier 5, 
(i. 4 J1 mules, '2 females. 

I am imklited to Air. \V H. Trims fur the MlfHIWlg cfegatdrnK 
tbt type ill the Sritiat Museum; ^Walker's typts is one of the two specimens 


Fi£. 54-5-5. frjr£CfttMU twstwlUt CW^Ikfv), 54j male, Rttbo; •"■••. ivp<'- ••« mftl<», T.-isiiiruiiu. 
( lintish Museum ( 'oIlrH ion >. 

listed . . . ^ toiler his description an p. ir>74, .-is r, rf, \\-in Pieman's Laad. Tr-- 

scntrd by 4. (J. Children. Ks<|, These 1\vo speemn-ns bear old re«/isl nit ion iium- 
1,,.,-s W.ev'48 fllM | ld.6A0*\ The type is tin* Inst named example. 

The male deSCfiWi *H on.' from Mailland. Ihe foitale is from Victoria (''X 
lmens Coil,). The Mailland esampfc Marcos very well will) lite photograph of 
tin- type and willi an example in the SFafcioflal Museum ( 'olleet ion, which was 

identified by Wnlker himself. The South Australian examples bave the hind- 
wiims sub-hyaline. With a sublerminal series of faint urey maenlae, like water 


marks, hut the toxin is not Bufflfiieiltly marked In warrant even sub-specific, sepa- 

The tatfi P. M. Littler, nl' Lamieeslojij look male examples of this species at 
lights, in May. In Tasmania a melanic form ;ilso occurs; in it the forewin<rs are 
dark brown ami (he hindwimrs a dull brown, except at base, where they are red- 
dish-oehreous. Some examples have the silvery-white marks enlarged; ill others 
they may be obsolescent. Nothing is known regarding the life history. 

(). nun'ithisiis ( KVhlrr i ha* been considered to belong to this species, but the 
differences observable in the photograph of tin 1 type | fia. 127). particularly in 
the I'orm of I lie wine;, should be sufficient to separate it. rnfortunately it has 
not been possihle to have the genitalia of this species examined; the unique type 
is in I lie Trillg collect ion. 

The figure of 0. australih ,uiven by Pfil/.nci- and (Jaedc is probably based on 
Welders 0. maculosus and does not adequately represent Ihe presnil species. 

O. (nixintlis differs from 0. dtircmptllS in the form of the antennae, which are 
concave beneath; a I'orm of the latter species resembles it in WlUg markings bill 
is structurally distinct. 

The male genitalia have the fcegiuaea evenly arched, and practically un- 
armed, except Tor several minute projections on the anterior half, the strongly 
chitini/ed portion of ihe posterior extremity of the tejnimen is not produced to 
the same degree as in (). tiimu pi u$, 

OXVCAMS D-BiEMl'TTJR ( Walker i. 

Kiir, IS. 2l s ^b-o7. 

Portnn dir&Dipttt Walker, List Lep. Ins. lint. Alus., xxxii, 1865, p. 597; 
Pormti direwpta Meyrick. Prne, Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, iv (2), 188S, p. 1121. 
I'orlnn kerslwwi Lucas, Proe. Ijinn. Soc. NVJ3, Wales, vi (2), 1891, p. 282< 

$ Antenmic dark reddish-oehreous, moderate, ]>ect inat ions :>. conspicuous 
apical t lifts present, smaller paired projeetions also present at base of each seg- 
ment : head, thorax, and leji's dark chocolate brown, above with a jrreyish tin^e; 
,ii"|,,ineii salmon-pink, base and apex slightly darker. Forew in<rs with costal 
margin narrowly dark chocolate-brow u, irround colour mixed reddish-oehreous 
and ehoeolale-brown j a transverse white faseia from eosta at :; ,ths to hind mar- 
gin, a while streak from base to meet a broad terminal white suffusion ; hind iimr- 
gill rather broadly suffused with irrey scales; there arc two silvery-white sub- 
costal marks. Uindwiims salmon-pink with traces of darker scales in an area 
near hind margin. Expanse 76 mm. 

9 Anlennac reddish-oehreous. short, feebly bidentate; head and 1 borax 
chocolate-brown with a grey tin^c; abdomen salmon-pink, at apex dull brown 


\<\ ■ < M'i> Q] THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Forewings chocolate-brown with n white I'nsciM from base to one half ternxen, aiul 
liraces of dark grey markings in outer tftivcL lliiuhvinirs bright nalmon-pink, 
Expanse 110 nun. 

Ijh-. Victoria: ftfoe I ( topol \'pr male April ITili, 1934, nnd allotype female 
April 25th, 1932, ('. (.i. L. Gooding [. 18851 in s. Aust. Mus.) ; Gisbome 3, 5; 

I v im. (36 •">"■ O.rfinnui.s 'tin mpt Uii :'\\;ill,''i I, 50, CM"'- ;| 'Ufllc, Rlifltlitnil A us' I'M li:« : -"7. allft- 
tvpr lVm;il<\ MOP. 

Toohu),i>i I; llcMlcsvilh- 5; ReacousfleKI 4, r> ; Ferntree Cully 4. /. k&nhaw, Kl- 

tliani; Moe -L 5. 41. males, Hi tY-males. 

The lype, which is in !he British Museum, Ims been figured. Tilt" example 

described above was selected from many examples taken ai Moo. because of its 

close resemblance in detail to the type specimen. The allotype female, described 
above, is mIso from Moe. 

TlNDAI ..K— Al.'STIvALIAN (,1H>M Mollis 

The locality of Walkers type is uiven as "Sfltttll AttSl ralia ". which was 
prohabl) used, as in other eamss, in Kfep sense u Southern Australia" The species 
is not known in tmr State, and I therefore tjofuinafe Aloe, in Victoria, as the type 

locality This species !& allied lo (). aiisini/is. from which it dill'ers markedly ill 
the structure of the antennae, aild to a lessor degree in the male genitalia; The 
peetinal'mns of I he antennae are so set upon I lie geginonl that ihcy do not form .1 
concavity mi the lower surface, i.e. thee are transversa in Q, austruttH tliey are 
Hlil a1 8C bbhlHti aiiL-Ir, iorjniiiiz* in I lie aggregate a well-marked inferior grOOYB. 

Nome examples aiv superficially (lifiiciih to separate from o. mixiiulh owing to die 

marked resemblance iii whig pattern. The ft. aitstrn.Hs like examples may be 
kllQWll as O. flirt mptu* f. Jt'erkhnyn (Lueas). This form occurs in Hie same locali- 
ties .-is the typical one, and bo1 h may be obtained out of pupae emerging from 
belieftth the wnie I tree ; it fe therefore not a iroouraphioal race. Structurally the 
specimens. ;n-c ihe same as ft; <l in m />/ hs examples, and are 1luis readily di.-.i in- 
^nishable from ft (imtrtitk, Inieas's type specimen of this form is from Kllham 
1 I. JR8S2 in S. Ansi. Mas.). 

The male genitalia differ from those of f). ttmtntlu in the n-reater prolonga- 
tion of the posterior extremity of the lee-nmen. This ha> ihe iiuii^im evenly 
tuirvcd afld devoid of armature. 

The larvae feed on the mols of wattles \ Aniria liaititi/aim and A, prOiUHWl 
hcus\. and fn.nn (heir ahimdfi nee must seriously affect Ihe urowlh of these trees. 
On April 1:0th. l!);U). Mr. (\ G, L. Qoociing obtained freshly-emerged moths, erupt} 
l)iipal shells, and many loOtfG wine.s (y£ both sexes of tin- ft. rtivt'tuptU* «1 Moo. Many 
Of the newly-emeruvd moths had beeil preyed ElJlOU bj f £oy$, e&pPClti lly Ihjhi , wiltyi 
var. m/lisri/isiuui LymmdyWt&h$ (l&Wllk var. <!i<unnii. Tile pupal shells, whieh 
are pale easianeoii^brown. vary in lenirlh trtim 14-48 mm. ( males 1, and fm,,, 
o.Vbt) mm. (females) ; they indicate that the pupa was relatively shori and stout. 
The mask bears pa-red siibmodian blnnl-pointed facial protuberances, a median 
hnecal eminence, aild at the base of rhe anlennal sheath there arc 1 wo stonl 
heavily ehitmi/ed spines, internal to which there is a small rounded eminence 
bearing a pair n( long line sensitive setae: oilier viae occur at the base of the 
buccal portion n[ the mask. 

Mr. Hi Gt>odlnj* has taken several pairs ;n MUO nn a dil'ferenl site from thai 
where Mr. ('. (1. L. (loading has captured SO many examples. They show marked 
variation fnnu Ihe normal form. There are also some specimens before me from 
Woodford, in \e\\ SOtttfi Wales, which may belon- to this speeios. but Ihcy ftp. 
pear to be aberrant in colour and markings. 

The finiire by IMitzner and (iaedr (in Sedz. Macrolepidoptora x. 1033, pi. 7(id ) 
under this name does not represent the specie*. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


Fig, 22, 58-59. 

$ Antennae reddish-ochreous, moderate, pectinations stout, 2; head, thorax, 
and forelegs greyish-fawn, abdomen reddish-ochreous. Forewings reddish-och- 
reous with paler suffusions and dark brown markings; two large dark-brown- 

W 5 9 

Fig. 58-59. O.ri/rtniit.s ini I cflioitsri sp. now 58, typo, a male, Wentworth Falls; 59, allotype 
female, Killara. 

margined silvery -white spots hot ween r-m vein and base; a series of dumb-bell- 
shaped brown marks parallel to term-en, each with a pair of dull white centres. 
Ilindwings bright reddish-ochreous, densely clothed with hair at base. Expanse 
82 mm. 

9 Antennae reddish-ochreous, short, feebly bipectinate; head and thorax 
pale chocolate-brown, abdomen pale reddish-ochreous. Forewings reddish-och- 

TlNDALK -Al . STKAI.l AN &HOS? Mollis 2§3 

reous, with paler suffusions on outer third, inner mftrgfrl broadly suffused with 
j>ale chocolate-brown, a silvery-while spot a1 r-ni vein. I findw iiurs uniformly 
reddish-ochreous. Expanse 116 nun. 

I. or. N.X. Wales: Wentworth Palis u (type, a male. I. L88j3 in s. Aust. 
Mus.); Killara j>, 6 (Gr. A. \Yaterhniise allotype female I. 18854); BlittQgonjK I; 
Koseville r>; Blaekheatb \ liohertson I. Queensland: stauthorpe. 9 males, 2 

The pair of Urge white marks on forcwin^s is a coinparat ively i-cmstM n1 toa 
lure, 1 races of whieh are also present in ill" female. OeeaSlOlial examples of 0. 

dirt hi />i '--us approach ihis species in apiYesranee bu1 the genitalia of ihe male arc 

There are several undescribed specimens in our collection kYoin localities in 
(Queensland and New South Wales, whieh arc quite ^lifterunl from ihis species in 
general appea ranee and yet have very similar structural characters in ihe geni- 
talia. When further Material is available it will pmkihh he IVmiikI I hat Ihey 
include several distinct species. 


Fie;. 28, hO-hl. 

Antennae reddish-ochreous. rather short, peel iuat ions sioui, closely set, 
1 1 ; head and 1 borax dark <m i y ; abdomen reddish ochrcous. at apes paler. Fnre 
VVJllgS pate reddish-orhrooiis with traces of darker markings, a silvery-while fas- 
cia from base to termen, and a I >r< »ni 1 transverse whitish suffusion. 1 1 iudwinus 
reddish-ochreous, rather hairy at base. Expanse SO mm. 

V Antennae reddish-ochreous. siender, ohsolelely hidentate; head and tho- 
rax pale chocolate-hrown ; ahdomen reddish -ochrcous, Kore\\ine> pale ivddish- 

ochreous with traces of darker markings and of a wbite^peittred brown mark at 

r-in vein; inner margin clothed wit h chneolatcdmow n scales, llindwiims suhhya- 
line, pale reddish-ochreous, densely clolhed with reddish-ochreous liairs ai has-. 
ftxpanse 106 mm. 

Lor. Victoria: Kiddell 4: Ullham | t J pe a male. W. \V. Smiih, !. 18853 m S. 
Aust. Mus.); Wooryallock 4 ^allotype female, April 10. IDiM. L. \\. Thorn. 1. 
L88S6 in S. Aust. Mus. i ; flealesville I ; Gisbome I ; 7 males. 2 females. 

The male figured is a paratype; the female is tie allotype. This speeies is 
closely allied to Q, J m nn pi its, from which it differs in ihe winji iiiarkinu-- and in 
the form of Ihe leuaimen of the male. A male example labelled '"Koseville. X.S. 
Wales" i'X Lower collection, probably belongs to this species, bill there may have 
hern some mislake in the labelling. 


Records o$ the S.A. Museum 

Fig. «>ll-(>l. O.rjicaii tin li/flli sp. tlOV. <><>. |>;i ral vp- mule, RirMHI; 61, :i 1 1«»1 \ pe lVm;il<\ W'ni.ri 


( teVCANUS irscoMAcri.A'n's Walker. 
Fig, 52, 62-65. 
Oxyrwnus fuscomucifJatuH Walker, Lisl Lap. Ins. Lirit, Mns„ vii, l sr><;. p. 1574. 

O.ri/caiins ixiniitfhnis Walker, /.<•., xxxii. 1865, p. 598. 

PoriiHi fi(sf(iin<tcitl<ihi Meyrick, Proc. Linn. Soe. X.S. Wales, iv (2), 1SS!), p. 1120. 
Poriiui fuscoiiKicK/dhf IMHzner and (hmde, Sciiz Macrolep., x, 1938, p. 889. 
O.rifciiniis fiiscoiiHicvfulits Kx^v Ann. Knl. Soe. Amer. xvii, 1924, p. 305, 

& Antennae bright yellow, ample, pectinations long and slender, ~>; head 
and thorax (lark brown, abdomen slbjhlly paler. Korcwinjis dark bi-ovvn, with 
sonic pah' yellow scales and darker brown markings, a snbrectan^'nlar black spot 
hall' way belweon r-ni vein and base. ilindwini»'s snbhyalme, with apical half 
pale tfvry, al wins and margins darker, basal hall' pale orange yellow. Expanse 
7:> inni. 



9 Antennae short, peetirmlioiis 1: hRAfl, lli'inix, and ftbdftlltetl rnther uni- 
form!) <rreyishd)rown, win^s hy;din<\ irtvyish-bmwii ; i r;i<-rs pf ; , darker nmrk al 
i'-iu vein. Exp*mse 78 ram; 

Coa Ww South Wales- Litligcrw .1 Vietoria: CtoyftM 5i (i ; liox Hill 5; 
Mooney (iMp; Pakenham ; (iisborne 4, :.. 6; Evelyn I); lieneonsiirld Q> Lowrr 
hYrntree (Jiilly l> : Marodon L 3 ; Hawthorn 5 : Wandin .") ; \arnar<>non ; Mm- 5, 
<); Cunnfllglumi 0] Melbourne; I'.ahvyn M, Tasmania : Uofadp 6; Sandi'ord : Laun- 
eeston 5j Piper River, South Australia: IVnola 5- Yahl :>, II; All. Camber ; 
Mor&cfc. Western Australia: Qtiuiradiiig. -72 males. j*J fem$W. 

Fig. (ili -<>... O.rt/nhi.ts f-twtwwenUltU* ( WjiHm-i-';. Ij2, type, ; ( nililt* (British Museum Oul 

l,rr '"' 1 ); (i;! - malt*, Bmitlieni Australia ("tyjx* nf ptrftfothUM walker* [vi I'.ntish Musuuoj C'oJfce- 

turn I | "i I. m.ilc, Mm-: ('..1. iVuaili . Moo. 

The tifc&eribed examples an a I'mm M-h-. they differ fi*<mi the figure (>t (he type 

Form in th<! presenee of the yellowish suffusion on ahlltftUCtl and base of hindwinLrs 
(I. ISSoT in S. Aiisl. .\lii\i, This is a widely-spread and variable speeies. The 
type of 0- ixirthil'nnis Walker is staled \\\ be l'rom "South A list ralia *' ; this riieajls 
"Southern Australia' \ Bewrfl] (ftjogi-ttpfrta raees should he distinguishable when 
more systematie eolleelin- 1ms been don,.. n nd tie- fryjjv loenlily sat isV;ii-toril\- «•> 

Ale. Iv <iuest had two pnpa*J brought to Killl in April, IS! Mi; they had been 


Records of the S.A. Miskum 

found by a person digging potatoes at Mora* (W't (JamVer). They tmifej-gecl in 

May ; one proved t<> b< 1 a female. The pupa is wry Long and aetive, yellow, with 
head region and wittg eases nearly black. The larva lias beefi blamed for hollow- 
ing out potatoes in the field, A female was taken by the bite .Mr. A. M. bt^ a) 

Piper^ River, Tasmania; it was attraeted to lights 

Oxvr.wrs I'F.uihtis sp. nov. 

Wig. 24, 66i 

g Antennae ochreoiis. pectinations 2\ l only partly preserved). Head and 
thorax dark brown, abdomen salmon pink, Korewin-s rather uniformly dltll 
hrowii, with eos1;i a little darker, a series of grej ish ■ wliil 6 marks, an inverted I. 
shaped mir al r-m vein, a series of four t'onninjr a linear series aeross middle <>!' 

Pig. r,c. Oxyeutim uprUUm sp, nov. tjrp©i ei rnftle, W i A.iistj*ftlia.. 

wine; from M, to Cu-ii,: a snhterminal scries of six smaller ones and i'onr irregu- 
larly shaped ones in region of the radial veins; ciliae eoncolorons with wind's. 
IJindwiniis pale hrown with basal third pink, densely clothed with salmon pink 
hairs. Expanse 67 mm. 

Lor, Western Australia (1ypt\ a maie, 1. 1SS5S in S. Ansl. Mus.i, 1 male. 

The only specimen was obtained, withoiil data. From a collection original iiili 
in South-Western Australia. The smooth semi circular margin to the 1e.u'umen of 
the male genitalia a1 onee dist burnishes it from all its conveners. In general ap- 
pearance it seems to be close 1o aberrant specimens flf O. sonlniiis, frOJil which 
it differs widely in the form of the penmen of (he male genitalia. The salmon 
pink base to the hindwin^s is eharacterisl ic of many species of the irenns. 

Tindale— Australian Ghost Moths 297 


Fig, 53. 67-69, 

Antennae bright oebreous, moderate, pectinations Long, slender, 5« head 
and thorax dark greyish-brown ; abdomen paler, lA>rewini>s dark greyish-brown 
with obscure palehes of paler brown scales embracing I races of dark brownish- 
blaek markings | in some varietal specimens several of these are more defined, and 
contain dull while noelll). Ilin<!wiu»\s sui>h\ ;j I i im . dull greyish-bl'OWn, base (lull 
ochreaus. Expanse 66 mm. 

ruuilKirimilKi : <i!J, all..( yyn- fenmle, Tiimki nimb.-i. 

9 Antennae o.-hremis, short, feebly bipeel 'mate. Head, thorax, and abdo- 
men |)ale greyish-brown. Forewiims greyish-brown with obscure darker grey 
markings; I wo well deiined dull black marks between r-m vein and base. Hiud- 
winos o Trv Jsh brown, base slightly browner. Kxpanse S!> mui. 

Lor. a\\S. Wales: Tumbjirumba o . May 21. l#2J>, R, -I. Tilly;, rd, |ype a male, 
.iiid allotype female, I. 18859 in s. Aust. Aliis.). 11 males. 4 females. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

This species is allied to 0. fweowiaeulatus, from which the male differs in 
the positions of the obscure wing markings, in the occasional presence of a large 
white ocellate mark internal to the radio-median cross vein (fig. 68), and in the 
very different tegumen, which has a long narrow suspensorial process and a ser- 
rated margin. Most of the known examples were taken on the one evening. No- 
thing has been reported regarding its life history. 


Fig. 25, 70-72. 

$ Antennae bright yellow, pectinations •>; head above dull brown, beneath 
blaekisli-broAvn; palpi short, erect, dark brown, thorax dull greyish-brown, abdo- 
men somewhat paler oehreous. Forewings dull greyish-brown with numerous 
pale oehreous or dull white marks, each containing one or at most two greyish- 
brown spots. II indwings greyish-brown, base clothed with dense but short och- 
reous-brown hair, ciliae coneolorons. Expanse 67 mm. 

Loo. New South Wales: Canberra 6 (June 5, 11)21), G. A. Waterhouse, type 
a male, I. 18B60 in 8. Aust. Mus.) ; .Jenolan Caves (5. Victoria : Seymour 6. 20 

Fig. 70-7. M >. ().>i/c<i a u.s silvanttia sp. now 70, type, ;i male, Canberra ; 71, male, Jenolan Caves; 
72, male, Seymour; 7;'», Qssycawux c<iru.s sp. now, type, a male, Armidale. 

Tin-dale- Australian Ghost Moths 299 

This species is either somewhat variable or separations h^sed on the eharac- 

iers of I lie male tegusign are insufficient. A series of ten males taken will! the 
1ype show a I ram-dtion towards the form shown in Rg, 72, from Beymtiur, in whieh 
the forewfrlg markings are obsolete and the hindwin<rs are broadly pale reddish- 
ochreons. Two unrealized speeimens from the -I. Hopson Collect ion possess a 
iar<ro radio-median white s|>ot, and a second one or traees of one ahulil half way 
to base. The next species possesses v^vy similar genitalia, but differ* in wing 
form and disposition of the markings. The le^iimen usually bears four spinas 
on I he anterior portion of the martrin. 

OXY«'A\ T rs CAKl'S sp. nov. 

Fi- 73, 

Antennae pah/ yellow, ample, pectinations long, slender, pubescent, -I: 
head and ihorax ]>ale fawn, abdomen paie reddish-oehreniis. Korewin^s pale 
brown, with pale yellow suffused areas around brown markings. Ilindwinirs pale 
reddish-oehr.'ons, tending: lo pale yellow, Expanse ( s:} mm. 

Lav, New South Wales: Armidale (April 1928, type, a male, I. 18861 in 
S. An.sK Alns. i. Queensland: Stanlhorpe; 2 males. 

The Irij-nmen of I his species, which was recognized after Hie key had been 
eompleted. is similar to that of Q. silruiuts, from W'hich it is distinct in the form 
of the W'illgs; ami in details of the disposition of the Wing markings. It is also 
allied lo () Innlus, in which the markings are more symmetrically arranged. The 
Shniihnrpr example IS smaller (73 mm.) and the hindwin^ is lemon yellow, ex- 
eepl al base, which is bright ochreons, and coneolorous with the abdomen. 

Ox wants n i:n*i)i s sp. nov. 

Fig. 26, 74-75, 

Aolennae pah- fawn, rather long, pectinations lon^, pnbeseent. $• head 
;mmI ihnr,i\ p.-il<- f.'iwn. abdomen oehreous with a faintly pink tinge-, Korewm-s 
pale fawn, with Ihree transverse series of regularly arranged fawn spots, sur- 
rounded by pale ochreons. Hindu iggs |>ale odin-ons, at base with a pink tinge. 
Expanse 76 mm. 

? Antennae pah' oehremis, short, bipoothniie, 1 ; head, thorax, and apex of 
abdomen pale fawn, base of abdomen paie ochreons. Ko rewinds pah' ochreons 
with a faini irregular iirry suffusion near apex and alpng inner margin. Ilind- 
WingH pale fawn with basal portion broadly pale ochreons. Expanse !Mi mm. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

hoc. New South Wales: Armidale (June I. 1927. II. E. Btopteti, type, a 
male, and allotype female, I. ls8(i*J in s. Ausi. Mm). 1 mah\ 1 female. 

This Species emerges about two months after 0. ranis, to which it is closely 
allied. It differs from both 0. earns and 0. sileaiuis in the more regular arran<je- 
Jiient of the markings on the forewinjrs. The anterior portion of the te^uneoi of 
the male genitalia hears about eight spines. 


T y 


..,.■■>■■■■-'■ ■:: 




Fig, 74-7;"). O.rtfrauus hrnhts s|». n<'\ . , I, |\j,.. , a nurfft Anui.lal. : 7."., allotype rVni:ili\ 

OXYCANTJS i'.i'-i/risTrs | 'Turner | . 

Fig. 27, 7(>. 

I'orina bdlisla Turner, Trans. Hoy. Soe. S. Ausi., I. 1926, p. 153. 

6 Antennae reddish-oehrcous, moderate, ped inal ions short, sloul. 1-1',; 
apex Of each pectination with large tllfl Of eiliae; head and thorax oehrooiis- 
brown; abdomen pale nn\, Korewin«>s nehreous-browii. slightly darker towards 
base, costa sull'iiscd wilh darker brown from base to %vd*\ traces of obscure 
brownish spots and suffusions towards apex. Uiudwin^s along C0St* Wld hind 
margin pale red, tending to pink, brighter near base, centre of tiring obscurely 

Tindale— Australian Ghost Moths 


ringed with grey, apex tinned w i 1 1 1 ochrcous; eilia<* ochreous: wings beneath red- 

dish-ochreous, Ivxpanse 100 nun. 

Lnr. Queensland : Mount Sfeho (May 27, 1928, type, a male, in TurmT 
Collection) ; niackbufl 4. a males. 

The Ihree examples under .•xaininai ion differ eonsiderahly IVoni r;tcli other 
in the niavkbs^N of the fottBttittgl*. Further imperial may show thai tin* lUackhult 
examples arc hot cnnspecifie with the type from Ml. Who (which is near 1 Wis- 

bane). The above description, eflfcep! fOa" thai of the antennae and dead, appliws 
particularly to the type example, ra which the head is wanting. In one niackbutt 

i-'i-. 7tf. QsycuMtbiltMyfi [Tamer), tvjju, a m&Uv hi»ari mutilated, Mi. nvi,,,. 

example there is a white fasria from base to A teniien, where it becomes diffused. 
The hindwiims an- pah' oehreQUS, tinged with salmon-pink. In the other the forc- 
wiims an- dark brown, i J i . • fascia is absent, and i here are two larjre conspicuous 
silvery-white spots in disc; the inner one rectangular and enclosing a dark spot; 
tlld liindv in^s have ,-i grey sullusion as in the type example. 

Tin* members of I his and ihe Five succeeding species an- related by ihe form 
of Ihe IcnimiinaJ margin of the male genitalia, which hears a series of lame spines. 
These do ttOl vary .ureal ly in Ihe species. The antennae dlfffeu markedly in the 
degree Of pectination in the different species, and 1hc form of (he wfcttg ami the 
markings appear to yield excellent specific characters. All the species are rare, 
and appeal* to he restricted to the various sub tropical Forast or "brush" areas in 
\'ew South Wales and Southern (Queensland; no female examples have yet been 
taken, and there are doubtless species still lo be discovered. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Oy e i'alux sp. nor, 

Fig. 28, 77. 

;" Antennae reddish-oehreons, short, feebly bipectinate, 1-1 1; head and 
thorax pale oehreonsdjrown, abdomen dark chocolate-brown, apes with a pale 
brown tuft. Forewings pale oehreous-brown wiili obsrnre darker, transversa 
suffused marks al one-half and near termen: brown-margined yellow spots below 
8s and M, veins; a slightly larger one at r-m vein and nnoiber. still Larger, half- 

Fig. 77. O.rj/rtliiHs hil/hlX Sp. HOV-. tyjfe, 9 male, DOrrigO* 

way to base. GUndmngS snbdiyaline. dark ehoeolated)rown, eosla narrowly oeh- 
i-.mmis. Expanse 90 nun. 

Lot:. New South Wales; DorrigO ( l\. -I. Tillyard ,*x. Lower Collection, type. 

a nude, I. 18863 in S. Aust. Mils.). 1 mate. 

Allied to (>, (ir/idus, from which it diiTers in ih.> form of the scales of the 
forewinirs, whieh are narrower and more widely-Spaced, giving the wings a Ins- 
Irons appearance. The tegumen of the male genitalia is of much more fragile 
appearance, with Larger spines, and a rhitinized margin narrower Iban in any of 

the other members of the 0. beltistm group, 


Pig. 29, 78. 

Antennae reddish-o.-hreons, [oug, bipeetinate, 2; head and thorax *>reyisli 
lawn, abdomen paler fawn. ForewingS snbfaleate at apex, greyish brown with 

Tindale — Australian Ghost Moths 


numerous faint hour-glass-shaped pale marks, and obscure paired dark brown 
spots with obscure ochreous centres; a larger yellow spot at r-m vein, and another 
half-way to base, also a few scattered smaller ones in discal region of wing; a 
series of dull golden-yellow blotches grouped about the base of wing. Ilindwings 
hyaline, dull greyish-brown. Expanse 98 mm. 

Fig. 78. Oxycan Us aurifc.r sp. now, type, a male, Dorrigo. 

Loc. New South Wales: Dorrigo (E. J. Tillyard, ex Lower Collection, type, 
;i male, I. 18864 in S. Aust. Mus.). 1 male. 

The antenna! pectinations are more developed than in 0. hallux; it differs 
from 0. getidus in the form of the wings, in their sub-hyaline texture, and in the 
positions of the markings. The dull golden-yellow areas grouped about the base 
of the forewings should be distinctive. 


Fig. 30, 79. 

6 Antennae reddish-ochreous, short, pectinations short and stout, H ; head 
and thorax reddish-brown, abdomen dark brown. Forewing uniformly reddish- 
brow i) with small brownish-black markings. Ilindwings dark brown, concolorous 
with abdomen; apex, termen, and veins narrowly tinged with reddish-brown. 
Expanse 103 mm. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fig. 79. Oxyeanus unias sp. nqv., type, a male, Werttworth Falls. 

Log. New South Wales: Wentworth Palls 4 (April 3 5 1915, type, a male, I. 
]X*6<) in S. Aust. Mas.) • Armidale 5; Newcastle; Dorrigo, Queensland : Gympie. 
8 males. 

The eight specimens examined are variable in the degree of development of 
the markings. A second example from Wentworth Falls has a cliseoidal dark 
brown suffusion on the fbrewioga and two rather large white-centred black Spots 
between radio-median vein and base. 

Fig. SO. Ox nee mis f/clidii.s sp. nnv.. type, a male, Armidale 

Tindale— Australian Ghost Moths 305 

Oxvc.wiTs <;i:umts Sp ; imv. 

Pig; 31, 80. 

An I mime ochreous, short, peel inat ions short, stout. 1-1 j ; head and ihorax 
|>ale <rrr\ i:ii t'nwn. abdomen fawn. Korewin<rs opaque, greyish-brown, <\ur to a 
iiiixfinv of dark brown and creamy-iiTey seniles: a semi-Circular area parallel lo 

tenww warm brown, with series of paired darker spots and a broad darker btowu 
marginal band; traces oi a series of traii&v&rse preamy-white spots in outer por- 
tion of wing, and two larger ours, one a1 r-iu vein and another half-way from 
there to base. Hiridwings very pale ehocolate-hrpwn; Expanse 94 mm . 

/.or. Ww Somli Wales.- Armidalc 5 ( May. IB28, type, a male, 1. 18866 '»' 
S. Ansl. Mus. ) ; Dm-rin'o; 3 males. 

Allied to 0, hal/it.r. from which il diflVr.s in the broader, more closrly-s.M 

wing tscalcft, which give ihe wm.srs n dull frosted appfearance, and in the subfal 
cate a piers t;o forewings. 

OxYi'AM -s GOLDFINCH] sp. nov. 

Pig. 32, BL 

Anit'iiiiMc short, slender. weaJrtj btp&Ctinate, t\ head and thorax warm 
l»rown, abdomen dark ehoeohite-brown, apex with a paler «ireyish-bro\\ n in It. 

I'i- si. <)j\>tr<i,>,is f/olfi^chi ?\>. nnv., \y\it', ;\ innlc, WrnhvHrili Palls, 


Knivw'niji's with apes KilbfaldatG, ochreou<-brown, with traces of dark In-own suf- 
fusions a1 and near apex: ;i Se mi-lunale silvery-white mark at r-m vein, ami an- 
other small circular one more than half way to h&Sf: Ilindwillgti dark Ghoculatc* 
brown, slightly paler at base and near apex, Kxpanse 106 una. 

Lfl*. New South Wales: AVenfworth Falls 5 (May 1, 1927, (J. M. Oolflfiixch, 
type a male, I. 18867 in S. Ansj. Mns. ) ; Normanhurst 5-j Killara f>. 4 males. 

Thia HpCOiOH was takell al Went worth Falls on flie same dale as an example 
of 0. naia&y from which it is distinct in the form of the antennae and in the form, 
eolnnr, and markings of the wmsrs. Fxamplcs vary from 86 to 118 nun. in e\ 
pause, and t lie colour of the forewin^s ranges from a warm brown to a dark rhoco- 
lale brown, with mottled markings; the new -moon-shaped white mark on the Pore* 
winirs is a rather constant feature. The slightly eoneave interior portion of the 
margin to the tc«runicn is characteristic. This was not considered siillieient ly 
marked to w'Arranl its displacement from Wh$-1 otherwise appeal's f<> be its natural 
place in the key. 

OXYCAXUS ia»s.\r|.;us sp. imv. 

Fitr. 33, S2 -83, 

6 Antennae nehreous, moderately long, pect i nations short, U; head and 
thorax oehreons-brown, abdomen pink, apex with an oehreons tinge* Forewin^rs 
oehreons brown, basal part of cjpsta darker: a briirht oehreons suffusion in basal 
fourth, not extending to base; a series of obscure <nvy i si u brown spots, the larger 
ones with a few silvery-while scales, forming ocelli; an angled grey ish-brown 
suffusion from near apex to It-. Iliinlwiiisrs ochrcous-bruw n ; veins and margins 
reddish-ochrcous. base densely clothed with bright pink down. Expanse 75 mm. 

9 Antennae ochivous. short, pectinations almost obsolete, | ; head, thorax. 
anterior, and median legs, and apex of abdomen pale oehreons brow n ; base ol 
abdomen bright salmon-pink, Porewuiga Rubtayaliue, uniformly pale oehreons 
brown. Jlindwin^s hyaline, <rreyish-brown, costal margin, base of wiiij^', and 
veins pink; a lartje circular dark ltpwisIi browui suffusion near base. Expanse 
113 mm. 

!.<><• Victoria: Aloe 4, 5 (April 29, 1922, D. (>. Ut Gfooding 1 type, a male, and 

allotype female, I, 18868 ID & Aust. Mils. ). New South Wales: All. Kosciusko 
(oJK)D fl. ) -\. 10 males, 3 fc.imlrs. 

one female apeeimeri taki'n on the same evening as the type pair is smaller. 

97 mm. in expanse, and has tin 1 forewin^s marked as in the male, the hindw in^s, 
however, ace the same as in the allotype. A third example resembles the first in 
si/e and in the absence of markings m, ihc fnrewings. 



The male genitalia have a well-marked median spine on \\\r irLrtmicn and ft 
moderate anterior (suspensorial) spine which is benl outwards at the apex, bu'l 

it is U<?i£her so long nor so well [looked as in the next species, (). Iianmt us. from 
which it is otherwise quite distinct in colour and markings. 

Ifig. 82 S3., iln/nunis vqwm "••• sp. uoy. 82, fypr, a mak?, Mui? : 85, alluto pr tVmnlc, M 


Fig, :J4 7 B4-8& 

o Antennae pale reddish-ochreons, pectinations slender. 2-2£, a short basal 
projcctioii to each gegme&t. Eiead and thorax dark reddish ocluvniis, abdomen 
|)ah-r. Fnrewinjrs brigJlt reddish-ochrcous, costal margin narrowly darker; an 
ocellus at r m vein dull white Pinged with black; traces of dark brown spots ar 

Records ov the s.a. Museum 

ranged in three transverse series; a larger obscure sppi npar inner margin, at 
one-half. Qixuhvingu bright (Hjkuwus, basal hairs Ltfrgelj restricted to costal 
margin. Expanse 87 mm. 

hoc, New South Wales: J.Tvis liny .1. 6 (June 8, l'M\ type, a male, 1. 18S69 
in s. Aust. Mns.). 2 males. 

A paratype example (fig. 85) in Di*. A. J. Turner's collection is smaller ("73 
nun. in expanse), and lacks the small ohsenre (hi rk markings on the £0rewill£s^ 
the ocellus is silvery-white, ami there is a trace of another smaller one luilt'-w.-n 

< iw. si >."». (faycamift hamate *i>. iwv; 84, typo? :l ">-'nv. .hrvis- Bay; s;.. male. Jems Ba.v. 
!(. (he liase of the wine;. The tony lioolc-like sunpenssoriaJ process is n abaractei*- 

isiie of ihe genitalia (.1* llie species. 

In genital characters Hiis aperies is nearest to 0.. xtrlltxm and i" 0. rrwtpux; 
from the former it differs in the prolongation of the anterior process of the tegn- 

itmi. The Mispensorial process is nrneh longer than in O r0W('CU$< and Ihe ape* 
is mneh hhhv strongly recurved. From (). ro^irrns il also differs markedly in 

the absence oi ihe rdseHSoitfured suffusion at base of wings; the rather uniform 

reddish-ochreons enhmi- ot lie' body ami win^s is (lis! i net i\ <\ 

Uxycanus s' sp. nov 
Kiir. :;:,, 86-88. 

43 ■ < 

3 Antennae nchreons. pectinations short, 1-1.1. sloiil, a well-marked pair of 
|)asa1 processes lo each segment ; lend nod lliorax I now n ; abdomen rose- pink, 
densely clothed with pink down. Korrwin«rs greyish I irnwn, coslal third with ji 
bright reddish oehreeus siifVusinii. cosh, from hase almost lo one-lmll' dark brOWtt, region with many silvery-w mile spols, margined with dark hrowm the 

TiNDALE— Australian Ghost Moths 


oilier ones arranged in two irregular series parallel to tennen : a series of small 

terminal silvery spots; eiliae red<li>b-oehreoiis. llindwinirs pale reddisli-orinv-Hi-,. 

base rose-pink. Wings beneath with base rose-pink, emieoloroiis with abdomen* 76 linn. 

Figr, si; -ss. (hrpcaii im Ht //"'<>■■ sp. hoy. Be, marie, windy, Waitflin j 87, type, A nialC j , < topk&tmj 

NS, aJI<itYjH< frnuoV, ( <t<*k;iloo. 

9 Anlennae OellteOUS, peel in;il ions ill most obsolete, bead and Hiorax pale 

Fawn, abdomen oehreous. Forewings pnle fawn, with traces of an obscure white 
fascia from ba«e t<> aboul % tenneiL; a few brown subcostal marking near apex. 

Ilindwin^s pale oebreons. slightly brighter near base WJn^s below bright ouhre- 

ous, near tennen <>!' Eorewing obscurely darkened. Expanse 99 nun. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Log. Victoria: Cockatoo 5 ( 'May 5, 1924, G. F\ Hill, type, a male, and allo- 
type female, I. 18870 in 8. Aust. Mns.); Wamlin 5j Croydon i ; Beaeon&jfield 4. 
11 males, 2 females. 

This is one of the most pleasing of the new species of Qzycanus. Although 
the type pair do not resemble each other very closely the fact that Mr. Hill took 
them both on the same Evening and at the same place seems sufficient just ifical ion 
for their association. The male genitalia bear a single posterior process on the 

tegumen, which does not appear to rise from a Lobe or eminence, and is remote 
from the median spine; il is ihns dislinct IVum O. Sordid us, from which h is also 
quite distinct in markings ami general appearance. Some specimens have the 
silvery -white markings reduced in size ;md the t'orcwin<is with an ochreoiis suf- 
fusion, as in the example shown in li^'. 86, 

OwrANUs SPADES sp. now 

Fig. 86, 89. 

Antennae bright yellow, lomj;. pectinations short, slender, set rather 
widely apart, 1 ; head and thorax reddishdnnwu. abdomen fawn. Forewin^s 
reddish-brown with costa, at base, and a rather \)vai\<\ snbterminal area, dark 
brown with series of black spots surrounded fry reddish-brown, a few of ihem 
With minnte reddish-brown cent res; a pair of small dnll white spots; margined 
with dark brown, at r-m vein. HilldmngS dark fawn, cost a narrowly ochrcons- 
brown ; a small tuft of dnll civamy-w hite hairs, tinned with pink, alon^ posterior 
margin. Expanse fi6 mm. 

Pig. 89, Oxgcmus spadix sp. nov,, type, s male, Blaeklu*atli. 

Tindale — Australian Ghost Moths 


Lo<\ New South Wales ; lUaekheatli 2, 12 (February 15th, 1922, B: W. Fer- 
guson, type, a male, I. 18871 in S. Aust, Mus.) ; 2 males. 

In the form pf the legttmeri this species shows a close relationship with 0. 

sfdhiHs, from which it is easily distinguishable by the form of the wiims and Ihe 
entirely different scheme of markings una colour pattern, hi the second example 
Ihe paired while spois at r-m vein of Ihe Eorewiug are larger, and confluent. 

Oxycanps loekus s|). now 

Pig. M, 90-5)1. 

J Antennae ochreous, moderately long, pectinat ions 2.UM: base of each sen- 
ium) wilb a well-marked prof libera nee bearing tufts of hairs: head, thorax, and 
legs reddish-ochreous, abdomen slightly paler, with a salmon-pink tinge. Fflre- 

Pjg, 1MI-9L Ox.ijcamis husus sp. nov. 90, t.VpO, :i iiKilr, MmmIy; HI, m;il<\ Moe 

willgS uniformly bright reddish-ochreous ; a subterminal series of small greyish- 
brown spots from near apex to near inner margin, ihe subapical ones with yellow 
centres; a pair of yellow-eenl red spots at r-m vein and two others half -way from 
there to apex. J lind wind's p;de redd ish ochreous. af base salmon pink; c/iliae red- 
dish-ochreous. Kxpanse SO mm. 


Recokps of the S.A. Museum 

Loc t Nw South Wales: Monty 3 (March 28, 1911, type, a male, I. 18872 in 
S. Aust, Mus.j; Killara 5; Gtirdoa 4; Sydney;; Woodfofrd 5; Elornshy 5. Vic 

foria ; MOC 5; Anirat ; Croydon 5, 20 males. 

The second example figured (%. 91) h from Mdp, and #afl taken in April, 
h has the eosta dark brown at base and the subtermhud series of spots are absent. 

Two examples from New South Wales Ilornsby and Killara) bave the hind 
niogS suffused with dark grey, except fit base, and another ^iberranl example from 
Sydney lias tbc forewing patter? cepeated Oil tie- hindwinjr. In flic slnmlnre n\' 
Ihe tegumen this Species is nearest to Q. slclhivs, from which i1 differs in the short 

distance separating the median and posterior spines. 

Oxvcam- .1, < M>i::-.TAUs sp. now 

Pig. 38-, 92-93, 

,; Antennae yellow, pectinalions b\ slender, a pair of small elevations bear- 
ing hairs near base of each segment; head and ihorax greyish-brown, abdomen 
slightly paler. PorewingH greyLsh-teown; a series erf well-marked silvery-white 

pig. KM>3« Ox-ycmua iMxrirtciitalu sp. nnv. 92, typi , a malo, Denmark, \V. AuM.; it;;, male, 

IVrmuuk, \V. Aust. 

marks in the discal region and a series of obscure yellowish-while marks airing 
Iniiien. Hindwinii-s greyish -brown, base moderately clothed willi hairs which 
have a slightly more oehreons tinge. Expanse 61 mm. 

hoc. Western Australia: Denmark 4 (April 21, 19261 W. B. Barnard, type. 
a male. I. 188-73 in S. Aust. Mns. | ; Collie 5, 7; Lennox 5 ; ( hindei'din ; Muiidar 
trig. 11 males. 

The female of this species has imt yet been discovered. It is jnsl possible 
that the example associated, in this paper, wilh ihe next speeies may actually be 
long to this one. 

TiNDALE— Australian Ghost Moths 


The males -ire rather eonslanl \y marked, for the p'ims; in m few speeimmrs 

Hie silvery-white markings are enlarged. The male genitalia have the teirimien 

armed with m large median and four posterior spines. The Form of the teiriumm 
With its four targe posterior spines marks this speeies off from (). mpkadtati and 
f), goodingi* to which it hears n marked superficial resemblance. 

There IS a single broken and umlleseribed specimen of a speeds from Pin- 
naroo, S. Australia, ill our eolleelion, which possesses a teg'mnen somewhat of the 

type present in this species. 

UXYiANI'S I'OKTh i:s sp. imv. 

Fie;. :><). !H-!)(i. 

Aiilennae reddisli-oelireons, short, slender, peel mat ions reduced {\ 
head, thorax, and anterior and median legs, ,ir rev ish- fawn ; apex of abdomen 

I'i.l'. !M 9U, ''>., ,),,!, i, is )>.,< Hens -p. u.)\. !H. inrile, Duniunrkj W. Ans1.; 95, iM" 1 ' Jl iwalCj 

Denmark, \\\ Ausi.; !>»;, allutyjje female, Denmark, W. Aust. 

314 Records of the S.A. Mi'ski'm 

paler; base of abdomen salmon-pink. FOrewingS brown, eoslal niaJiziii from base 
to onedialf darker; an OcJoireous subcostal suffusion from onedudf to near apex; 
(fiscal regioo hrownish-oehreous; a large series of silvery-Taw n irregular mark- 
ings, outlined with dark brown; eiliae pale brown, riindwin^s pale reddish-oeh- 
reous, obscurely pale brown near apex, veins narrowly and base broadly bright 
salmon-pink; eiliae eoneolorous. Expanse 82 mm. 

9 Antennae Oebrcona, very Sbort, peetinations obsolete^ head, thorax, and 
iegH greyish-fawn, ape\ of abdomen a little paler, base of abdomen pale brownish 
oehreous. Korewinus hyaline, pale fawn with obseiire brown suffusions visible al 
eertaitt anules only; a dull white spol at r-m vein obseurely margined wftfo brown. 
Ilindwiu^s hyaline, pale fawn. Expanse 92 mm. 

lov\ Western Australia: Denmark -I (Aprd 21, 1926., W. B. Darnard, type, 
a male, and allotype female. April IS, 1926, 1. 18874 in S. Aust. Mm). S male*. 
1 female. 

The paratype male (fig, 94) is m The collection uf Mr. \V. 15. liarnanl. This 
speeies was taken on I he same day ami place a« ihe m-xl one. This ted al first to 
fhe eonelusion lhat they were llm same, bill a more eriiieal examinal ion n\' Hie 
male genitalia and a eousideral ion of ihe outstanding differences in rim winji 
pattern and eolour has yielded rnnvinrui*r evidenee of their < 1 ist "met ness. Tim 
winms in this specie^ are somewhat more ample, and fhe apex ol' forewine; im( 
i,nip. so aeule. t! has a siiperfieial resemblaneo to the Eastern Anslralian ()'. 
stclhms, from which it differs in ihe positions of Ihe markings, in (he abseime of 

the pose-pink tinge to hindvrings and abdomen, and in ihe I'orni nf the teguroen. 

Oxvewrs I'laeMis* rrs sp. uov. 
Pig. 40, <>7-!)S. 

$ Antenmie bright oehreous, peet inations short ( : i-1); head, ihorax. abdo- 
men, and legs btight reddish-oehreous. Korewinjis bright reddish-oehreous, cos 
tat margin slightly darker near base: a marked silvery-white, blaek-mar^iimd spot 
at r-m vmn; traces of two subtmTninal series of hrownish-blaek spots, three wilh 
while eenlres; a terminal series of obseure dark brown semidunafe marks; two 
ot Ihm* dark spots obseurely eenlred with white M-ales. llindwiuixs oehreous, three 
obscure dark spots near apex. Expanse 76 mm. 

Lor. Western Australia : Denmark 4 ( April 21. 1:92ft W. li. Daruard. 1ype. 
a male, I. lH77o in S. Aust. Mus. }. 2 mah>. 

It is possible rhaT 1 he female associated wilh 0, p0eii&li& may belong chlum to 
this speeies or to <). orruh nihil is. The rolour of the legs, head, and lliorax, and 

TlKDALE — Australian Ghost Moths 


ohseure tra&*ft of marks visible in Bftree aatglefs t>f Lrgftt-, ilo po1 suggest this apeciea. 

The pun-type male (fig*. 37) is iji the collection of Mr. W. I». Barnard, 

The h'uniiKii of tin- male genitalia posses**^ an external nuir^incd spine 
which is absent in 0. poetieun; the marldues of tho Eorewings are also w ttiffer- 

hlg, !»7-!is. ()jrji?M.U# fTmnisrun.s s]>. nov. in. male. Dounia ik, \V. Aust. ; 98 1 ivpc :\ mule. 
Ihmiiintk. YV. Aust. 

•Mil to those trf rliMt species, h is eeioaj-kable tba< three Sipeeies, so distincl tram 
each other, should fly ai Denmark flaring the same period, antl probably mdieatea 
thai in the districts ol' Som h Western Australia, with heavy iriiiifnll, we have q 
rich Qepial&J province. Ihe fauna bf which has only jusl been touched upon. 

Owe wis soicDiors ( licrrirh-SchaelVer J . 

Pig. H, 99 ioi. 

Epf,oluH sonlit'hfs Ilerrich-SehaelTer. Lop. ftxol., 1,853., pi. xi. (. 1!) (male). 

rlbantiadeS SordidUti llcrrich-Schaeft'er. I.e. 185*3, [>. 5, 

On/callus f)(f,sr, > fs Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. MtlH., vii. 1856, p. 1575 (male). 

1'iclns : sordidw \\'<iii<f, ic vii. t8&6* |e 157S. 

Pielu* nirtiritts Walker, ir. xxxii. 1 S(jr>. p. 599 I female). 

/'nruni mfeaeen* Meyrick. Proc. Linn. Soe. X.S. Wales, iv (2). fflife, p. 1121!. 

nee Patina rufatcans lMitzner and (laede, Seilz Maerolcp., x, U)83, p. 839, pi. 7(>e. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

S Anlminae yellow, peel inat ions iih h jriTi f «*. iM ; head and thorax dark brown, 

abdomen palp red, etfeftfit at n i><*x. Poreftiiipp brown, with cnstg narrowly tku&er 
from bene bq ' ; traces of darker spots Srtrroiimlcd by diffuse an?#s of light bcrffwu 
Realefi forming two transverse series^ obscure traces of a dark spot mi r-m vein. 
mure pronounced in other oxamph-s. 1 1 indwinirs dull blWVll, Cpitfa ••iid veins 
narrowly reddish-ochreous. ba$« densely dothed with red (li.wn. rCxpense 7 t linn. 
9 Antennae yellow, obsolete! y liipt^rinsil i- : head, thorax, and ap«*x of abdo- 

Fi^\ * • t * — in I . OxjfCtwtiJt tiorrtidus (Htoi4eli Schfloffer). 09 male, Tastijntitfl (tj |>c of .•>/■ • 
Walker, in i- ritisfi M'.is.iiin ( Viiii^iion) ; I no, n.ivoi yjie, a ttiale, Snug Riror^ KM, fruwlfi Tastii&iiifi 
(type tif \itvm'i\(n Wnlta*, in Britisli Musnini CVrtlep+iuu) . 

men pale fw, tone of abdomen willi pink tiilged hairs. FoivwinirN suhhyjdiuc. 
palu ycllowishd'awn. with tracOti oJ: two OT more brown spots in QUtCE portion of 

wmg, between veifiS K.-; and R s , llindwine.s dull fewn, \\iih ba«« &pffr$ely 

clothed with pink tinned hairs. Expanse 101 nun. 

[nr. Tasmania: Sttiig 1 C i vrr 5 [May 1, 192T, novotype, a male, I. 1**70 in 
S. Ausi. Mus.i; Eagle Hawk Neck 4; llohart; LiiiiuciMimi. Victoria: (distune 
5; Moe I; W;mdiu; r.rm-onsfield I; 1 Sclera vc : Croydon 5. X«'W South Wides; 
Asiputh ;{; Wentworth JjfyHfl 4; Woodford 5; llornsby 5 ; Sydney 5; Manly ti. 
23 males, 1 female. 

Tin dale— Australian GHOST Moths 317 

II is difficult In avoid the conclusion 1 Jial Ilerrich- k Sch;iei*fcr \s species is the 

same as (). mfowenn Walker from Tasmania. Tfcp colours and markings on the 

figure in his plclte agree Pathet closely with sonic examples of it. and the vena- 
troll, as drawn on the plate, is definitely that of an O.rifranus. The type is appar- 
ently no longer in existence; the specimen described ahove. from Tasmania, has 
therefore been selected ;is uovolype. and Snue; River is nominated as the type 
locality, Q. jrufCscens W#lk«t' is a direct synonym. Walker's specimen which has 
been Cmnred (fig; 9$) wan taken by Morton Allporl, who collected chietly near 

The hindwinc-s are usually dull brown, with pink or pale v^\ at the base. 
In mainland examples the ground colour of the win^s is lighter and tin. 1 I'.nv- 
w in-s hear traces of small, white-centred spuis and marks. Some specimens from 
New South Wales have these markings well developed, and the ground Colour 
lends to become reddish-oehrcous. The Teu.'iimen of the nude geilil alia remains 
eonsf;int Mini serves to distinguish such pale-coloured specimens from those of Q. 
!o(sns t which may resemble them. 

The Ullly female specimen in our series has been described; it is from Vic 
toria (I. 18877 in S. Aust. Mus. :, and agrees closely with Walker's Pivlm in 
rii rins, which is ihe female of 0. novdidns. 

OXTOANUS nmu'I'Ialis s|>. noy. 
Fig. 44. 102403. 

i Antennae ocliroous. short, peel inations weak (1 .1-12), lead and thorax dull 
•jreyish brown, ;ibdomcn witli apical half pale brown, base salmon pink, and 
densely clothed Korcwino-s rather broad, hyaline, pale brownish fawn with 
darker ^reyish-bi-nw n markings; c'OSta un-visli brown, a white fascia from base 
almost to lernien, at one half; thi'ee transverse series of conjoined spots and 
(races of a terminal series of dull brown spois between the veins. Ilindwiims hya- 
line, dull e/rcyish-brown. base tinned wilh salmon-pink; ciliae i>tc> ish -brown. Ex- 
panse G\ mm. 

9 Antennae reddish-oehrcous, veiw short. peel imii ions 1 ; head, thorax, and 

lega dull fawn, abdomen slight ly paler, base of abdomen with a alig-htly ocKreous 

tinge. Forr-win^'s hyaline, pale lawn with traces of darker grey markings, some 
with while centres, as in male: in addition live targe sil very-while sprite margined 
with grej ; a well-nuirked scries of suudl brown terminal spois between the veins, 
from apex to inner margin ; ciliae pale brown. Ilindwimj's hyaline, pale fawn; 
ciliae pale brown. Expanse 68 nun. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Lor. New BOlltti Wales: Mount Kosciusko, 5,000^6,000 ft., 3 (March, 1880, \\. 

tteinis, type, a m$te and allotype Emnale, i. 1-8878 in s. Ausr. Mm). 1 male, 1 

Th* male was taken a1 5,000 feet, and the female m 1.000 Feel higher up on 
ATt. Koseiusko. Tlie male genitalia have R01 been dissected from llie type speci- 
men. but sufficient may be Seen, without removal, to place il satisfactorily in the 

EUg. 102-104. 102 in:; O.n/ratn,'-- nuptiaU8 sp. now 102. type, :• m.ilc, Mt. Kosciusko, 

5 f 0fl0 t-'f.: 10;;, allotype fomale, Mt. Kosciusko, 6,00(1 ft. 104. Qxycc< m Incmm s\l "'.v.. type. 

:i ion 1. •, .Jcrvis Bay, 

key, H is a rather distinctive species characterized by its hyaline, and rather 
sparsely sealed wtflgS. It is related to tin* next Specie*, from which it may be 
distinguished by its somewhat broader, hyaline wind's and less eohspieuou^ly pec- 
1 iiuited antennae. 

Oxvcancs in* wi- sp. now 

Fi?. l2> 104. 

3 Antennae yellow, long, pectinations 3 ; head and thorax dark brown, 
abdomen at apex pale brown, base pale pink. Korewhms pale brown, eosta at 
base darker, with 1 wo transverse series of small dark brown spots, some with 
] races of *rrey ish-white centres; ;i IVw other Small spots, a narrow white. Longi- 
tudinal fascia from base To r-m vein. IIindwin<rs subhyaline, rather sparsely 
«-lnt bed with narrow, brown, hair-like scales, base narrowly clothed with pink 

Tindale— Australian Ghost Moths 


pubescence. Win^s beneath dull brtfWi with base narrowly rose-pink. Expanse 

55 nun. 

hoc. New South Wales; Jems Hay (June 3, 19X8, type, a male, I. INST!) in 
s. Aust. Mus.). 1 male. 

This species resembles O. nu-ptialis in colnrir and markings, and in the gfino- 

pal tprhl of the genitalia, Imt il differs in Hie shape nnd texture of the win^s, and 
in the antennae, which have pectinations almost twice as long as in that species. 

Iftg, LOu— 107. n,ri/,-iii,us burtiwdi sp. tiov„ lOo, mtile, Tuuwoomli.-i ; Mr;, type, s male, 

I 'ninviMMiiki ; LOT, .-illol \|)«> fVnwilr, Tumvn<nnli:i. 

<»\V('AM'S BAHXAKm Sp. MOV. 

Fig: 43, 105-107. 

c-j Antrim;!*- dull yellow, lonjr, petit illations ample, 5; head and thorax gvej 
ish-fawu. ahdonien yellowish-fawn. Korew Ingfi greyish taWJi With I'ainl pale 
yellow rings around dark fawn upotH. Hindwin^'s pale yellowish-fawn, apes 
Slightly darker; base densely clothed wilh yelhrwisli-l'awu hairs. Kxpanse 74 nun. 

320 Rkcords of the S.A. Museum 

9 Autferinae pale yellow, moderate pectinations 1-14 5 h«ad, thorax; and 

abdometi pale greyish-fawn, abdomen 8.1 base slightly yellowish-tinged. Fore- 

wijiiis pale Ljreyish-fawn with faint tl'aees of markings, ;is in male. Uindwimrs 

pale L^ryisli fawn. b1 base? clothed with paler hatra having a yellow tingtf. Ex- 
panse 89 nun. 

tOC Queensland : Toowoomba 5, 6 (Jttne I, 1027, W. W. r>arnard, type, a 
male, and allotype female, JlUte 6, 1027, I. 18880 in 9, Ausl. Mns.i ; mnckbutt; 
8 males, 2 females. 

gome male examples have the markings on forewipga obsolete, exeepi foj: a 

t'nint yellowish tinge ahui^ veins Rj and \U near apex; in such specimens Ihc 
forewine,s may be dull *rreyish-l)rown, dfltkgr at base than at apes ffig; 105). 
The margin <rf Icoiiiiicn of l he male lo/nbalia is stronirly produced, medially, in a 
founded lofce, Which W nor armed with spines. The species is not closely related 
to an\ other; in wing pattern it is somewhat allied to the paler example* «>f 0. 
si!r<nttts, ill which, however, the teamen is of entirety different character. 

Oxvcanus NIIMIAD1AS (W I'V rick i . 

Fig; 46, 108409. 

Porinu mpto4i<M Meyrick, Profc Linn. Soe. X.s. Wales, iv (2), 1889, p, 1122. 
P(,y'nw tiipli'tdifis Quail. Trans. Knt. Soe, Loud.. l!KH), p. 121. 

£ Antennae pale reddish-ochreons, short, ped inat ions long, slender, 5; head 
and thorax dark brown, abdomen pale fawn. KorowiuL's dull ecreyish-brown with 
a slight reddish-orhroous tinge near apex ol' costa ; a series oi' dull white spots 

arranged in a triangle on wing and traces of a single longitudinal one parallel 

to 1A. Hindwiims jireyish brow u. at base paler and yellowish-tinged. Expanse 
58 nun. 

9 Antennae yellow, short, pectinations short, 1 ; bead, thorax, and abdomen 
pah- fawn. Icorewinjrs suhh valine: uniformly pale fawn, a few white scales al 
r-m vein. Himh\in,Lrs subhyaline, pale fawn, al base yellowish-t itlged, and clothed 
With dense fine hairs. Expanse 78 mm. 

Lor. South Australia: Ualhannah f> : lilackwood 4, 5 (allotype female, .May. 
K. Ashby. I. 18882 in 8, Aust. Mils. ). 28 males, :>> females. 

The pair iij>i ir <ul and described are from Blackwood, in May. This species 
which, so far as known, is confined to the Mount Lofty Range in South Australia. 
has been wronirly attributed by Quail to Patagonia! 

Me\ rick's type was from Uallumnah. not u Mt, Lofty", as indicated in the 
original descripl ion. It was 1aken by Mr. E. (riiesl, together with another ex- 

Tindale— Australian Ghost Moths 


ample which is now in the South Australian Museum (I, 18888), Guest's note- 
yields the following remarks: 
'May 7. 1881 .... two specimens .... taken by me at Balhannflh, It i> 

Fig. L()8 I09i Otojf&MWA niphadia* (Meytiek), 108, mak\ Blackwood; I-QO. allotype femalu, 

either rare or q! retired habits, and T could never find the larva. It is ;i late 
autumn insect) being on the wiag in April and May," 

Air. B, Ashby captures a Few specimens each year. They conic to Ii<:h1s Oil 

one cold wet evening in late April or eariy May. Thg females are seldom seen. 

OXY< AM S UO<H)|\C.l sp. nov. 

Pig, 46, 110-111. 

Antennae bright yellow, long, pectinations slender, moderately long, <*> 
basic of each sco'iiit'iit with a pair of conspicuous tnfls; head and thorax daivk 

greyish-brown, abdomen paler, with apex lighl greyish-brown, Pprevrings grey 


Records op the S.A, Museum 

is]i-i)i'own, (/osIm narrowly darker from baae to %rd«j two transv&rsd series oi 

spots in outer half of wing, formed of fiparsely set silvery-white series; a con- 
spicuous sub-reetaimular sub-marginal area of while scales aftmg hind margin; 

and several other white spats between r-m vein and base, Hindwings rather uni- 
formly greyish brown. ftxpanso 70 mm. 

9 Automate bright yellow, shoH, shortly bipeetinale, A; he;id. thorax, and 
apCX of abdomen pale fawn. ba«e Df abdomen lighter. Korewiiurs hyaline. i*;i 1 1m-i- 
uniformly pah' I'awn, wilhout markings; cosla narrowly dark fawn. Hindwin-s 
hyaline, pale fawn, base Sparsely ulothed wilh pabr t'nwn hairs, Kxpansr SO mm. 

I 11 

Fig. I i"-ni, *■ y . - - - i ■//. ; s|i. ii. iv., L1Q, type, amalBj Mo« i Lll, allotype £raate, Mim 

Lnr. Victoria: Aloe 4, o (April 2ft, l!)2i QAi. L. GoOcRng; typo, a i.mle, and 
allotype Euntafr, I- 18884 in s. Anat. Mum,) ; Sato : > : » nndes, 27 iVimdes. 

A lar<re series, including the typ* pair, were laken at Mnc hy Mr. Gooding, 
mi fuur nijfhtR, hrtween April 20th Mud Muy 1st, 1!>22; it is otherwise exceedingly 
pare. Tfa<3 1e<>iimen of the (data (fig, 46.) is very «trongly developed, with a Large 
median rounded process bearing small serration^ upon its posterior mar^m; it is 

thus vwy dislincl from O. accidt iifd! is and (K iiipliii<l><is, 1 1n* only two spceies 
wild which it miirhl otherwise be eonl'nsed. 

Ow< ,\.\i> suu'is sp. now 

Km-. 47, 112-11:5. 

fPorlnq rufewns rtiizner and Gaacle, Seitz Macmlep,, x, 1938, p. 839, fig. 76e 

cJ Antennae pale reddish-oehreous. iotlg, pee.t illations short, stout, 1; head 
and thorax light brown, abdomen salmon-pink, apes tinned with reddish-nehre- 

Tindale — Australian Ghost Moths 


oiis. Forewings pale reddish-ochreous, with greyish-brown markings and suffu- 
sions. HindwingS with apical half pale reddish-ochreous; base clothed with dense 
salmon-pink hairs. Expanse 96 mm. 

9 Antennae pale reddish-ochreous, relatively long', slender, pectinations ob- 
solete; head and thorax pale fawn; abdomen creamy-yellow, at base pale salmon- 

1 «3 

Pig. 112-113. Oxyeqnm sirpus sp. nov. 112, typo, a male, Ferntree Gully; 11;;, allotyii 

I ' i • i n ; i !e, I'Ynif rcc (iullv. 

pink'. Forewings hyaline, pale fawn, with Large dull white suffusions surrounding 
pale greyish-brown marks, hindmargm broadly suffused with fawn, HindwingS 
Sllbhyaline, rather uniformly pale creamy-yellow. Expanse 110 mm. 

hoc. Victoria : Ferntree Gully 4, 5 (May 2, 1921, type, a male, and allotype 
female, I. 1(8885 in S. Aust. Mus.) ; Croydon 5; Heaconsfield 4; IMoe 4; 7 males, 
2 females. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

This species is not closely allied to any of its congeners. It is variable in 
size; the smallest male examined is 62 mm. across the wings. The laterally ex- 
panded semi-circular margins to the tegumen of the male are quite distinctive, 
giving the appearance of a large serrated disc when viewed from beneath. In 
wing markings the species is nearest to some examples of 0. inilcrliovsci. Several 
examples have traces of two large white subcostal spots, as in that species. The 
example figured by Pfitzner and Gaede as Porina rufescens probably belongs to 
this species, but is smaller than the type, 

Oxycanus subvarius (Walker). 

Pig. 48, 114-118. 

Elhamma snbmria Walker, List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mus., vii, 1856, p. 1562, 

Oxycanm subvarius Walker, he. p. 1575. 

Porina suhvaria Mcvrick, Proe. Linn. Soe. N.S. Wales, iv (2), 1889, p. 1123. 

Fig. 114-118. Oaywmus subvariua (Walker). 114-115, males, Moe; 11(3-117, females*. Moej 
118, type, a male, Tasmania (in British Museum Collection). 

Tin dale Australian GfHO&T Morns 3J5 

$ Antennae reddish-oehreotis. short, pectinations shoi'1 , 1',-l.j; head and 

thorax dark brown, abdomen pale ochreous with a tinge of salmon-pint, at apex 
darkening lo pale fawn. Forewings sub-hyaline, oohreouH with darker greyish- 

broWll markings, costal margin near base n;j now \y greyish-brown. Hindi* iims 

liyalirje, gray with traces of greyish markings at costal t^iaa narrowly and 
oiltae ochreotis. Expanse 62 mm. 

? Antennae yellOW, short, pectinations short, .1; bead and Ihorax lawn, 
basal half of abdomen pale ochreous. with a 1 inge of salmon-pink, apex pale fawn. 
Forrwin^s snhhyalino, pale <m\v. with Faint darker grey spots surrounded by 
obscure pale ochreous. Ilindwinics hyaline, irreyish-fawn. veins ochreous. ft\ 
panse 7J> mm. 

hot'. Tasmania; I'lversione. Victoria: Aloe -\, I; Croydon 5, H; Uoacons- 
iirl<l )l ; Trafalgar '>) • YarragGn 2. Xew South Wales; Austinruer i. 34 males. 17 

The type, a male, has been figured? il is from "Van DiemeiTs hand'', and is 
ono of three presented to Ihe British Museum by S, Waleott. The same three ex 
amples were apparently re-described, on p. L575 of Walker's "|jist'\ as Qxycimua 
mbwtrius. The pair described above ( iii>\ tl§4l6) are taell-markeiTj many ex- 
ample.-, fire smaller, somewlial darker, and almost devoid of markings ( ftg. 111. 
lib). The speeies is sometimes abundant in Eastern Victoria. Air. (\ G. Ij. Good- 
ing has takdll long series. In 1929 lie wrote: "I managed to SGCllVfi ninety e\- 
.uiiples of Ibis llepialid, and ihey are consistent with the tifty-fonr I am sending 
yon*'. The 1<\Linmen of the male has a large anteriorly directed process, and tic 
-i|s|H'i>sorud process ia only moderately developed and relatively straight. 

OXVCANl'S LAMM'S sp. inn \ 

Pig: 41), 110420. 

6 Antennae reddish-oehre(ruS, short, pectinations 1-1'; head and tiior.v-, 
dark brown; abdomen, a1 base roddish-oehreous, at apex fawn. Forewiims dull 
liroyish -brown with slightly darker marking, surrounded by dusky ochreous suf- 
fusions, llindwiim-s snbhyaliiie, pale «»ro\ . ,il veins obscurely roddish-oehreous. 
Expanse 60 mm. 

9 Antennae oehreons. short, with pectinations almost obsolele; head and 
thorax irrryish-fawn, abdomen yellowish-fawn, becoming fawn at apex. h\>re- 
WingS snbhyaliiie, greyish, with obscure (insky yellow areas surrounding grey 
spots. -ind forming a series from eosta at 1 hree-fniirt hs t<> near hind margin at one 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

hall'; traces Of Other marks near base. Hindu fogs pale «nv\\ &&n narrowly 
clothed with yellowish-fawn Hair. Iv\ pause 70 lain. 

Lor, New South Wales: Manly 5, (i 'May :$1, 11)07 ; l.vpi'. a male, ami allo- 
type female, May 30, 1!M)7, I. UJS81 in S. Anst. Mus. } ; ClU'lon 4. 5 males. 1 IV- 

|.-jm. im~pjo. tixiicm\m Utnmu* sp. wv, 110, fcygp; a male, M-nU : i«fl s fcUotyfl* f'Hiuite. 


Thfe species is <dosdy peipted to the proceeding one, of which ii may eventu- 
ally provfe to be the northern rage. The genitalia <>t' the male differ from 0. sub 

Mri'US in having the marginal process of tinmen much larger and the siispm- 
sorial Bgraoa produced ami eiirved, TJie hind margin of the eighth steftite fe 

evenly i'iiiii-;ivi'. whereas in £he former species it is convex at the sides, with a 
slight median concavity. The win.irs differ in their irreater Opaquely, and in 
the relative positions of the yagiie m^rldugs of Eftrewing»i 

Oxycanus sI'IIKA<ui>ias : Meyriek). 
Pig, 50, 121. 

For'niii $phr<Widi(i>$ Meyriek, Proe. Linn. Sec. X.S. Wales, iv (2), L889, p. 1123, 

Antennae reddish odin-utis, peciinalions obsolete, head and thorax above 
brown, boncalh oranued>mwn, abdomen irrey, al a$«3t ochreoiis. ForewiUg8 choco- 
late-brown willi ochreoiis markings, a black irrce/idar mark near hind mamin al 
base, mid a broad white fascia from near base jo lermeii. ilindw'nms pale ohoCG- 
lato-hrown. base grey. Wings beneath didl chocolale brown, willi costal margins 
and an irregular terminal area orange. Kx|uiii>c S3 mm. 

Loc. Tasmania: Maitland; Launceston; 1 lverstone. 15 nudes. 

The male example fijfcuretl is from Lannceslon. Some examines lack the 
White fascia (rf .ovwin»-s, and are mnch darker in the f< 'rewinds. The species is 
a rare one, and nothing E known of the life history. It is not to am Other 

Tindale -Australian Ghost Moths 


species of the ^'lius, and further study riaay show that subgfcnerie separation is 
warranted. The long straight margin of the teplitriefl of the male genitalia, with 
its anteriorly projecting process, is distinctive. 

Fig. LSI. 0.nif<nn(s splmif/iriins (Meyricfc), male, L:niiH'('ston. 

An aberrant specimen of what appears to be this species has been laken by 
D. 0. lVarse, on Moiint Wellington ( May 2.">, 19:54). It has the forewiilg bright 
rrddish-orhreoiis; there is no while fascia. A soniewhai similar example is under 
examination from Launeeston; in this the forewings are bright reddish-brown. 

Oxvcanus dkterminatus (Walker). 
Pig. 51, 122-12o. 

Elkcmfftd dett rmiiKtfd. Walker. List Lep. Ins. Brit. Mns., vii. 1856, p. 1S63. 
Porind <l< irrmiiiatu Mryriek, I'roc. Linn. Soc. NVS, Wales, iv (2), 1SJS9, p. 1122. 

$ Antennae short, reddish-oehroous. pectinations short, 1.1-2: palpi brpWU, 
smoolli-haircd. long; third segment three times as long as wide; head and thorax 
didl brown, abdomen pale reddish-ochreoiis, apex slightly darker. ForewingS 
sub-hyaline, dnll brown, with sparse Mlvery-while seales forming a median and 
a siibtorminal series of markings; a well-defined brown marginal while spot at 
r-m vein; eosta with a snbapical brigh.1 reddish-oehrenus suffusion. Ilindwiugs 
hyaline, pale greyish-brown, costal margin suffused with reddish-oehreous ; base 
Clothed willi pale rcddish-nehreoiis hairs. Kxpansc (>b mm, 

9 Anlennae reddish-ochreous. short, obsoletely bi-peel mate ; palpi loflg, ter- 
minal segment Long, swollen at apex, smooth-haired ; head and thorax dull fawn; 


Records of THE S.A. Musm \i 

abdomen pale faym, at ape? slightly darker, Fore-wings hyaline, grey, irares of 
a white spol erf r-xn vein, tod another slightly aeareu to base. HindwmgK grey, 
with base sparsely clothed with pale f;jwn-coloured down. Expanse 80 mm. 

Lot. Western Australia j Swan Kiwi-; Perth 5 f 7, 11 (-July, liKIS. C. Kreneh, 

allotype female, I. ltJ886 in s. Ausi. Mns.i. 6 malea, 1 female; 

The type, a male in the British Museum Collection, baa been frgwed (fig. 

123), S.mir male ^Samples (fig 125} have a la rev srrirs of ilull "Teyisli-wliite 

inMi-kin^.s on the Eorewings, theae ;»re absent or obwmred In the typical form. 

Pig. 122-125. Ovyecwun >(> Lemrinatus ( Walker). '--• :| " ial ''- s wan Rtrerj 123, type, a miilc, 

Swnn River; 1li4, .-.IlotYju- rVni;»l", lVHh; 1 J5. DMltc; IVrth. 

Walker, in his description, makes special reference in the unusually prominent 
palpi, thus leaving little doubt as In the identity of his speeios. Tlie wide diwr- 
,vr,,v between ihe emergence dates pf the three specimens bearing such (lata is 
worthy of special ttOte, for in most of the species of O.if/ci mis hifherto examined, 
ihe lime of emergence seems to he limited to a relatively brief period during each 
ye,-ir. The anomaly will doubtless be elucidated when more malerial is available, 
and it may ihen be disCOYOred thai there are sillied species or forms included 
under the present name. 

Tindale— Australian Ghost Moths 329 

Oxycanus byrsus (Pfitzner). 

Pig. 126. 

Aban/ithhs fyyrsa Pfitzner, iu Pfitzner and Gaede, Seitz Macrolepidoptera, x, 
1933, p. 834, pi. 75e. 
£ Antennae with pectinations short. Forewing with costal margin slightly 
concave at one-third, apex acute, with well-rounded termen and inner margin, 
dark brown, with brown and chill greyish-white markings. Ilindwings ochreons, 
tinged with pink near base. Expanse 134 mm. 

Pig, 126. O&gcmui b$r$U8 (Pfitzner), male, New South Wales (after Seitz). 

hoc. New South Wales. 

(). maculo&us and this are the only species that have not been examined dur- 
ing the progress of this revision. The venation of the figure given by Pfitzner 
seems to indicate that its position is in this genus rather than in A ban I Hides. 

Oxycanus maculosus (Felder). 
Fig. 127. 

Pielm maculosus Felder, Raise Novara, ii, 1868, pi. 81, f. 1. 

$ Description not available. 

Lor. New South Wales: Clarence River (type, a male, unique, in Tring 
Museum Collection), 

This species appears to be close 1o 0. inrsfralis, but a consideration of the 
limited climatic range of most Australian Hepialids and the absence of any other 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

records of 0. australis in Now South Wales. icjrother with differences m p j >;t it* 1 1 1 in 
the photograph of the type, Leads to the conclusion that () mwulosus is a distinct 

species. The Clarence River is an area of rain forest or ''brush", and I herefore 
differs considerately from Tasmania and Southern Australia. Through the eour- 
tesy of the authorities of Tring Museum, fche type has been figured; it larks the 
antennae. From the rather poorly-coloured illustration in "JJefee Xovara ". il 

Irlg, 1-7. O&ycu nm itwculosiui (FeUIer), type, a malts Ql&renee Rm*T (in Tring Mm-< nm 
i nllvcl \oii). 

may be jttdg&d that the forewiiigS are reddish-oehreous, the hmdwings pale L*ed- 
dish-oehreoiis, with the apex and termen broadly darker and the base bright red- 
dish-oehreous, ms is also the abdomen. The antennae in the illustration arc only 
moderately long-, and with the pectinations about 2-8. 

It may also be compared with 0, hallux, from which it differs in the t'orewlng 
markings, and in the colour of the bihdwings. 

Ox wan us aedesimi.s (Turner i. 

Pig. 12S-12II. 

Porina aedwima Turner, Trans. Roy. Soe. S. AusL, liii, 1929, p. 307. 

i Antennae wliil ish oehroous. feebly bidentatc, denticular elevations clothed 
With dense hair. Head dark brownish-black; palpi black, the terminal segment 

smooth haired ; thorax dark brown, abdomen somewhal lighter, Porewiugti 

rounded, ample, gro\ ish -brown, with three paler transverse bands embracing 
series of black spots and lines, first from one-half costa to one-half hind margin, 
second from Iwo-thirds costa lo two-lhirds hind-margin, and third from near 
apex to hind-margin. One OT more of the black spots bear a fawn-coloured centre, 

Tindai r Australian Ghost Moths 


1 1 iinlw ihlts dull oe.Iireoiis-brown, the base yellow; Glliae i>tc\ islobrown. Expanse 
5i> liiui. 

Lu<\ Queensland; Eungella 10 (type in Turner Collection), '2 males. 

Pig. 128-12M, ()>rtn>anaji fleifcsimm ( .'Tui-imm ■). 12s, type, ,•■ in : . 1^-, tiungclla; 129, mala, 

ThlS is a distinctive species, apparently IJOt ClbHely allied to any oilier. 
Through the kindness of Dr. A .!. 'Punier I have been ;ible to examine the type. 
and also a second, rnuch buttered ami larger nude sj)eeimen taken al the same 
lime. Unfortunately the genitalia eould not be examined. The rounded, short, 
and ample wiilgS and slmuler antennae distinguish fhis species from (). si/rniii^. 
which lias similar markings on the forewm^s. 


( Tnclnw ). 

In June, 1935, a freshly-emerged male of T-Hctena <tr<frnt<ihi was found resl 
inir beside a path al Adelaide. It escaped from the hand, and before re-eapture 
was chased by several sparrows, from which it was rescued with difficulty. Il noticeably warm to the touch when held in the hand, ami when Liberated in 
a half-dark room il Hew rapidly about, linully landing beside a window. The 
warmth of its body was again casually noied. I la vine,- placed it in a cyanide .jai\ 
a doubt was raised as to the possible significance of the warmth, and the moth was 
at once removed. Tests wnv made wilh a special thermometer, such as is used 
in studying human skin surface teinperat ures. At &30 p.m.. shortly afler it had 
boon retrieved from jar, the moth had a body temperature of 21° Centigrade 
i loom h-mperalure 1(i-:f Cent ii>Tadc j . A 1'1 or 13 minutes this had dropped tO 
!!♦ , but as it recovered from the elVoels of the cyanide «»'as it be^an to vibrate its 

332 Records of the S.A. Museum 

wings slightly, and its temperature rose again quite regularly from 19-3° at 2.49 
p.m. to 21-0° at 3-07 p.m., and to a rather stable condition at 24-0° at 3.48 p.m. 
(room temperature 16-5°). At 3.55 p.m. it flapped its wings violently for half a 
minute, and then continued to vibrate them; the temperature rose again to a 
maximum of 26-5° at 4.45 p.m. when the room temperature was 16-0°. The 
temperature of the moth at the conclusion of the observation was 25-0°, and the 
room temperature 17-2°. It is of interest to note, therefore, that the body tem- 
perature of a Trictena moth may be more than 10° Centigrade above that of its 
surroundings, and in active flight may reach still higher. 


ByH. Womersley, F.R.E.S., A.L.S., Entomologist, 



The family Teneriffidae was erected in 1911 by Dr. Sig Thor (Zool. Anz. 38, 171-179) 
for two new genera, each with a single species. Teneriffia quadripapillata was described 
from Teneriffe and Parateneriffia bipectinata from Paraguay. A translation of Sig Thor's 
description of the family is as follows: 

"Body elongate with running legs. Cuticle weak with striations ; without crista or 
chitinized plates. Front forwardly produced, with three pairs of setae. Two widely 
separated pairs of eyes. Anus at end of body visible from above and below. 


\\\ H. VTOMERSLKy^ F.R.F.S., A.L.S., Fntomoi.okist, Sorni Arsi kalian Miskum. 

Fig, 1-2. 

Tin-: family Tnuriffiiilar was erected in 15)1 1 by Dr. gig TbOt fZool Anx. :'„s, 1 71 
179) for two new genera, each with a single species. Tnurijlia quadripapiffttln 

was fleSeribed from TenerifTe and Parahttatjjio hiprrl iimft, from Paragtt&V, A 
translation of Si^ Thor's description of the family is as Follows: 

'\Uh\y elongate with running Lega Otltide weak with striatums; withoui 
crista or chifinized plates: Front Forwardly produce!, with three pairs of setae. 
Two widely separate^ pairs ol* eyes. Anns &t end pf body visible from above and 


'The lon^r genital opening of sickle-shaped valves with few hairs. Xo 
(either inner or outer) genital fliscs present, heirs simple, with setae; the two 
elaws, at least on the four Front legs, with double combs; hind legs sometimes wilh 
a third l intermediate' claw\ Month-parts : rostrum short and broad ; the distal 
end of the labium on the under side with four short stumpy papillae and two 
pairs of setae; mandible two-segmented, elaw-like. with two small seiae on the 
dorsal Fade. 

"Palpi live-segmented, thick, strong, and curved, with lone; terminal elaw 
and few setae. On the inner side of segment I Y and behind the terminal claw 
are two ehifmized papillae; segment V (thumb) sprite rudimentary but with 
many (6*7) long setae/' 

In 1!)24 f Troc. Zoob Soe. London, p, 1078) Ilirsl ereeled the jreiius Xmlrnr- 
mffiolil For Hie species Y. / u..rnrirytsi.< Hirst From Egypt, and in the following year 
i loe. eit. p. 1278) he envied the <>enus II <(<>•<>/< )i<rif)i« for a marine species, //. 
murintl Hirsl from the Federated Malay Slates. 

Amongst the collection of Aearina made by Hirst while in Australia in 192T- 
28, and later presented to tile South Australian Museum by Prof. T. II. .Johnston 
to whom they had btten left, was a single preparation of live speeimens which lt;id 
be..,, provisionally labelled by Hirst as belonging to the geHUS Xco/currifjinla. 

I have now been able to study these specimens as well as two others belonging 
to this Family whieh have recently come to hand. As a result ol' Ihis work it is 
now clear that Hirst's provisional oviierie detm-minat ion is ineorreet and that his 
specimens will require a flew irenus. For this I propose the name Ayst ,<>(< ti< riflia. 

334 RECORDS of the S.A. Museum 

and for the species the name of hinti after the late Mr. Stanley Hirst, one pf fb«J 
few English A.-earolbgist& 

The other tWO specimens are ev#13 more interesting, and while requiring si ill 
another g£UU£, Ve so strikingly different from all other known species of VV/m- 
riffiidac as to justify the Splitting Up of the family into 1avo very distinct mh 
families, the Ti m riffi'ntai and the Rh(tgiwe. The first subfamily is (l<*1inod by the 
elliptical form, no cephalothoraeic separat ion from the abdomen, the paired ryes 
on each side being adjacent, and the claws of one or both of the front pairs of 
[fcgJS lifting Btrougly pectinate. To Ihis family belong nil previous known ^'ixTii 
as well as Ihe new gfcftiia Ausi rul< ncrijl'tn. The tthafjinac is represented hy the 
new livinis and species Rlwyma i>mh<i, and can he defined as not having an ellip 
lieal form, wilh narrow cli.ii-ntr rephaloi horax well separated from the much 
Wider abdomen, with ihc eyes on each side widely separated, claws all small, in- 
distinct, and wilhout pectinations. 

Family TKNKR1KKI I DAK Sig Thor 1911. 
Subfamily "feiieriffimae subfamily nov, 

l><!i>ulin»: liody form elliptical. Cepllalothorax nol separated from abdo- 
men. adjacent. Claws targe and distinctly peetinated, at least OH legs I 
or I and II. Genital disc* absent or presenl. 

(Joints At'STKuTKXKmi'TlA gfctf. 1IOV, 

Description: liody form elliptical without any marked separation of cepha- 
lot horax from abdomen, ftyes. a pair on each side, adjacent, (laws of Leg* 1 ami 
II large and strongly biped male, I I I and IV small and only indistinctly pectina- 
ted, the teeth beiflg short. Anterior ed<:e of coxae without a dislinct row of &etie, 
only 2-3 present. (Jenital dises present, three pairs. 

Genotype: Awtrtiieneriffia Idrs/i sp. now 

Remark*: This new genu? IS most closely related to U rtcrofnirriijid Hirst in 
that it possesses gfejutal discs. Sig Thor in his description of the genera Tok- 
Hffia distinctly slates that no genital discs are present, but in Hirst's descriptions 
Of Xtofiiurijliohi and II < -It-rot nwriffia no mention of 1he presenee or abscnee of 
ihese is made. However, in the figure of the ventral snrface of fldrrolfnerifiUt 
marina Hirst, the presence of al leasd tWQ pairs are distinctly indicated. From 
//; hroh iirriffit/ the new "-enus differs in having the claws of both lei>s I and II 

strongly pectinated (on Legs I only in Il< ■/> w<dt mrt$a) and in not having a defi- 
nite row of setae on the anterior margins of the roxae. 




/> rst'ripl ion • Length idiosoma 86%, unathosoma 300/a, opisthosoma I ir>/i. 

Palpi SOO^t, segment II very ameh enlarged, I33p wide Mandibles 25% long, 
Cephalothoraac rxol different ial&d fn>no abdomen, although there is a fold running 

UCroSS I'cfween tin* eyes; with three pait*£ of setae and a pair of fine sensory hairs. 
66# long, arising from rosettes. Kyes, a pair on each side, adjacent. Pain II 

Fig. L. dustrotvneriffiu hfrfHso. rioy.: I, clorsal virw of entire animal, maiufthtaa Romewhiri 
ilispl:i[-i'<l ; «<, v«ntral view df sjmio; b, apes of palp from above j u, noma from below; <l, tip of 
tarsus and Haws of le^j «\ same of log 111, f, hall of apex of labium from below; g; cophaio- 

llionicic season lian. 

with two dorsal setae. Ill without a process, lihia with larav lerminal and two 
i eeSSOrj flaws, tamiS rudimentary as in the family and with the usual setae. 
Legs, I lOOOu Long, larsus wit li a pair of long (83ft) bipeetinato claws ; II 1000/a, 
C'lawS (W)/i long, bipeet inalo ; 111 1083/x loflg, claws 40/* lonir, Olily indisl incl ly 
pectinated and short -toothed, a third median simple and shorter elaw prosont ; IV 
129S/U Itfngj claws :»:>// Long, otherwise as in III. Abdomen with father Long, stout. 
slightly ciliated setae, the outer setae of the row of four immediately behind the 
eyes are 280/* lono-, the others somewhat shorter. Dorsal surface finely striated, 
tie- striatums soim-what Stronger on the shoulders and wanting in tlie middlQ i)f 
the eephalolhorax, there perhaps indicat ijlg a dorsal plate. Coxae in two groups. 
not widely separated by a narrow strip of striated cuticle, with comparatively 

336 Records of tiik S.\. Mcskum 

few srljic, thesr no1 forming a distinct row ahum' the anlerior coxa I margins. 
t'oxae I and II oarrotfly separated akiiig 1 he medial line, III and 1 \' more widely 
so. Genital opening large, aboui two-thirds as tong as the distance separating it 
from the posterior coxae; With three pairs of discs. Aims large, terminal and 
risible both dorsally and veul rally. Colour probably nkldish purple. 

Locadhi: Type and Tour paratypea (tin one slide) t$kim by Hirst at Menin- 
dio. South Australia, in duly, 1928. 

R( marks: This species is very well differentiated from all others by (lie gene- 
ric characters. The line sensory hairs arising from rosettes have only been qfa 
served in Ih 1< roi< at riflia marina Hirst. Apparently they do nol occur in oilier 
than these two species. 

Subfamily Uhuginae subfamily now 

Dcjinition: Body form eharaelerist ic with narrow elongate. parallel-sided 
ccphalothorax well separated from the broader abdomen. Kyes, Iwo on each side. 
widely separated, (laws small and indistinct, simple. (ienilal discs absent. Anus 
entirely dorsal and subterminal. 

(Jenus RHAGINA iXen. now 

l>ry.,'rl/)(ion: As for the subfamily. 
(h aat >!})<': Bhagina prated sp, nnv. 


Description: Length Ldiosditia 533/x, gnathnsoma 187/u., opisthosoma, 1-bV. 
I'alpi Long, IS?/', segment H mueh broadened, with one dorsal seta, III short, 
without process, tibia with apical elaw and two small stumpy accessory claws, 
tarsus rudimentary as in the family and with the usual setae. Mandibles as fig- 
ured, kegs.: I 525/a long, anienmieform, with Long slender praetarsns and small 
indistinct elaws. apieally with Long Setae; II 257jyi !<?»£« stouter; III 845pj IV 
440/*; all claws small and witlumt combs; III and I V without the third median 
claw. (Vphalothorax elongated, strai^hl -sided, 170// lon<>; by 14»%< wide, with 
three pairs of strong setae; eyes (wo on each side, widely separated, the front pair 
being Situated at the anterior corners of the eophalothorax. Ihe posterior pair mid- 
way down the lateral margins. Abdomen anteriorly broad. 257ft, with WfiU dcvel- 
Oped shouiders, each with a seta 110ft hm?r; from the shoitldors the ahdomen tap- 
ers towards the apex. The dorsal selae are short C>4,0 stout, simple, and dispell 
as figured. The anus is entirely dorsal, on each side with a pair of long setae 
iliiii,!. Ventral surface: the coxae in two widely-separated groups, those of 

YVoMEKSLnv— Tenkkiimid Acarina in- Australia 


legs I and II large, poetically touching in the medial Uite and with te\? short 

seine; III and I\' widely soparaled in middle line and basally indisl incl. Geni- 
tal opening long and narrow as figured. 

Fig. 2. fihngma jtrolca sp. oov,: 2, dorsal view <>f entire animal; a. f vcutnii view of sn»«! 

without lege; k nprx of palp from Mow; <•. tip of iu:ui«lil>le ; <l, tursus of leg I ; o, tkrBttfl <<f tag HI. 

Local iti/: Type from moss from Glen Osmond, South Australia, Apr. :;f> 
(R.V.S. ) ; fi second specimen from moss from ftlypoilga, South Australia, Apr. -If) 


Remarks: BuperfixriaUy this species suggests the form of the Rhagidiidae. 

Key to Tin: &enera and SpEcifcs of Tknerifkiidak. 

1. Body form elongate-oval. ( 'ephalothorax not separated from abdomen. Eyes 
adjacent, (laws targe, pectinate on legs I, or I and II. Genital discs present 
Or absen I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 

Subfamily Ten&riffiintie nov. 
Body form no1 so. ( Vphalothornx much narrower than the broader abdomen 
and Separated therefrom. Eyes widely soprirated. Claws small and simple. 
no! pectinated, tifiga I antennaeform .. Subfamily Rh(tQim6 flov. 

Genus Rhaffmn nov. 
proien %p, now A ust ralia. 

2, Genital discs absent . . .. .. .. .. ..4. 

Genital discs present. Palp III without process .. . . . . S\ 

8, Only cImws of legs I hirire and strongly pectinate. Anterior edge of coxae 
with a disiinct row of 5-6 setae. Marine Genus Uelerot&n&riffla Hirst, 1925. 

marina Hirst 1925, Fed. Malay St. 

338 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Claws of lo^s I and II Large and strongly pectinate. Anterior edge of coxae 
without distinct row of setae, with only 2-3 irregularly placed ones. 

Genus Austral eneriffia nov. 

Mrsti sp. nov. Australia. 

4. Palp III with appendage. .. .. •• •• . . <). 

Palp 1 1 1 without appendage. Claws of legs I and 11 large, strongly pectinate. 
Coxae with row of setae on anterior margins. 

Genus T eneriffia Sig Tlior 1911. 

quadripapillata Sig Thor 1911 Teuerift'e. 

'). Coxae T and II touching in medial line, anterior edge of coxae III with a row 
of 6* strong setae. Genital opening large. Claws on leg 1 only pectinated. 

Genus Parateneriffia Sig Thor 1911. 

Upectinata Sig Thor 1911, Paraguay. 

Coxae I and 1 1 separated in medial line, anterior edge of coxae Til with only 
3 setae. Genital opening smaller. Claws of leg T only pectinated. 

Genus Weoteneriffiola Hirst 1924. 

luxorienm Hirst 1924, Egypt. 



By Bernard C. Cotton, Conchologist, SA. Museum 


Like most species of Australian fresh water mollusca, those belonging to the family 
Viviparidae have received little attention from conchologists. 

Smith ( l ) commenting on the genus Vivipara remarks that "Two peculiarities are constant 
in all Australian species of this genus. Every example that has come under my 
examination exhibits spiral sculpture ; and in none of them are colour bands found below 
the periphery". One species V. alisoni Brazier ( 2 ) (type locality Diamantina River, 
Queensland) was described as smooth, but a close examination of typical specimens from 
Ayr, Lower Burdekin River, Queensland, shows even under a magnification of 40 
diameters, the peculiar microscopic granose spiral lirae common to all Australian species. 
The genus Notopala is here erected for the Australian species exhibiting this sculpture. 



ih BERNARD C. COTTON, Cn*w hoj boot, s.a. Museum. 

Fig. 1-20, 

LlKJi] ItlOSl species o!' Australian fresh water mollnsca, those belonging to the 
family Viviparidae baVG received little attention from concholoe;ists. 

Smith ( 1 ) commenting on the "'cnus VwipUM remarks thai "Two peculiari- 
ties are constant in all Australian species of this genus. Every example thai has 

come under mj examination exhibits spiral mmfpture; and in none of them are 

colour bauds i'onnd below the periphery \ One species V. a/isont Brazier (, ~ .) 
[type locality Diamantiiui Kiver. Quecnsbmd ) was described as smoolh. but a 
elose examination of typical specimens in.m Ayr, Lower linrdekin Kiver. Queens- 
land, shows even under a magnification ol' 1(1 diamelors, (he peculiar mirroseopie 
granose spiral lirae eommoti to all Australian speeies. The ejenns Nolopalu is 
here ererted for the Australian speeies exhibiting this sculpture, 

Notoi-ai.a gen nov. 

shell globuse-conic, subtunbilicat^ whorls five,, with a tendenej 
to angulation subsufcurally and at the base; epidermis olive, polished; sculpture 

of microscopic irranosc lirae on (he whole of the outer surface,- aperture fflibovdte, 

operculum corneous, nucleus snbcentral, nearer the columella margin; imi- 

cohmred or wilh Spiral colonr bands on and above the periphery. Animal ovivi 
parous, living in mud at low water mark and below in fivsh water rivers and 

Genotype. Puludina hmhyl Frauenfeld, from the Lower Aim-ray River, 
A chronologieaJ lisi of .species, represifiirted \u tic- South Australian Museum Col- 
lection, which may be referred to this genus, is Lriveu here*. 
Notopala mblineata Conrad, 1850 (typo loc, Darling River) X.s.w.). 
Notopalq osvingtonenste Frauenfeld, 1862 (type loc Port Ewiflgfoa, N.A.i. 
Notopala, kanUiyi Praueafeld, 1862 (type loe. Lower .Murray River, S.A.>. 
Notopala autlratis Reeve, 1863 (type loe., Victoria River, X.A.>. 

I I i Smith, i:. A M J'ror. Linn. 8<)& } ISSI, xvi. |>. 262. 

I ' I toaster, .J., J'ror. i/n>><. 8ve., Y.s./r.. j.s79, iii, p. 221, 

340 Records of thk S.a. Misei m 

KetopalQ ampittlaroides Reeve, 1863 (typo loe. Victoria River, N.A.; also Fitzroy 
River, X.W.A.. Smith) ; syn. of V. essmgtonensis Franenfeld. 

Nutopala kiiKji Ads. & Aii<i' M 1883 (typo Inc., Kind's Roods. C.A.j. 

Solopula irahrlwu.sri Ads. & Ang*, 1863 (type loc.j Newcastle Waters, N.A. |, 

Nolopala iiifrniKf/iti Reeve, 1868 (type toe., Lower Murray River) ; syn. of \\ 

hanleyi Franenfeld. 
Xulnfxila ftoliia Martens, 1863 (type loe, Iialonne River, Q.}. 
ftatapala ajjiwis Martens, JLS65 (type Inc., VltSFQf River, X.W.A.). 
ftotopaitl purpurea Martens, 18(>o (lype loe., Murray River); syn of A. Imiihifi 

Notoptlla $%prafasejaia Tryon, 1866 (tyj^ I*"*- Tropical Australia): syn of A. 

esshif/hnh itsis Franenfeld. 
ffntopaia alUoni Uraxier. 1878 (typo Inc., Diamantina River, Q.). 

Jfatopala iridncta Smith, 1882 (type loe., N.A.); closely allied to v. essmgton^ 

oisis Franenfeld. 
Notopala dimidiata Smith, L8S3 (type loe., Victoria River, N.A i. 


Shell globose conic, body whorl bi-amrulate. bearing a valid carina at the 
lower anirle; umbilicus small; whorls live, the protoeonch and first and second 
whorls eroded; surface with characteristic anstraloid microscopic spiral iiranose 
lirae: aperlnre snbovate; outer lip continuous with colnniella lip and medially 
produced into a prominence fcontesponding with the carina. 

llololype. Height (i mm., diam. 17 mm. Fossil ( Tpper Plrisinccne .'). In 
the banks Of the River Murray near Snnnyside. Section 174, Hundred of Riird'-H, 

horizon 9, 1). 11451 s.A. Museum. 

The species differs from the recent A. haulctji Franenfeld in the valid nni 
carination exhibited in some forms, the tendency to sharper angulation of tie* 
whorls and Ihc coarser spiral granose lirae which are well preserved in moat 

Mi-. < ( . R. Mount-ford recently brought to the South Australian Mnsenm some 
shells taken from the banks of S dead creek which entered the Murray near 
Snnnyside 1'onr miles upstream from Murray Bridge, South Australia, Section 
174, Hundred of Bnrdett. The specimens were collected by Mr. Monntford dnr 
inn- ; , trip tfl this area in company with Drs. < '. Fenner. T. I). Campbell, and ('. 
Ilaekett. Amongst the specimens was a remarkable nniearinale fossil Solopalu 
unlike any recent Anslralian species. Three visits were made to lhe site by the 
author to make further investigations. The Murray River cliffs rise to a height 

Cotton— Recknt Australian Viyipakidak and a Fossil SI'hcies 341 

of 300 feel above river level at this point:. A seefipn of the cliffs, disclosed by tie- 
creek's bank may be tabulated ttntfl: 

Ilcioiil ;iImi\ C 

Horizon. Composition. Thmkm-s. :|II< | ''pp^^m-' ' . i> lomiarks. 

,'i In > vc .sr;i \(* vrl. 

1 Surface yellow! 00 cm. 93 inelres 

2 Packed mussel shells :\() em. Probably a. native camp- 

// firiflrlla prof"- she. Some oilier layers 

UlUdm in bl&ek- expits.-ij near Ihis Kite 

''iiccl sand haw ni.l Ilm blackened 

appearance, and repre- 
sent old river levels. 

autopulu ftp; visibly only 
al eertain places. 


Yellow sand 

]') cm. 


Dark sand 

53 em. 


First kiyer of 
S olojHthi 

10 rill, 


Yellow sand 

86 cm. 


Srrond layer of 
\oloiJ(i/u. ef. 

10 cm. 


Yellow sand 

7(1 cm. 


Third layer of 
Notopald wauja- 

10 cm. 

1)1 met res Plainly visible for horh 
/ontal distance of about 
3 metres. 

H) met res Part ly obscured hy receiil 
falls of surface sand. 

Horizon f> conlains jinmcrons closely-packed S])ccimcns of a fossil Notoptxftx 
nearly allied to the recent A', hwnh '!/' Fraurnfeld. 

Horizon 7 conlains just as closely-packed specimens of Xofoi><il<i e.f. iniiija- 
kaldo ranging from a non-eariiiate to a promiiienlly carinate form. This earina 
is situated at a lower angle of the body whorl. On the pennllimaic whorl it is 
covered hy the Upper margin of the body whorl, bid .juvenile specimens show lie 
carina to have been present at a \rv\ early stage, In Horizon 9 a similar series of 
Xoloptthi ttttnjakiihlu is found where 40 per cent, show sigUH of unicarinat ion. 

The holofype of Xn/o]><i/u WUnjalmlilU waa taken from Ihis (owes! horizon. 
The species found in horizon 7 is probably identical. 

The narrow compael horizons f f>, 7. 9) al which the Nviapala were obtained 
probably represent old river levels; iiiciiihc's uf this ; uenus are found living most 
abundantly in the shallow marginal waters near low river level. It will be 
noticed that the lowest horizon is !)() metres above present river level, and the oe 
eurrenee seems to show ihe existence of a base level of low water much felboVO that 
of I be present river level. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

This is of interest because on other grounds Tindale ( 3 ) has shown the proba- 
bility of a series of Pleistocene marine terraces occurring in the region of the 
Murray River, the oldest near Fromm Landing mid sueeessively younger ones 
between there Mild the present const line. 

^|P S 

1 3 

'4. \ 

•' 1 

5 fi ^%1"- 

1 1 






Fig. 1-16. XoIo/hiI<i ininjalrahhi sp. DOT. 1-S, Ventral views; 9-1(5, <|ors;il virvvs (S ;mi.I 16 
shcm the lioiotype). All nat. size. 

Does this Nolofxtla wanjakalda horizon correspond with Timbde's Reed} 
Creek Terrace t The sculpture of the shell may indicate a warmer climate than 
now exists at this place, as Km raised beach marine fossils do elsewhere in South 

(••!) Tindale, N. B., Trans. Koi/. Koc, S., lvii, l$33j pp. 137, 139. 

Cotton — Recent At s ikaliax \ i\ iiwkidai-. and a Fossil Species 343 

Australia. Associated with tin- Xotopala wtwjaMUld ave odd KpecimcTiH d! b 
fresh water mussel rather different in sh'rtpe from i In- recoiil Hyridflla Mistral ik 
Lamarck* behtg more like the Hj/ridcIJa \tngam Wr^xr in greneral contour. 

The native camp site faypj? has &peei metis pf a fresh-water rfiussel probably 
allied to the recently extinct Ihjr'uhlht pvotovUtat^ 1 1 m h ■ & Tindalo I '> which 

Was the dominant food shell of Ihc natives who lived on the r P;i r t ;i n<_!;i n c;nnp site 

nt Tartanga. 

Cl.NTK'AI'AI.A g«U: nov. 
Shell sid)U'loi)Osc, thick, imperforate ; spire depressed. nbtlLSe; erUtlctl at tb'M 

apex and early whorls; suture uim-li tiapmssefl; wh-arta four, raunded, Ftaniewliiil 
flattened posteriorly and sculptured with proniijienl lirae, six or seven on the 
penultimate whorl, with soinelimes a line inters! it ial ; hase ohsoleteh spirally 


Pig, 17 IS. Xulo/itilti lmnl<j/i l-Y.-iucnfVld. X : i f nfo*. pig, lit 2-0, Crol in /tnln lirntti Tiilc. I 

sculptured; operculum horny, eoneenl ric. nucleus nearer Hie columella margin; 
animal oviviparous £ivili£ birth to six or eight emhryo-> of 3 nun. diameter. 

Genotype. Pdiinlnia Umto Tate, Cooper Creefc at I nnamincka. C.A, (llolo- 
type D.11450 S.A Mils.'!, 

Embryonic shells diaphanous, pale irrei'ii, carinated on tin 1 periphery of the 
lasi whorl and the base strongly striated. 

In 1885 Tate | n ) introduced Pnhutwv limtu miiarkirtij that: **The species 

IS quitti uni<pie anion.iisl Australian conveners". Il is certainly yj'nerieally dis- 
rilicl Prom any other speeies. being somewhat like a Urate Lutiini, though proh- 
ahly more nearly related to Noloptlht. Tale's lin-iire erf tic type is not aeeiirate, 
so tile specimen is here retioured. 

(I) Hale. H. M. :md Tiiulnk-, X. 11., !!<<•. S. .lush: \! ,<*.. t\ (iij, UWO, p. 1.5ft. 
(■>) T;j(c, K\, Tm„s. /,'.-,/. Sor.. S. J«s!.. ix, 1885, p. <J:t, pi. iv. tig* »'>;. h, 

344 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Readily distinguished from all other genera of this family by the spiral 
sculpture, depressed obtuse spire, impressed suture, large, oblique semi-circular 
aperture and rounded, not subangulate whorls. 

The genus Larina Adams (genotype L. strangei Adams) is recorded from 
fresh water at Moreton Bay and Mackenzie River. Thiele places Larina in the 
family Melaniidae. Gatliff and Gabriel ( 6 ) described Larina t turbimtt a from 
five fathoms, Western Port, Victoria, and Later made it the genotype of Larinop- 
sis Gatliff and Gabriel ( 7 ). Thiele places this genus as a section of MegaUmphaU 
us Brusina 1871, which is located in the family Fmsaridae, 

(«) Gatliff, J. H. and Gabriel, C. J.. Pn><\ Noi/. Soc, Vict., xxii (n.s.), 1909, pi. i, p. 35, 
(T) Gatliff, J. H. and Gabriel, C. J., Pror. Roy. Soc, Vict., xxix (n.s.), 1916, pt, 1, p. 104. 


By Gilbert Whitley, Ichthyologist, The Australian Museum, Sydney 
(By Permission of the Trustees of the Australian Museum) 


The fishes listed in this paper were collected by Messrs. Herbert M. Hale and Norman B. 
Tindale, of the South Australian Museum, during an expedition to northern Queensland 
in 1927. Details of their field work have been given in their account of the aborigines, (*) 
to which reference may be made for maps and geographical data. The fishes belong to 
coastal Queensland forms and are thus Banksian ( 2 ) in facies, being quite distinct from 
the Solanderian or purely coral reef forms. At some places, such as Low Isles, the former 
headquarters of the British Great Barrier Reef Expedition, both the Banksian and 
Solanderian forms have been found, though each is restricted to its special habitat. From 
Bathurst Head, the collectors obtained a number of small fishes, labelled "Telkara". 
Thirty-two of these are Ambassis, two are Terapon puta, and one is a damaged Mugil. A 
small Toadfish in the same batch is Chelonodon patoca, and a larger Toadfish, called 
"Adadi", is Ovoides manillensis virgatus. 


(By Permission of the Trustees of the Australian Museum.) 

Pig. 1-11. 

Tin'; fishes listed in this paper were collected by Messrs. Uerberi M. Hale and 
Norman B, Tindale, of the South Australian Museum, during an expedition to 
northern Queensland in 11)27. Details of their field work have been given in 
their aeeonnt of I lie aborigines. ( ] ) to which reference may be made for maps and 
geographical data. The fishes belong to coastal Queensland forms and are thus 
Banksian ( -) in facies. being (piite distinct from the Solanderian or purely coral 
red' forms. At sonic places, such as Low Isles, the former headquarters of the 
British Great Barrier Keef Expedition, both the Uanksian and Sohmderian forms 
have l)een found, though each is restricted to its special habitat. From liathurst 
Head, the collectors obtained a number of small fishes, Labelled *"Telkara'\ 
Thirty-two of these are Anihassis, two are Ta'tipon puta, and one is a damaged 
Miifjil. A small Toadrish in the same batch is Chtlonodon jxtfocu, and a larger 

ToadQsb, called kk Adadi ? ', is Ovoitlcs mumlU ' nsis mrgatus. 

The majority of the collection was made inshore at Flinders Island, where by 
far the commonest fish was Jfathygobim fuxcm diirnley&nsis, 

A Feature of the collection is the series of Centrogeiiys ami Srlx/sta pist c,s, 
showing the former, a IYreoid fish, mimicking the latter, a Seorpacnoid, in form 
and coloration. 

The specimens are preserved in the South Australian Museum. Adelaide. 
The Opportunity is taken to present tin- results of some detailed researches into 
tint status of some species of (Tiandidae, in connection with the discovery of a new 
Speciefi of Atuhassix by Messrs. Hale and Tindale. 

(Ivimnotiiokax Bloeh, 1705. 

( J Y.M NUTIIOKAX MKl.ANOSI'ILLS ( l>leeker ), 

MiO'firrui iik hniospiht lileeker. Nat. Tydschr. Ktn\. Ind.. ix, ISoo. p. 279, Sibogka, 

ft) 1 1 .- » I < and Tijul:ih\ Uoc. s. Auatr. Mus.. v, 1933, p. 63. 
(-) Whitley, AiiHtr. Nat., viiL Dec. L&S2, p. 166. 

3+6 Records of the S.A. Museum 

One specimen 154 inm. lOng from Flinders Island has light margins to the 
dorsal and anal fins and measures 71) mm. from snout to vent. 


Miioil Linne, 1758. 

Alioin, sp. 

A small mullet, 52 mm. in standard length, from B&thurst Head, and another 
of 42 mm. from Flinders island, are too small or too damaged for precise identifi- 
cation. I). iv/9; A. ii/9 or 10. Sc. :>(>. L. tr. IS. No adipose eyelids. Upper teeth 
\'. i r\ deep bni not crenulate. Extremity of maxillary visihlo. No teeth. Angle 

of preorbital strongly dentienlated. Soft dorsal and anal (ins with scaly sheaths. 
These specimens approach M. mmsayi Macleay and St, COnvexus l)e \'is, but 
do not agree exactly with either. 

Ellochelon Whitley. 1930. 

EiiLoeiiELON yakukxsis (Quoy and (milliard). 

Mi<</il rai(/irnsis Quoy and (hiimard, Voy. limine Physic., Zool., 1825, p. 387, pi. 
lix, fi<*;. 2. Waigiou, 
Two very small speeimens, 21 mm. in standard length, from Flinders Island. 


Centrckhsnys Richardson, 1842. 

Centkookxys vAioiENsis (Quoy and Gaimard). 

Fig. 1. 

Scorpqena vaigiensis Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Uran. Physic.. Zool., Dee. 18, ism. 

p. :>24, pi. Iviii, fig, 1, Waigiou. 
Oentropristes scorpetioid^ Ottvier and Valenciennes, Jlist. Nat. Poiss. iii, April, 

1829, p. 48. New name for Scorpaena vaiffiensis Quoy and Gaimard, Waigiou. 
Myriodon wmyicmis Brigoujt de Barneville, Rev. Zool. Soe. Guv., x, April, 1847, 

p. 133, Based on Scorpvwna vaigiensis Quoy and Gaimard, Waigiou. 
St bastes $toldc$kae Day, Fish. India i, Aug., 1875; p. 148, pi. xxxvi. fig. 1, Xico- 

Genmdvm stoliazae -Jordan and Seale, Bull. U.S. Bur, Pish, xxvi, 1906 (.1907)-, 

p. 37 Ex Day. 

VVitttlev -Fishes from North Queensland 


Ithnhilosi htisi, s tfoUe&te Fowler <nul Bean, Proc. D.8- Nat, Mtis. Ixii, 2, July 28, 
11)23, p. BO (Philippines), 

I''i<j. K Folic S|K i cinnMvs (Jiift) "1" flu- IVvi.i.l ii>li < ■< M / YrtptiX fje riiit/i,nsi.s- (QuOJ & < inhiwi n| i 
showing the sii|H'ifiri;il ivsoriiMaiin- |m t !u- Sim • jj i;i ./i i . . i- 1 lis!, S> h>is.(,i ju,\I , a h ffftfli ,\ Uwtfit-fi .l«>nl;m 
Mill 8(?nfc. (I'lmln, C. 0. Clullon). 

Four specimens, 36-66 ram. in tstairdard Length Erom Flinders Island. 
This species mny perhaps be termed the pirns a&mwrum of ichthyology as, 
clia-ivet] from a Percoid stock, ii lias evolved a glrikjng superficial re$e)nblanc< to 

the S«-nr();triini<] fisln\s ami h;i.^ sovrral times boon n-« losrribcd as a nr\v ^imus of 
Srorpaciudat', tiol w it hsl m ruling its lark of the charactcrisi ic posterior projection 

348 Records of the S.A. Musfi'm 

from the suborbital bones extending across the check to the preopercuhim. Th* 
Scorpaenoid dr [Scorpion fishes are slu^ish creatures with venomous spines <m 
the head or in the dorsal fin, so that the harmless (U nfrofjf nifs may derive some 
fortuitous benefit from resembling them, and the accompanying photographs of 
Specimen^ of the Scorpaenoid Sthusla pishs, collected by Messrs. Male and Tin- 
dale at the same place as i\\<" ('< Itofragt in>y$, emphasize their similarities and dilVer- 
mices in a manner which docs not seem to have been previously presented. 

A certain amount of mimicry, or at least a remarkable Convergence in faeies. 
appears to be noticeable in several fishes of the coral seas. My Eleotrid <ronus 

Qigninientwm is strangely like a Triehonotid, The goby Ohtorfiophagw rather 

recalls the more ornate Fleolridae like A nthhjtjnbius. Several dredged forms re- 
semble small stones or rocks and thereby appear similar to one another; thus, the 
(piaint Angler Fish, Tilrahruchmm, which I have recently recorded from Tlay 
man Island, at first appeared to me like a small Erosa, a relative of the Stonefish. 
Here is an interesting subject for future elaboration, yet one in which con- 
clusions must be arrived at with caution. 

probably subspecies or races of c. vaigu ns>s will be later distinguished ; Fow- 
ler and Bean, for instance, noticed that the Philippine form was nut typical 
"s1o(icz/,u< '\ 


Terapon Olivier, 1816. 

Terapon i j i t ta Fuv. ami Val. 

Thrnt/H))) j)n1<! Ouvier and Valenciennes, Hist, Nal\ Poiss. iii, April, 1829, p, 131, 

Pondieherry, etc., India. 
Tempon putd Fowler. Bull. F.S. Nat, Mus., 100, xi. 1931, p. 328 (references and 


Two small specimens, 22-25 mm. in standard length, from Kathurst Head, 
amongst ' ' Tclkara , ' i . 1 m/xissis) . 


Foa .Jordan and Evormann, 1905. 
Foa I'o Jordan and Scale. 

fW/V? Jordan and Scale, Bull. F.S. Bur. Fish, x.xv, 1905 (Dec. 15, 11)0(5), p. 248, 

Sgi 42. Apia. Samoa. 

Six specimens, 17:11 mm. in standard length, from Flinders Island. Three 
| I A. 6047) detained for Australian Museum. 

New record for Australia. 

v\ /riTLEY — Fishes from North Queensland 349 

1 •amii.vCHANDIDAK. 
Amiiassis ('uvier arid Valenciediiea, 1828. 


Pig. & 

T). vii i. !). A. iii. !!; L. hit. 27-28; I,, jr. :M Is. 

Bye (6 niiii. i M in bead (15). Depth of body i ,17) L'-b iii standard length 

(45). Second dorsal spirit f 11 nun.) 1-1 in same. 


Fag. 2. Amhtissis telkam sj>. m.v., imiot.\ pe, X 2 (<!. p. Whitley, del.) 

Head laager than high, Qpiny ggreatiop*! on Supraorbital, preorfcital tower 
margins of prf'Operciilllin, and on each Side of nape. Two rows of scales on check. 
Lower jnw longer than upper, hands ol' regular villi form teeth on jaws ami 
vainer. Tcjng"Ue toothless, .Maxillary reaching anterior fourlh of eye. slightly di 
I at ti(l and with an obliquely truncate and slightly excavate posterior margin. 
Mandibular ramus sloping Upward. Tweuly or more uillrakers on lower half of 
first giilarch, Body fairly di'cp, compressed, scaly. Lateral line practically e.on- 
tinuous, the lubes merely becoming weak where the curved portion approaches 
the Straight. About fourteen predorsal scales, l'roeiimbenl dm-sal spine con- 
cealed. Membrane between second and third dorsal spines blackish. Second anal 
Spine Strong but not as fong as the third. Pectorals nearly as lone- as head with- 

350 Records of the S.A. Museum 

out snout. General colour in alcohol, si raw yellowish, with dusky marks along 

top of back and punetulations on edges of «uperior scales. Caudal plain. 

This species runs down to Aiulxtssis nalua in Weber and Tieauforf 's key ( Pish 
Indo-Auslr. Archip. v, 1!)2!), p. MS!)) but HamiltondJnrhanan "s original figure of 
QJianda nalua shows a differenl h*sh with much deeper cheek, 11 dorsal rays, 10 
anal rays, and depth of body half the standard Length, The Auslralian species pf 

this geniis badly need revision, bid the presenl one does not agree with any pub 
lished description, and is accordingly described as new From the largest of a series 
of thirty two somewhat damaged specimens. 26-45 mm. in standard length. At the 

end of this paper, 1 append some remarks on various 'jvnera and species of Chan- 
didae which I have compared with this new form. 

six ( TA. 6046) retained tor Australian Museum. 

Loc. I mi hurst Head, North Queensland. 

Native Name, Tilkara. 


Soarntititys Bleeker, 1659. 


Scarus tmritus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Xai. Poiss. xiv. *'18:W'=Jaii. 

1M0, ,>. 21S, Kx Kuhl and Van llasselt MS. Java. 

A young specimen, 33 mm. in standard Length, from Flinders Island, is ap- 
parently referable to this species. 


(•■nokrodon Bleeker. 1845, 

(.•imi-:i?oi>i>\ SCHOENIiBtNtl iCnv. and Val.>. 

Co$8yph/U& scIuh ith inn Clivier and Valenciennes, Hist. \at. Toiss. xiii. 1839, p. 

1 13, K> A-assi/ MS. Celebes. 
('Inn (fops schornleini IMeeker, Atlas Ichth. i, 1862, p. L63, pi. xlvi. fig. 3. 
('/><{( rops notatUS Alleyn0 & MaeLeay, PrOC. Linn. SOC N.S. Wales i, March, 1S7T, 

p. '5 11, pi. xvi, fig, 1. Gape Grenville, Queensland. 

One specimen, nearly 110 mm. in standard Length, from Flinders Island 
agrees Well with Bleeker's figure and has cheeks scaly and pitted; preopereulum 
denticulate; lower opercular margin excavate; and five pn-dorsa! scalps. The 
type Of Alleyim and Ma«-lea\ 's species 1 have examined in the Macleay Museum. 
( niversity of Sydney, and find it conspccdic with schoenleinii. 

Whitley — Fishes from North Queensland 



Subfamily Petroscirtinae. 
FaulosciutL':* gejL, nov. 

Orthotype, Petromrtes oMiqwus Garman, Queensland specimens. 

No ares! or tentacles on the head, which is about a quarter to one-fifth of the 
standard lengthy Snout blunt. A curved row of about thirty compressed tacis 
oi's in each jaw. Canines of upper jaw well curved and lying outside the larger 
canines of the lower jaw. Gil I -opening reduced to a small aperlure lying above 
Hie level of the pectoral fins. 

3 3 

Pig. 3 3a. Pandoscwtes <>i>ii<iinis Sarman. Fig, I. Brombua hafei ap. uov. (PhoOi, <; C! 

352 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Body naked, its depth abort one-sixth of the standard length, Lateral Line 
reduced to a few pores near the shoulder. 

Dorsal fins united, no differentiated anterior portion rtr produced liorad 
rays. More than thirty dorsal rays and less than thirty anal rays. Both of these 
fins distinct from the caudal. Some of the caudal rays may be produced in large 

Coloration ornate on head, body, and dorsal and anal fins. 

At once separable from PelroscirUs Riippell, 1830, by its Longer habit, lack 
of tentacles on head, and lower dorsal fin. I>I< n lu-chis Cuv. & Val. 1836 has the 
anterior dorsal rays produced and a broad lateral band. Omobmn^hu.% of the 
same authors, lias small canines and dorsal fin joined to caudal. Aspnlovtns Quoy 
and (Jaimard. 1835, is conspicuously banded and has the snout pointed. <7n//"- 
veps Fowler, 1903, has only eighteen incisors in each jaw and less elongate form 
bill is closer to the new form than the other genera mentioned. Cyntivhtl* ?/x 
Oo-ilhy. TIM'), has an elevated crest on the occiput and some of ihe dorsal rays fila- 
mentous, whilst Oslrrobh limits Whitb-y, 1930, differs in having the head less I ban 
four in standard Length and in its coloration. 

I\\ri.oscm r TT;s OHJjIQUUS I Carman ). 

Fig. 3-3a. 

PetrosefcUs o'bligum Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, sxxix, 8, August. 
1903, p. 237, pi. IV, Bg. 3. Suva, Fiji Is. 
TWO Specimens, 36-52 mm. in standard Length, from Flinders Island. 

I-Amii.y GOBI1DAK. 
Battjygobjus Bleeker, 1878. 

BATHVGOMUS lasers OAHNLiCYKNSis ( Alleyiie ami Macleay i. 

Gobius i/ariilrf/cn.-ii.s Alleyne and Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc, X.S. Wales i, March. 

1S77, p. 331, pi. xii, fig, 1. Damley Island, Queensland. 
Btobhygobms fuscus darnlt in nm Whitley, (.It. Barrier Beef Expect Sci. Rapt iv, 

9, Feb. 27 4 1982, p. 302. 

A series of 24 specimens, 11 to ill mm. in Standard Length, from Flinders 
Uland. The largesl specimen has losl iis Lef1 eye. and the empty socket is covered 
b\ a skin similar to that of the rest of the head ; il appears to be a male. 

Whitley — Fishes from North Queensland 353 

YoN<jEicnTiiYK Whitley, 1932, 

YoN<iEieimrvs ckinhiek (Cut* & YaU. 

(tobius crimger GuVier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. xii, March, 1937, p. 

82. Porl Dorey, New Guinea. 
fongeiehthys criniger "Whitley, Qt Barrier Reel Expert. Sci. Kept. i\\ !). Pel). 27, 

1932, p. 303. 

Two young specimens, 22-23 mm. in standard length, from Flinders Island. 

IsTTOOBius Whitley, 1932. 
IsTiuonrrs sTLPHENsoNi (Whitley). 

(.'nhiiis (Iitigoliut) stephettoowi Whitley, (II. Barrier Reef Expert. Sci. Rept. iv. 

9, Feb. 27, 1982, p. SOI. Murray Island, Queensland. 

Three young specimens, 13-5-23 mm, in standard length, from Flinders 

AtMJJLYGOBIUS 1 Sleeker, 1874. 

A MULYdOI'.irS l'HALAENA (Cuv. & Val.). 

Gobius f)liai<t<ii<i Olivier and Valenciennes, Hist. Na1. I'oiss. xii, March, 1837, p. 

92. Yanikolo, Santa Cruz Oroup. 
Auihlyt/ohius /)Ii<i(<t<ii<t McCulloch and Ogilby, Boa Austr. Mns. xii, 10, July It, 

11)10, |). 25:;, pi. xxxv, eg, 1. 

Two young specimens, 26-33 mm. in standard length* from Flinders Island. 

Duo.vinrs -lord an and Seale, 1905. 

Dmnbns Jordan and Seale, Proe. l\S. Nat. Mns. xxviii, 1905, p. 797, Orthotype, 
/>. /xii (ic/,- ifi Jordan and Seale. 
The typical form of I his genus from Ihe Philippine Islands is recalled l»\ 

the Queensland goby which I name below: 

DROMBX7H iialei sp. now 

Wig. 4-5. 

D. vi/11 ; A. i 8; P. IS; V. 5; about 20 caudal rays. Sc. 28, L. Ir. 11. Predorsal 
scales If). 

Head i 10 mm. ) . :!. dcpl h (6) 5 in standard length. Eye (nearly 3 mm.}, 3-- 3 
in head. 


Records of the s.a. Museum 

Head naked: the checks crossed hy m m u t < cirnt'orm papilkp b COWB. No 
pit, tmly a shallow Liroovr, over h|k'1vI.'S. \'o crests OT barbel* Preopercidnm 
unarmed. Nape and neck scaly. Small short and obtuse: month small, the maxil 
lary rcaphmg to below antesioj? margin q$ eye, I^wit jaw protruding beyrmil 
upper. Bands of simple rilliform teeiU, with a few enlarged outer "n.-s, on jaws. 

Behind ihese, a buccal Hap in ca<-h jaw. Vonwr innthless. I nlerorbital a very 
narrow clip between the tumid ocular margins. QS1I openings wider than ptetstQBgl 
hasc. separated hy a broad istimins. 

-::■: ,;V^ *:*<■■ 

Fig, 5, Urom&us ■'<"}<< si*, itfpv., lioUitfpe, x 3 •:<;. r. Whitfej', del.). 

Size small. Body covered with large etemad scales, which extend BVfcf tilfl 
nape and neck to the eyes. Ureasl ami lower pari of peetOTftl hasc naked. 

Piral dorsal with six spines, nunc of them stiff or filamentous, Upper pec- 
toral rays m-t froe ntir differentiated from the others. X'enlrals iive-rayed, united, 
and wilh a rather deep t'rennm. Caudal roundel. 

('(ihaii in spirits, dark hrownish. especially on lead and hack. Lower part 
oi! body lighter brown, crossed hy eiedit or nine obscure darker areas which tend 
to form ch«'<jiie)'s with a similar row above them and all ernal i tig with them. Eye 
bluish. Kins white, more or less densely spotted or int'nscated with brown Qr 
hlaek-ish. A yellow spnt. followed hy a dark smoky wash on bases of upper pqe 
Pied rays. 

DeHcritifHl ami figured froni rim imiqtte bOLotype of Hie species, a specimen 
HO iiim. in standard length or 1 ' nielo-s in lotal length. 

/,or. Flinders Island, North Queensland; caiejhl inslmre. 

Named in honour of Mr. Herbert Al. Hale. Director of the Aluseum at Ade- 

Whitley— Fishes from North Queensland 355 


KrriiomsToi'Ls Gill, 1863. 

EucnoKisTorns kalolo (Lesson). 

Perwphthalmm kalolo Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool, ii, 1, 1831, p. 146. Waigiou. 
Periophthdlmus <tr<jaitilincalus Cnv. & Val., Hist. Nat Poiss. xii, March. 1837, p. 

191. Waigiou, etc.; same specimens, collected by Lesson and Garnet 
Euehonstopus kalolo WMtley, Austr. Zool. vi, Feb. 13, 1931, p. 825, Id. Hale and 

Tindalc, Rec. S. Austr. Alus. v, 1933, p. 110. 

Two specimens, 60-65 mm. standard length, from Flinders Island. 


Sehastai'Istiis Streets, 1877. 
Sia;.\sTAi'isTj;s isynoensis laotalk Jordan & Scale. 

Fig, 1. 

8ebmtapisi0& tootle Jordan and Scale, Bull. U.S. Bttr. Fish, xxv, 1905 (Dec 15, 

1906), p. 376, fig. 72. Apia, Samoa. 

Five specimens, 32-53 mm. in standard length (on right in fig. 1), from 
Flinders Island are figured beside a series of l 1 niln><n injs from the same place 
to show the remarkable superficial resemblance between tin* two structurally dif- 
ferent species. 


SuooivUNDUS Whitley, 1930. 
SUGGBUNDUS NEMATOi'HTlIALMUS ( '( \ 1 111 t her ) . 

Platycephal%$ nwiatopfithalmus Gunlher, Cat. Fish. Brit, Mns. ii, 1860, p. 184, 

Pori Bssington, North Australia. 

< >ne small specimen, 70 mm. in standard length, from Flinders Island. 

OvOTOES Anonymous, 1798. 

OvoiDES manillensis a'iroattts (Richardson). 

Tetrodon mariUknm Pmce, Bull. Soe. Pkilom. Paris, Sept. 1822, p. 130, Manilla, 
Philippine Islands. 

356 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Tetrodon vkgatus Richardson, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, Kish, ls-Mi, p. B2, 
pi. \x\i\. 8-9. Port Jackson, Id. Richardson, Zool, Voy. Herald, Vertcb. 
1854, p. I68 1 pi xxviii (Por1 Jackson and Torres Strait). 
On<- specimen. 147 nun. in standard length, from Bathursl [lead* is acenm 

panied by a label,, giving the native name as "AdadV** and stating that this fish la 
bailed, being poisonous if roasted in embers in the usual way fish are cooked. 

1 , Hls| 1 0\lMH)\ Midler, IS 11. 

riiKU'NODON pAToi a i 1 1 am i 1 1 on- 1 biclmna n 

Tetrodtm patwa Bamiltori-Brichanan, Fishes of the Ganges, L823, pp. 7 and 363, 

pl. xvni. fig. -. (binges, India. 
Leiodon patova, Sleeker, Atlas tehth. V, 1865j p. 7(>. pl. ccx. fig, 2. 

A specimen, { M nun. in standard length from Flinders [stand, and another^ 
of 44 nun. from Bathursl Bead: The fins are orange or yellowish, the caudal be- 
ing transversed by a diffuse dusky band. 

Now record for Queensland. 

The Australian Museum also possesses a specimen from the Trobriand 


Kkmaiv-ks m\ sototf Typical ttriiriur.Ns otf Chandidab, uxaminkd tor comparison 

with Amuassis tkekaka Whitley 

Thanks to Ihe loan of type-specimens by Hie Queensland Museum, Brisbane, 
and llie AbiHeny Musrum, Ibuversily ^\' Sydney, I have heen enabled to compare 

inieroscopicaliy quite a number of rhandidae witli authentically named speci- 
mens. Tin- following resnlts will form ;i hasis for further research although 
numerous species from Australia, New UttbJeA, ;md Oceania awail more detailed 
t reatnicul. 

Some of tiiese Chanda Perches are popuhn- as a.piarium pets, and ihe breed- 
ing of ihe (Jhiss Fish Amhcmis (= Ohanda) Ma Hueh.-Ilam, has recently been 
described, whilst in \ew Scmtb Wales and Queensland a popular aquarium 

species IS Ambussis <t(!<issiii St eindaclmer i si-r Carter, The A(|iiarium (Phila- 
delphia) i. 9, 1 *»:>:;, p. ^:i4, and Ladiires, Md. p. 306). The fad thai some Chan- 
didae are marine and others thiviatile indicates ilmL when the species are belief 
known, then- zoo^eo^raphienl distribution will afford a fascinating subject U>v 
Si mly. 

Fishermen detesl ihem, as .Mr. b, Wilson writes (Jk hi. 1929) of "Atnbatsi* 

in/lint" from Pari Darwin, when- they arc known as k * n<.oi |\ --'Dnoclv is a 

pi) s ( .<- p. ;uu. 

\\ mri.FY -Pism s l ROM Xortii QUEENSLAND 357 

peat, not even jjood bait. Tin* fins mesh eV-t'i'.v time it is caught. They are uiore 
tliriii ph'tit i Tul. and are found with all Chases of iish (mnllet, satdbie, etc. ). and 
■ ire always m lari»v shoals. If one is not (puck enough to notice the Type of iish 
caught in the nel, it takes ihe best pari of ;ni hour to clean your net an'ain". 
Indeed, the present Writer has collecled series of specimens of another species Ijy 
pickine;' them out of the meshes uf nets in northern Xew Smnh Wales. 

The Chandidae are of no commercial \n I nc and Cantor slales thai they are 
merely used as manure in Malaya. Their saving e.racc Kegljiti to he their liking 
lor mosipnto larvae as food, and sevral Australian speeies [ujvi 1 been ntili/ed in 
attempts to eop< i with the inos<|iiito | m^I . 

ArsTiaKllANOA ^en. iiov. 

Ortholype, j's< ii<(<><iinlnissis >n<ic!<<n/i Castclnan - ■- A u.s! racha min nuichni/i. 

Profile oi head, excavated, Xoleelli on tonu'iie. Supraorbital with hot nllf 
-pine posteriorly, I nfranrbilal, prcorhilal. and preoperenlimi serrated. Maxilla 
not dilated at its e\t remit v. Not more than 10 dorsal and anal rays. Anterior 
dorsal and anal spines elongate. Recumbent dorsal spine not exposed. Body 
deep; lateral line incomplete. Abonl a du/.m predorsal scales. Caudal peduncle 

This new Li'eneric name is proposed for I'studoaiuhassis Castclnan i Proe. 
Linn. Soc, X.S. Wales iii. Sept., 1B7&, p. 4:C. preoccupied by P.s< Hthntilxissis 
lileeker (Arch, \eerl. Sci. Xal. xi, 2, lS7(i. p. 2Q2\ Cenotypr ('!,n,i<ht hihi ThicIo 
anan-Ilamilton ). Iileeker'> name is a synonym of ( 1 Ji<iikI<i Pnchaiian I lamilton. 
as restricted hy Fowler i Proe. Acad. Xal. Sci. Philad. 1!M)o, p. ,"S()()!, a <;cnns 
having ahont liftcen anal rays. 

Ai stko< n \\i)A macu-'Avi ( ( 'astelnan '. 
Fig, K-7. 

I's< iii/omuhnssis marhuyi Castelnan, Prnc. Linn. Soc. X.S. Wales iii, Sepi. I,s7s. 
p. 4-T Xormaii Rivet, tltilf of ( 'arpentnria. Types in Maeleay Museum ex 

PseudoWnbtmUi t inventus Castelnan, Proe Linn. Soc. X.S. Wales iii, Sept. 1878, 
p. 44. Xorman River. Stllf of l 'arpentaria Types in Macleay Museum ex- 

Aiii/hissis tii rahfs Macleay. Proe. Linn. Soc. X\S. Wales v, Feb. 1881, p. 3.W. (5n 
dcavonr River. Queensland. Types in Macleay Museum examined. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

rsrinhfinlxtssis puflldiUi De Vis, PiHjA Linn. Roc. N.S, Wah-s ix. Any;. 19, 1884, p. 
:!!)."). tjneenshind. type in QnettrUitand Museum exmiiined nnd figured. 

I>s, tnhniilxissis mii<'< .< its |)c Vis. l'rnc. Linn. Soc. \.S. Wales ix, Ah-. 19, |SS|, 

|.. 394, Queensland. Types in Australian aiiil Qtitutiislaiid Museums t j x- 

Am!><iss<s mui'hn Weher, Zool Kni'seli. Austin v. ISO", p. 264, Btiruetl Kiver. 
Queensland, Noi .1, undhr Kliumnger, Sitefr. Ak. Wiss. Wien. Ix.w, I, 

1879, p. 34:6, pi. i. ligr. 8, from l'orl Darwin. 

I"im, \' K Ju.slrurit'ihild uxirhat/' i < n«M . ). ,']iiv. ;., UKt(*t$\W i<!' l's< ii<l»„ minimis >/<>,< *,<,! t>>, 
|W,j l" mill <-. dtirtft] J"" 1 ^ncHiins cf sm.-illrr Ivjm- of /'. / ImfftftHX, X ."» (G* P; W hit lr>\ , .!H. i . 

There are throe spetihuena of mttvlmyi in the Maeloay Mu^oiitn Erbm the Mnr- 

maii Kivei\ and the lar<i'es1. 52 nun. in tt&frlard l<-nii*1 )i, is selected as the taeta 
type of tile species. The lateral line is iiluOIUpIetO and lltC seales are in from 2h' 
to 28 transverse series. Tin- nrliital liOmtt are more sinmejy serrated and the 
tooth mow? sironidy devebputl in Urn 1\ |»«- than in the smaller specimens, but -'til 
of 1 1 1 iMi i have D. vii i, 10, A. iii It) and dorsal memhranes dn>ky. 

The Maclcay Museum has. I urn small specimens ni' I's< m/amnhassis i hnujui i>s 
Castelnau from ihc Xnrman R?iyt*r I Kg*, 61. These have I). vii-viii i, 7; A. iii 4 
i deformed >-7. A few lubes <m ] he lateral line scales anteriorly. Scales in aboill 

Whitley— Fishes fkom Xokth Queensland 


21 to 25 transverse Agrteft, L ir. 11. 1 1 1<- deptli is aboitt nne-ihird of tha stan- 
dard length, but this is tin- sleiideruess natural in yplinp specimens. A most 
earel'ul comparison wtih murium') makes it cvidmil ih;,i the $Qnfftli%$ form is 
merely the yXMlttg of tile species. 

Five types n|' rhrahis, frniii the Hndeayour Kiwr. are also in the Maeleay 
Museum, and agree with those of Mrteatfl The formulae vary a little: I). vii i, 
9-10; A. iii/9-10; Se. 24-2$. 

l»*ig, 7. Axxi rnrliiih.lo }\iacl< <> ff'i (Cnst.). Type of /'.sv ndamitmais pvlHdnut be Yin., X If- (0 

i'. w Imikv, rteL). 

The Queensland Museum luis kindly forwarded a specimen which is ohviously 
Ihe type Of pallidas, am! which is here ill uM rated i li<r, 7i. It j s .~>0 inm. in stan- 
dard length. Head 1!> mm., eye n\ inlerorhital 4, snoo! :?, depth oi* hody 22 mm 
Predorsal scales 12, The fin spines and rays appear to he ahimnnal, being IX 
vi ii, 7; A. iii ;' S; hut it is not uniisiml for Chandidac. (Jerndae, Ueiognfttbidpe, 
and like fishes to have a ray changed into a spine in sonic individuals. 

The typefc of /\ four, .r/(s fte Vis have the upper preopereulai' ridev n«>l ser- 
rated, as iu the doiii/alus form, and eigft! dorsal rays, sp , \om>i ,rus is apparently 
another s\nonym ol' this speci-'s. Thus, I regard muchaf/i, rion&tttw, rhrutiis, 
palli'ivs. and CQlli)exu$ as conspeeilic. 

360 Records of the S.A. Museum 

A<-a.\tiioi'i:k<a Oistclnan. 1878. 

Aeanthop&rva Casteln&v, Pru(i. biim. Soc. X .s. Wales, iii, y«*pt l<S7;s, p. 44. Uap- 

Lotype 4< gultwcfi Cjastahiaii. 
WhUhyia Fowled Hull. LT.S. Nat. Mm UK), x. v.wo. pp. 2 and 148, ilaplotypt' 

U 7n'/// ///>^/ l«\>wler, //>/</. p. vii, Error* 

This genus accommodates certain large forms t>f Ohandidae with &1>ou1 40 <<r 
more scales in the complete lateral lino> about four to seVeji mws of piit'ek-Meales. 
a large maxilla, and much enlarged clorstiJ and anal spines. t)nj drirsaJ npinen being 
higher than the sol'i dorsal tin. The typn of -1 yuUiiwri < 'msi cliui n, from the 
Xnnimn River* triilf of Carpentaria, is preserved in the M&eluay Museum LI has 

D. vii i, 11 ; A. iii !»; 1 kit. 3$ Ml hypural, ami the proeumbenl dorsal spine pre- 
stiit but concealed, ll is evidently ebilSIHSClfie With Auihussis ffifjax Kanisay mikI 
Oirilhy (IM-dr. Linn. Soc. tilB. Wales (2) i, 1#86, p. 9), the hololypo of which, 
j'rom the Strickland Rivtsri New Guinea, is in the Australian Museum. This speci- 
men has VA dorsal and anal rays, but otherwise agreeH in detail with the rseellenl 
description and figure of the species inven hy Weber and Beau fori (Fish, Indn. 
Anstr. Archip. v. (829, p. 4(K{, fig. 1>7; see also Weber, X'ovn (Jninea ix, 11)13, p 

r>7(). % SI). 

Appareni lj , \Y/ii/h>ii(i ih a synonym i or al inosi a subgenus) o!' A(*untko- 
pi n'<i. 

N En a: m cassis gen. now 

Orthotype, Ti>tr(wcntrum frpaumwtdrs M&eleay. 

A pains of freshwater rhandidae having I'onr anal spines. Both the dorsal 
and anal spines arc wry strong. Proenmbonl dorsal spine concealed. The head 
is excavated above, and has seVmd naked areas. Supraorbital Eormfilg H spine 
less ridge, infraorbital, preorbital, preopercle, and interopercle strongly serra- 
ted. .Jaw> and line teeth, enlarged a ut erioH y in upper jaw. halcral line COJli- 

pb'tr. running over about thirty scales, size Eairly large. 

X< (/<inihassis replaces Trf rurtnh h m Alaeh-a.w preocc. in lnsecia by BraUer, 


NK(JA.M1>ASS1s AI j O(;o\OII>LS I Macleas •). 

Kitr 8, 
T< /rue* iitntat <i}>ofion<H<h s Macle.iv. PrOC. Lillll. Sue. \.S. Wales viii, duly 17. 

UlBft, p. 256. Gtoldia liiver, New tHiiuea. Ontypw in Anst. Mns. seen. Id. 

Kowlcr. Mom. Bish. Mns. x, 192S, p. 1 <>T. Id. Welfei* and Beaufort; Firth 

Jndo Anslr. Archip. v, 1929, p. !'-•' 



Tliis species is now figured for Hie first time from Hie lectot ype, the 
of a scries of eotypes in I he A usl rahan MllHGUto. This specimen is 125 mm. in 
standard length or about six Indies overall. Although superficially like 811 ipo- 
Lroniu 1 (ish, Ihis species is obviously derived I'roni mii A mimssis-Wkv form. It is 
i-.-iihor likff ParftMbuB*is Mleckor, bul the Eouf anal spines ( constant ijj all thy 

R, Xrtfinnhttjsix o piH/mioiilrs (Marloa \ ) . Li.-.-t 01 vpc, ;<: ^ (G: P; Whil li \ , ,|rl.i. 

colypes. >, Hie larger scales, and I lie naked patches on tile bead serve to tljsl inimisli 
it. There Mre three or four L'GVfo Of Sealed nhOVe the lalcral line and three rnws of 

cheek scales. Tile rolorat ion is now ohsetire. but the specimens were apparently 
eonrspirnonsly Spotted in life. 

Pil.ANpnNVskiKLLA Iredale and Wliillry, 11^2. 

Utandowskietla Iredale an<l Whitley, \'iet. Nat. xlix, Atig, 8, V.K\-2, p. !);>. Driho- 

I ypr /'.sv mlofiiiilwssis rushhuiKt Alaideay. 

Profile "I* head titJl eid by supraorbital, which is oo1 serrated. Pteoyereuiiini 

and preoi-lnl.'il serralcd. bu1 oilier botUta (rf ElUad entire. Maxilla short. Ahonl 
eight dorsal and anal rays. Dorsal and anal spines not \ei-\ strong, liody BOin 
prised, nol ve.r,\ deep, Lateral line praelieally obsolete. I nlialn! ing trcshw aim . 

lihANnoWsKIKLnA < ■AVPKLNAIM I Alacb'ay 1. 

Fig, !'). 

f'^t it<l<><tut/><tssis cr/sfhlntttd Alaelcay, lYoc, Linn. Si-c N X. Wales v. Keh. 1881, )>. 

33 SL Muirruiubidgee River, M.S. Wales 

362 Records oh the S.A. Museum 

A specimen from the Narfandera district. Ww South Wales, in here figured* 
This species was discovered by William von Bfandtw&ki in Victoria, but Mjttdeay 
later published a name I'or ii. In reeotuitrag tbe deeds ol' 1 Mam low ski, [redale 

l-'iK. [). llhnuioirslulla ras/rhtnui ( M:«rlr;.y ) . X 2{ (C. J'. W'IuII.m. del.). 

and Whitley provided a new geiierk name I'm- this attractive little specie*, I 

have also seen Mnrra\ River I Victoria) Specimens in the National Museum. Mel- 

Amhassis Cuv. and Val., 1828, semn lufn. 
Amuassis I'Ai'i knms Alleyne and Marl 
Pig. 10. 

Ami'ussis pa/iinnsis Alleyne and Maeleay, Proe. Linn. Soc. X.S. Wales f, Feb. 

1877. p. 266, pi. v. fig, 4. Halt Sound, Now (luinea. Types in Maeleay 

Museum examined. 

Theiv are two co-types of this species in the Mich-ay Museum, 44 lo-17-.'i mm. 
in standard length; the larger specimen is hereby designated the IfcCtotype, and 
I inured. 

D. vii/i, !); A. iii !); L. lat. 12 + 12 = 24. L. 1 r. 2 1 7-S. 

Eye, 6-0 mm., head 16, depth &£ body 19, seeond dorsal spine 12 mm in 

larger specimen, 

Whitley— Fishes from North QUEENSLAND 


General characters as in A. totkara htxi the nuelud ridge is not Berated ; 
there is only one row of scales on tine eheek, and about ten pivdorsal seales. The 
second mh.-iI spin.' n\' ptimicnsis is much shorter than the third, and the posterior 

Pig. in. Avrkb(in*i« papnwwis Aiteym* & Mwsta&y, lectoty p^ x 2 (<;. 1\ Wliitirv. rlel.). 

margins of the preopGrcuIiftti and inieruperculum are art denticulated. Tongue 

Probably both 4- tolltictra and .1. papM&waw are subgonerically distinct from 
the true .Iwhassis umbaMh (Lacep&de) type of the genus; 

Am ijassis /\<i.\ssF/.u Stemdachner. 

Amba&xis dgassizii Hfre'mriaeluiejr, sit/h. Ak. Wiss. Wien lv. I, 1867, p. 9. Pit#roy 

Iv., Roekhampton. 7r/. (iiinlher, Ann. Ma?. N;,1. Hist. (3) xx, 1867, p. 5?. 

Clarenee U\. X.s.W 

Changn agassim W.-jhe. Mm,. X.S.W. Nat. Cliik i, 1M0-I, p. 29. N,& Wales. 

Prinpis nigHpiftons Ogilby* Proe. Roy, Soe. QM, xxiii. Xov. 1910, p. l->. Greets 
at Kilcoy, smith Queensland; 

A diminutive species, up in 21 inches Ion?, from the rivers of southern 
Queensland and northern New South Wales. Priopw niyripimwa Ogilby (not 

PfH mhtmhuss s ni^in/n'iuiis I )e Vis] is evidently a synonym of this BpecieH as. 
although Ogflby'S lypes have been lost, his descripl ion agrees well with Uiat of 


364 Records of the S.A. Museum 

A&BA8S1S Nhtuiriwis i I)e Vis). 

Ps( urfftiiibassis nigripinnU Dq Vis, Proa Linn, See, N.S.Wales ix, Aug. 1884, p. 

393, Brisbane River, Queensland. Cotypea in Austr. Mus. seen. 
/'rif'pis t/l iuGcrns Ogilby, Proc, Roy. Sec. QM. xxiii. Xov. 1910, p, 11. Creeta And 

waterholes around Brisbane. 

Our nr two tubes on lateral line. 8c (tfr<?0 25. Two rows of cheek-scalen, sub- 
orbital serrated; upper preopereular angle with h\o spines, otherwise no1 ser- 

Ogilby's species, oMvareus, is apparently ;i synonym of mgripiftnis De Vis. 
Qgilby also described a new species under the name ni(jripiirmh< but this does not 

require a new name as i1 is evidently a synony I' A uih'lssis <t{ittssi:ii Sleindach 



Orthotype Pscudoambassfa rumswyi Macleay= Priopidichfkys wiariamis (Gun 


Supraorbital with several spines posteriorly. Preorbital and lower limbs of 
preo|)erenImn serrated, infraorbital crenulate; other hones of head smooth. Teeth 

on jiiws. vomer, palalines, and tongue. Maxilla moderate. Six or seven dorsal 
spines and ten to eleven dorsal and anal rays. Lateral line well developed, bnl 

rivUHTimilTUVS MAIM AN I - I < ill 111 her -. 

Ambassis mcurimus (Jiinther, Kept Voy. Chall., Zfotil. i, 6, 1880, p. 32. Tiaro, 
Mary River, Queensland ( u OhaIlengor ,J Biped.). 

r,s( ■Kfloambfissis mmsayi Maeleay, Pro& Linn. Roc. NVS. Wales, v, 1881, p. 340. 

Port Jaekson. Type in Macieay Mus. seen, 
Amh<iss : s rommwiiomi Ogilby, Oat. Fish. X.s. Wales, issn", p. II. Richmond 

River, X.S.W. Xot .1. romim rstniii t'uv. and VaL 1828, I'nmi Bourbon, etc. 
Chuinla hwuensis Waite, Mem. N.s.w Sut Chib, i, 1904, p. 39 (N.S.W.). Nut 

Amfxtssis Intrm iisis Bleekcr Xat. Tydsclll*. Xed. I ml. xi, 1856, p. 396, from 
East Indies. 
Priopfs remtsayi MeOulloch. Zool. Res. Endeav. i, 1911, p. 57, pi. xvi. fig, 3 (ref 

and synon.). 

T rim unable to separate rttmsaifi from marianus as ;i distinct species. The 
Lateral line of Nerang Creek ( 'Queensland ) specimens cauprhl by Ogilby and Tosh 

in One haul of the net varied from 9-14 + 0-11. Sc. 2/28 SO '8 (#* Ojrillry MS i 
Tin 10 or 11 dorsal and anal rays are useful features for diagnosing tins species, 
which is marine or ostuarine in Eastern Australia. 

Whitley— Fishes ikom Nokth Queensland 

Vela Mr', ass is uvn aov.. 


< >ri hoiypo Psi 'Ufiniinihttssis jaekxoniwt&Ui Maideay (Prpe. Linn. Sde, X.s. Wales 
\. Ki.'Ij. 1881, |». -MO. Perl -bickson ) == \'<l<im!nissis jarLsuiu'msis. 
Form elongate, the depth more than : > in standard length. Supraorbital 

with ,-j spun* posteriorly, the preorbiuil and i n rr;i orbit a I denticulated and thtf 

preoperciilar ttnd interopemdar margins seriated. By€ slightly shorter than 

I * I IT - EL r*l ■limib(>. : jitri.-snm* K,sls I ,M ;<r |i';,V ). X '2 ((J. I \ WlliHrY, i'l«'l. t 

postorbital pan of head, Maxilhiry moderate*, just reaching to below anterior por- 
tion of eye. Small teeth on jaws and palate; none oil tongue. Two rows of cheek 
smiles. Lateral line complete, with abotil 27 or 28 tubed scales. About 10 to 12 
predorsal nchIck, Procunnbuiit dorsril spint' concealed- D. vii i, ffc-10; A. iii, 0, 
Third dorsal spfnc longest anil much longer than the longest (third) anal npine, 
Tin- dorsal spines are weaker than is uaual in the Chandidae. l>aek and fins 
speckled, A specimen of V. j<i<'l,'s<n>i< n mi$ f 40 nun. in standard length, is h#re 
illustrated (fig:. 11 J. It is niK« of ;i series eollfieted a1 8heTlharlia.uf-, X.s. xwUrs, 
by Mr. V. A. McNeilT, Austr. Museum, .--J. Xo 1A. 606?. 


By J. R. Kinghorn, C.M.Z.S., Zoologist, Australian Museum 
(By Permission of the Trustees of the Australian Museum) 



Gehyra variegata, Gray. Loc. Bathurst Head. 

Diplodactylus vittatus, Gray. Loc. Bathurst Head. 

Varanus punctatus orientalis, Fry. 370 mm. long. Loc. Flinders Island. 

Varanus gouldii, Gray. 200-420 mm. long. The most widely distributed of the Australian 

Varanids. Loc. Flinders Island. 

Lygosoma (Liolepisma) fuscum, Gray. Transparent palpebral disc not larger than ear 

opening ; 38 scales round body ; 35 lamellae under fourth toe. Loc. Flinders Island and 

Bathurst Head. 

Lygosoma (Liolepisma) pectorale, De Vis. The prefontals may or may not form a median 

suture ; 32 scales round the body. Loc. Flinders Island. 20 specimens. 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) tenue, Gray. 2 damaged specimens. Loc. Bathurst Head. 

Acanthophis antarcticus, Gray. Loc. Bathurst Head. 


Hyla caerulea, Gunther. 81 mm. long. Variation from typical - vomerine teeth 
commencing on a level with front edge of choanae. Finger discs about as large as the 
tympanum. Loc. Stewart River. 
Phractops brevipes, Peters. 50 mm. long. Loc. Stewart River. 


By J. R. KINGHORN, C.M.Z.S., Zoologist, Australian Museum. 
(By permission of the. Trustees of the Australian Museum.) 


(hhjfra varicf/ahr, Gray, Lor. Bathurst Head. 

Diplodactylus vitiatus. Gray. Lor. Bathurst Head. 

V(i)-anus punctuius oriental is, Fry. 370 mm. long, hoc. Flinders Island. 

Voranus goutilii, Gray. 200-420 mm. long'. The most widely distributed of the 
Australian Varanids. hoc. Flinders Island. 

LygosotoMt ( Liolcpisma ) fifscnm, Gray. Transparent palpebral disc not larger 
than ear opening; 38 scales round body; 35 lamellae under fourth toe. hoc. 
Flinders Island and Bathurst Head. 

Lifi/osoma (Liolepisma) p$ctorale } De Vis. The prefontals may or may not form 
a median suture ; 32 scales round the body. hoc. Flinders Island. 20 speci- 

Lygosoma (Hlnulia ) trnv.r. Gray. 2 damaged specimens, hoc. I >n1 hui-sl Head. 

AcaiilJiopIiis arUurcticus, Gray. Lor. Bathurst Head. 


Hyla cuerulea, Gunther. .si mm. long. Variation from typical — vomerine teeth 
commencing' on a level with front edge of choanae. Finger discs about as 
large as the tympanum. Lor. Stewart Eiver. 

Phractops brrriprs, Peters. 50 mm. long. Lor. Stewart River. 



By Herbert M. Hale, Director, South Australian Museum 


Scyliorhinus Vincenti (Zeitz). 

Scyllium vincenti Zietz, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., xxxii, 1908, p. 287. 
Scyliorhinus vincenti McCull, Endeavour Res., i, 1911, p. 4, pi. ii, fig. 3 and text fig. 1. 
A female of this species, 410 mm. in length, was caught on September 11 th , 1928, in St. 
Vincent Gulf, South Australia ; the ovaries were large, with a number of ova in various 
stages of development while in the oviducts, ready for deposition, were two eggs. Each of 
these, including the shell, weighed 0.2 oz. 



Tr. HERBERT M. HALK, Diri.-iok, South Aistkaiian. Mr-i um. 

Fig. 1. 

ScvLioiniiMis \]\c[-;nti (Zoifz). 

SeyUium vincentiZietk, Trans. Roy. Soe. tt. Ausi., xxxii, luos. }), 287, 
Scyliorfivnux vincenti MeCull, Endeavour lies., i, 1911, p. -1, pi. ii, fig, 'A and texl 
li- 1. 

A FEMALE of this species, 110 mm. in length, was eaijghl on September 1 1 r h, t!)2S, 
in St. Vineem (inll'. South Anslralia; The ovaries were lare.'e, with a number of 
ova in various slaves of development while in the oviducts, ready for deposition, 
were !\vn £ggS, Kadi of these, including the shell, weighed 0-2 oz. 

The ehitinons egg-ease is subqnadranejular in shape, flattened. 52 mm. in 
Length ( 'exclusive of the produced corners ) , 21 mm. in breadth, and L0»5 mm. in 
depth. A1 Ihe posterior end Mhat is tllfi mid directed lowards the anus as the 
egg lay in tin? oviduct) each corner is produecd, (aperintr rapidly to form a Single 
fllament, wiiich is 250 mm. in length, moderately stout basally, and tapering 'grad- 
ually, the hinder (or apical ) part being thread -like. When the eggs WGI'e removed 
and placed ill a inline solution these filaments rapidly ,k corkscrewed ? \ The an- 
terior margin of the ease is rat Inn- thin, and the anterolateral angles are a little 
produced ami curved slightly inwards. Both laces have a striated appearance 
owing to the presence o\' adpn>ssed. longitudinal bundles of silk-like threads, laid 
t'mm «-nd to end and covering practically the whole (rf the e^-shell. I^rom the 
lateral parts emanale silky filaments MO mm. to 40 mm. in len<r1h, forming a 
fringe; at the anterior {portion of the case Ihese filaments become very long and 
form a pair of wavy byssi. Each byssns is 350 mm. in length and is composed of 
a £Tcat number of separate fine threads. In tin- oviduct the byssi appeared as 
slender and extremely flexible tendrils, and their structure and purpose were ap- 
parent only when the eggfl were placed in fluid. 

Evidently, when the egg is extruded the posterior tendrils rapidly twist to 
a spiral and thus anchor Ihe egg to weed or some other snpport ; also, the long 
byssi, once they have floated I'rce. cling to and cnlanirle around every roiiedi ob- 
ject they <-ome inlo eonlact with, like threads of wet silk, and doubtless serve as 
an excellenl secondary means of attachment. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 





1 1 


Pig, 1, Egg of Scj/liorliin us riiifcnl I Ziolz. Nat. size. 


By Bernard C. Cotton, Conchologist, S.A. Museum, and 
Nelly Hooper Woods, MA. 


Continual reference has been made to the generic and specific confusion which exists 
among the Turritellidae of Southern Australia, particularly in so far as the fossils are 
concerned. In this paper an effort is made to clarify some of the problems which have 
been most acute in the identification of certain species, and to determine the generic or 
sub-generic location of both the recent and fossil species. 

We retain the genus Turritella, of which the genotype T. terebra is an Australian shell, 
reducing many so-called genera to sub-generic status. Examination of the two genotypes 
of Haustator, Gazameda, and Maoricolpus has led us to regard the latter two as distinct 
sub-genera of Turritella and not as synonyms of Haustator as Thiele (*) has suggested. 


By BERNARD C. COTTON, Concotlogist, S.A. Mtjsbxw, and 

Fig. 1-9. 

Oonti\i"ai. reference has been made to the generic ami specific uonfusion which 
exists ;unon<>- the TurHteUidae of Southern Australia, particularly in so far as 
the fossils are concern.'. J. In lliis paper an effort is made to clarify some of tin* 
problems which have hern most acute in the ideal ideal ion of certain Species, ami 

to determine the generic or sub-generic location of both the receni ami fossil 


We retain the ^enus Turrit* l/a. of which the geftotype T h rchnt is an Aus- 
tralian shell, reducing many so-called genera to Emb-fgefteric status. Examination 
of the genotypes of Hawta-tyr, Gaeamcda, ami Maoricolpus has led us to regard 
the latter two jis distind Bub-gCnera Of Turrth/hf ami not as synonyms of Ihius 

futor as Thiele I 1 ) baa suggested. 

Our grateful thanks are due to Dv. H. J. Finlay, whose notes first gave the 

impetus to the preparation ol" (his paper; to Mr. h\ A. Singleton for the \r\-y 
genertoua loan of material from his collection and notes he had prepared ; and to 
Mr, F, Chapman and Miss I. Crespib for permission to examine material in the 
Commonwealth l^alaeontolouieal Collection. 

TrRRiTEhnA Lamarck 1799. 

<>ul\ one -pecies of TttrnhUa s.s., 7" urn/c/hi Irrrhra. the uvnolype i by 
inminiN p.} |, oeeurs in Australia, and this speeies was included by lledley (-). in 
his list of Western Auslraiian molluscn. W$ now describe n dislinei subspecies -. 

T. (K rini'A snbsp. 


Shell turreted, fairly thin; whorls venl rieose • spirals regular but weak, with 
intermediate liner spiral lirae; suture Linear, aperture rotund. Growth striae 
very Cum and regular, corresponding to the concave tfuter lip of aperture. Colour 
varying from light to medium brown, occasionally axially (lamed with white. 

0) ll.-indl.iirii i\rr Svslcinnf isdlpn WVu-ht iit-fkundc, Krsl er Ti.-I, 19*9, |>, lsl. 

(-'} Hfedtey, Molluscs <>r Wwtvsti Aaatralia, k<>y. s< H -., w, Aust,, i, 1916, p. I. 

370 Records of the S.A. Museum 

llolotype. Length '22 mm., width 6 mm. King Gtaorgtfa Sound, 1244 fatli* 
oms. Reg, No, D. 11439 S.A. Museum, Also from King George's Sound, 2$ Fath- 
oms. Hopetoiin •»") fathoms. 

All specimens examined are broken, including the holotypo, which if torn- 
plete, would be of greater Length. 

Kjmberia subgert. tiov. 

Shell with no outer lip sinus, a 1 hreew -hurled ap'X and spiral cords vvilh or 
without a carina. 

Type. Turritdhi Jcmfti ri Yereo. 

7". in/flint' itsis Verco and probably T. microseopiva May should he placed 


Tin 1 three species are related to tin* New Zealand T, [Eglma) pttmostoma 

ITutton, ( s ) which Fhilay ( ' ) has referred to <iccis<t, but this 1ms a different apex 
and base. They are certainly not T, (Siiramlpus) Finlay with its marked sinus 
and onr-whorlrd apex, l • 1 1 1 seem to form a disiinct group recalling the true tro.pi 
ea] Turritdhi which is a large shell. Kniiixr/a beiug very small. 

Maoickvmj'cs Finlay. 


Tdrmta murrayma Tate, Proc. Roy. Soc., Tas.. 1S84. p. 2^7. 

Turritella mUrmyana Tate. Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Ausi.. xvii. p. 340, pi. rai, fig, : >- 

In his original description, though the name is sugge.Stiy£, Tate has not made 
the locality of the type clear. However, be has distinctly marked as type a tablet 
of specimens from the River Murray Hill's. From measurements, the central 
shell on tie- tabid (in the Tate Museum Collection ) is the holotypc, of which a 
considerable portion of the apex is missing and the length of GO mm. is that of 
the shell as it remains withoul Ihe initial I or f> whorls which would contribute 
at least 5 mm. in additional length. 

There are two distinct species which have been classified under '/'. murray* 
una. Since both the slender and tie- stOUl forms occur together at several locali- 
ties, notably Table Cape and Momin<:1on, we deem it advisable to describe the 

stout form as a new species. The bolotype of murraywia is of the slender variety, 

and the slightly more slender shells occurring at Shelford are readily associated 

(3) Trans. N.Z. Inst., xvii, IKNfi, \k 320, pi. wiii, ti^. U». 

(4) Tnins. N.Z. hist., bfc L£29. p. 41, 

Cotton and Woods — RecbNT and Fossil T&RttlTELUDAE 371 

with the Miirr;i\ examples. Tire trufe iiii(rr<n/<ni<t is fount!, though rarely, at 
Tabic Cape, and ii docs, appeaf to grow to the extremely largi? sisw of the stonier 
species. Two of the shells on Tate's f>Iot*k af Table Cape s| xM-inuMis are ni(irra<{- 
nnn l i lie rest are the gross form. 

An Upper Pliocene development of '/'. itm.frai/aiHi is found in the Abattoirs 
I'.nn'. Adelaide, which is here described as a new snbspecms. 




V\\±. i. I'ltifitrlhi nuirr<'i/,iim MltriVltlU .sultsji. nuVi (X l-i>). Fig, 2. Turrilfllo twHvuift 

<ntt latdi wis gubap. iiov. (X --to. Pig. ;->. Tiirrihiln MibadH&tla sjt. nor, ( x '' :' 


JShell having general characteristics of T. mwfayanuf apical angle l.Y ; bul 

possessing Dnuch flatter whorls, less inflation in the early whorls and less carina- 
ihui al I he anterior suture; very strong, coarse spiral sculpture. 

Holotype, of which tlie early whorls are broken. Length 19 mm., width \- 
mm. Abattoirs liore 300-500 Et, ( I'pper Pliocene), 'fair Alns. Coll. 

wj Records of the s.a. Museum 


I'omiht iintrniU'hHt var. Tate, Proe, Roy. Soe.. Tas., 1884, p. 227, 
1-urriieUa inurrwtfatoa var. Tate, Trans. Uoy. Boc M & Ausi.. srvii, p. 340. 

Shell stout, turreted, apical aojrle -1'. Protoconeh absent, ten whorls re- 
maining, first whorls inflated, Utter medially slightly ixmeave. Sculpture con- 
sists oi "J I even, spiral, thread-like ribs eroded by evenly-developed growth lines. 
Aperture broken, apparently «iib-quadrate with fairly dec]) sinus indicated by 
lines of growth. 

Ilolonpr. Length 65 mm*, width 21-5 nun. Tahle Cape, bower Miocene. 

Remarks-: The difference in apical angle and the Uw*s strongly developed eari- 
nation a1 the anterior border make this gpdcSeq e$>y to wuparate l'n>ni T. murray- 
<nni. Specimen* from MomingtOn show early whorls very eoiivex, later whorls 
only slightly flattened, surface sculpture of about 14 threads with growth lines 

less prominently developed- 

A gerontie specimen from Table Cape has measurements.- length 82 mm.. 
width 28 mm. 


'/'. ( Slirtrco!/)its) Kinlay 1926 includes the Australian T. yodeffroyuM DoiV 
aid, T. smilhiaiut Donald, 7. (i&kintioni Tate and Slay, and the closely-allied T. 
m&dioangiilata \'ereo; in New Zealand BHracolputt seems to be directly derived 

from ZtiOcol i>«s as a late Pliocene oll'shoot. so ihal n is douhl till whether any Aus- 

iraliau sh<dls belong to it. Certainly no other Australian species than these fottr 
feuuld he Located there. For the present, Stirtwolpua must be admitted as common 

to the Commonwealth and Dominion. 

<> \/,AAiEl>A Iredale 1924. 

Distinguished by the long spire, Barrow spire angle, and Erequeni earina- 
lion in the anterior suture, flatly convex base with rounded periphery, iktzameda 
includes T. gunmi Reeve (genotype), T. septifmga Tate, '/'. aerimla Tate, '/'. 
suhinT/oihi sp. now, T. hbsmawusa Reeve, G. trcdulci Kinlay. and 7'. wMwmc- 
fund is Chapman and Crespin. 

These represent the Zcihvolpns of NVw Zealand, having a similar apex and 
•'•ill pi ure variations (the sudden fetrarghl Spire mar-ins are peeuliar to some 

species oi* Gmamexhx and Eoi*eign t f > Zeacolpm with its notably eouvex whorls with 

deep sutures for ;i Long way down the spire, though adult whorls are Httttiah), 

though the protoconch te more regularly coiled and smaller. 

Cott«>\ and WOODS — Risosttt and Fossil Tukkii hllidak 3/3 

There is no relation, as has bee*) suggested by Cotton and Godfrey (•"•) be- 
tween StirfH-oi/Nis Kiulay and 6. na/alei Fiulay. The development of two Strong 
keels in that species appears In be l'< 'rcipii to (lazanieda. but is paralleled in /en- 

eolpua by X. lift'uiiiHtht iltnion. while '/'. pftQ&da Reevx* ami 7". aMpamm} Powell 

have only one strong ketfJ, yet all are easily connected with 7'. nflata Hntton, and 
obviously recent offshools from il. 1 1 is well known thai the strong keels develop 
sporadically in many gtfOllpS Of Tnrritr!l.i<la< . It appears then llial (I. iredaJei 
Kinlay represents exactly the same olfshool from (fqsamwTa tliat T. fnlannala is 
from lypieal /enrol /jus. The apical development of ff, irednh i docs not seem !o 

differ much from that of T. ttism&nten flLeuve as indeed Vereq ( U J slated, and is 
unlike that of T. symmetrim Hntton. The am me dn series outlined here also 
dilfors notably from Ze&eoipUH in Ihe shape Of the aperture and the (latly convex 
base with rounded periphery. 

TVkritella a< i;n'u.\ Tate. 

Tnmlilla m-en-idn Tate, Trans. Koy. Soc, N. Aust., xvii, p. XVJ. j)L viii, fig. L pi 
ix, fie:, 4, 7, 12. 

This specie's while it has no! presented the difficulties in identification ex- 
perienced witfi other species of 7 writ fJld . is a very puzzling one in view r>f the 
Striking varialiniw in specimens from different localities. So marked are these 
peculiarities thai at times one is tempted to conclude that none of the shells 
from other localities are conspccilic With the holotype from the Murray Cliffy. 
The species as a whole is also so closely related to T . lasniamea Keeve [-=T. 
stths<fiinw<,<sn Dkr., == 7'. acuta T. WebcU, etc.) thai il is with difficulty that one 
decides whclher some of the Victorian and Tasmaniau shells are more closely re- 
lated to the South Australian fossil species than to the recent T. ltwnaniv& 

The holotype is -undoubtedly m distinct species from the recent shell; it is. 
as Tate says, relatively narrower; it is more flattened in the whorls and much 
more aeiiminalely inrreted, while the tendency is to become more separate at the 
suture as the shell advances in a^e. We therefore advise the retaining of the 
fossil species T. arrirufn as distincl. 

The pnsiticii of ihe Victorian and Tasmauiau shells is then to be decided. It 
is obviously unwise to make decisions on the evidence of isolated shells bearing a 
more striking resemblance fco one species than to ihe other, in view of the Pad 
thai the Tertiary species is probably an ancestor of the recent. We have there- 
fore endeavoured to obtain an average of the specimens under our observai roil 
from the Tate Collection and that of Mr. F. A. Singleton. The accompanying 
table is the result <U OUT calculations. 

• -'.A. \:i1 M dl ( II '). |.. :><>, pi. 2 1 fig. 4. 
(«) Trans, //„,,. .W.. S. .!„•>/., xwiv, J910, |'. I Lfl< 


Records of the S.A. Museum 



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Cotton and Woods— Recent and Fossil Ti uritellidak 375 

In general, the fossil specimens, where the protoecru'cti and bite early whorls 
can be seen, presents a stronger carinatioh in the early whorls than the r<2eeu1 
species, though the protocouehs are idefltieal. The recent shell attains a grteater 

ttijse than I he fossil, from which it appears to be a development. The Victorian 
representatives, from Muddy Creek and M on line;! on particularly, aiv distinct 

from those .»r other localities in the strong convexity of the whorls, particularly 

lie- '-ally w Imrls. This is never developed in the Murray Cliffs sei'ies. The Vic- 
torian shells are far less attenuated, with a wider spire angle and less prominent 
Sculpture, fceelS being- absent tor the most part. Those i'rom Cippsland show 
characteristics midway between the two species; they are probably the strongest 
evidence for the development of hisnianica from aerie ula. 

Table Gape specimens are strikingly stouter with more even, strongly devel- 
oped lirae on the whorls. 

Differences are presented also by specimens i'rom the Abattoirs P.ore, Ade 

We are therefore of the opinion that all the fossil specimens should be in- 
cluded in the species 7 aerie ula. but 1 hat only those from the type locality, AInr 
t'ay dill's, an 1 irne arneida; the others we consider subspecies. The Yiclorian 
subspecies / '. rielarieits/s subsp. now is characterized by its less attenua- 
ted appearance and its convex whorls; the Tasmanian subspecies, 7". aerieuia fas- 
aia an iisis subsp. now by its stouter size and more even and strongly lirale sculp- 
ture; for lack of better material we include the Ilallett \s Cove specimens with the 
Abattoirs Hore specimens, which are characteristic of the " ^roy-sand bed passed 
through by many of the bores penetrating a depth of MOO-OOH feel in l he ueieji 
bonrhood of Adelaide. For this new subspecies possessing stout shell and strong 
tendency to excavation of the suture and bold sculpture, which is rather latticed, 
and not lirate we propose the frame T aerteafa a<h laid* itsis snbsp. nov. 

ll is obvi'OUS, then, that our division of subspecies is a geographical one only, 
made on flic average characteristics exhibited by the shells from different locali- 
ties. This seems the most likely division 1o provonl mm endless confusion between 
1 he fossil ami recent species. 


I. T a,-r>ftt!a aerieuia Tate. 

7' (hcrkvhi Tate. Trans. Roy. So.-., S. Ausi.. wii, p. MMO, pi. viii, fig; 4. 
llolotype. River Murray ('litis. Tate iVhis. Coll. 

376 Records of the s.a. Museum 

2. T. acricnla adcla'ahnsis subsp. now 

Differs from T. acricula sa. in haying slightly more convex whorls, strong 
growth lines, and about 12 evenly-spaced and even-sized major ribs, giving a 
latticed appearance to the shell. Decidedly excavate at the suture. 

llolotype. Length 37 nun., width 7 mm. Abattoirs Bore, 300-500 lit. Up- 
per Pliocene. Tate Mns. Coll. 

'J. T. a eric it hi rictoriciisis subsp. now 

T. acricula var. Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Ausi., xvii. p. 340, pi. ix, figs. 4, 7. 
ETolotype. Length 25 mm., width 5*5 mm. Gelibrand River, Lower Mio- 
cene. Tate Mus. Coll. 

4. T. acricula tusuiuuicusis subsp. nov. 

T. acricula var. Tale, Trans. Roy. Sow, S. Ansl.. xvii, p. 340, pi. ix, fig. 12. 
llolotype. Length 34 mm., width 8*3 mm. Table Cape, Lower Miocene. 
Tate Mus. Coll. 

TuitBITELLA SUBACKK rw\ sp. now 

Shell of medium size, sharply turreted, whorls convex, 14 whorls proto- 
eoneh missing. Sculptured with 4 major spiral fibs and indistinct secondary nhs 
crossed by marked axial striae of growth, Aperture strongly notched and quad- 
rate. Columella straight; suture slightly impressed. Base finely spirally Urate 
and radially striate* 

llolotype. Length 40*5 mm., width 7-<s mm. Abattoirs Bore 300-500 ft., 
Upper Pliocene, Tate Mus. Coll. 

This shell is nearest to 7'. (6r.) acricula, bu1 dilTers greatly in the shape of 
the whorls and the Strong sculpture. 

Cti:nocolpus Iredale 1925. 

In '/'. [< 1 h iiocolpus), genotype T. (C.) amtralis Lam., of which the sub- 
species T. {11.) austral is diffidens Iredale seems scarcely separable from the 
species, should be placed T. pagodula Tate. T. terehellatu Tate (noted as being 
like 7 7 . fuKjodula, but with the anterior keel nodulose; this together with the local- 
ity seems 1o validate the species), T. ruriah's lledley. T. jaautiac Iledley. T. im<i><<- 

pHaatiiis Chapman & Grespin, T. gemmulato Tate, V. (C) trilix sp. now, T. war- 

hurionii T.-Wds., and T. slur/ii T.-Wds. 

COTTON and Woods Rhcknt and Fossil Turritellidae 377 


Shell small, aeutejj hirrgtari, whorls flattened, suture slightly impressed, 

WhorlH 1 (J . Sculpture o!' -\ (list met major spiral ribs with wi<U\ smooth inler 
»pac©H; indistinct sulisul ural spiral between posterior major rib ;iiiil suture. Ap 

ertiire subquadralre^ aolpittelta ftfrftAghi Base finely Hpijrally threaded. PvotOr 

'•onrli of 1-' I urns, smooth and oblique, 

Ilolotype heogfi) (>♦:> mm., width 2-5 mm. Abattoirs linn* :;()()-;>()() n., l'p 
per Pliocene. Talc Mm Colt Fairly aunieroua in bare. 


^?g« '• TitarttrUii trilw -.p. imv. i x U*3), Fig. •">. Glyjrtawria wilwwnttHti sp. nav. ( x 1tJ-7). 

Ifig. 6. Tuff'tilht httissinto sp. iiov. (ri.Mt. size). 


Tenison Woods, Proe. Hoy. Boa Tag, l*7li. p. 99. 

Tale, Trans, Kny. Soc. t S. Aiisl., xvii, p. 837, pi. viii, ftg: 2. 

TlU.UMTEJi.LA STI'RTl! Tenison -Woods. 

Tenison- Woods, Pmc. Roy. 8tfc. Tas. 1S7<|, p. 99- 

Talc, Trans. Hoy. Sue, S. Ausi., xvii. p. :',."!;s, p|. viii. fig. 0. 

These two species arc separable wilh SOimi difficulty, ami Pi-itehard has mi-- 
ejesled ( * i (hal the names are synonymous. To us, however, the differences are 
Ktri.ftiug enough fcn wan-ant tin- retention of both species as distinct. Tale's re- 
description of Woods's species raises some doubt as to whether lie had eon -tlv 

(t) |'i,m-. Ui.v.Smc., y\<;, viii ii. x.. pp. 11$-1U. 


Records of tMe S.a. Museum 

Identified the species with which lie w.a.a dealing, bul after careful examination 
of the tablets in the Tate collection, atid Kpecimpns from the collection of Mr. F. 
A. Singleton, ype conclude lli;il certain teal urcs pointed out in botli descriptions 
should be more closely adhered to than oilier less uniiorm eharacteristiea. 

Tate has on hia table.1 a small shell of 7'. wurbicrfanii marked "like type" 

i'mni which we GOIldlldc thai Talc had seen the type and selected ;i lopOtype as 

near to Ihe holotype as possible. Mis own descripl ion is of a more adult shell. 
\W hike this to confirm our derision 1haj Tate is not describing a diiVorenl shell 

i?ig. 7. 'l'iirn('ii,( tetebra <><->'i,hi<! auhsp, mm ( >, $•$)* Ki& s. Titnitrftn gtwrlli Tvnmw 

Wor..|s (X 5*9), B^g. i>. Turr'ilrlhi tr<irbnrh>>,ii MYmsnn WcmhIs ( X 0). 

wh.m lie menrions "two antrrior ribs m<>re or less ^ranulosc '\ though Tenisnii- 
Woods, emphasized thai there were "two smooth conspicuous ribs n\ tic bfflror 
part of each whorl"; in the juvenile shells the ribs are less ^ranulosr, and may 
be even smooth though ai) obscure iceilainly not strong) ^'ranulaiion develops 


The main features that distinguish the two shells are these; wc merely si ress 
whal has been already described by TenisoirWoods and Talc: 

T. inirhxrloiiit is narrowly pyramidal, T. slnrlii aculely SO. 

'/'. warhuriomi is characterized b\ the Htroug development of U\o ribs iu I Im 
anterior portion of each whorl— in the best developed specimens. fcheHB ribs are 
keel-like, giving an almost pagoijold appearance to the shell. 

Cotton and Woods- -Recent and Fossil Turrttellidae 379 

T. ira/'hiirifniii has a distinct constriction, a concavity in the most strongly- 
developed specimens, in the pOHterio-inedia] part of the whorl; this is presumably 
the flattening of Tenisnn-Woods's description. 

While some of Ihe examples from Mr. Singleton's collection show tendencies 
mid-way between the two species, by paying Hose attention to the shape of the 
shell and Hie development of the anterior ribs, we have without hesitation placer] 

them in one or the other ol' the species. 

The following remarks are extracts from Mr. Singleton's own notes, very 

kindly offered to us, rind our comments upon the specimens under observation. 
Mr. Singleton's note precedes ours in each case, and the numbers are those from 

his catalogue : 

No. 47* -Two smooth ribs ami finer lirae. From Lower or ' 4 ( 1 ntssafclln" bed. 
In spite <d their apparenl W(U Intrfonii characteristics we place these acutely 

pyramidal shells, tacking in strong keelJtke development, in '/'. sturtii. 
Xo. I7A - Strong* _ small riba, !"orin<T ut;iiiu1osl\ 

These shells reaemble both species in some ways, but are sufficiently strong 

in i In- anterior ribs and have sufficient posterio-medial constrict ion to place them 

in '/'. li'f/rlnirioiiii. 

No. 480 — 5-6 ribs, of which median 2-3 "ranulose. 

These are T. sfurtii. 
Xo. 481 — 2 ribs, anterior and median, latter ^rauuloso, plus lirae. 

These are T. irin-Uuriovli. 
\ T o. 482 2 ^ranulose ribs, plus lirae. 

These are T. ir<irhnrfnuii. 
Xo. 483 — 2 anterior, very prominent rihs, second slightly jrnmulose, close to- 
gether, posterior Urate, eancavfc. 

These are /'. tmrbwfonii 

Xo. 4S4 — 2 anterior <_jTanuloso rihs, weak rib posteriorly. 

These are '/'. wiwtmrttmu. 
X r o, 485 — 3 rihs, 2 anterior ^-ranulose, third a keel anterior to suture, plus lirae. 

These are separable into the two speeies; :> specimens lacking strong ribs in 
Ihe anlerior portion we place in T. stvrtii, the remainder with keel-like outline 
we assign to T. irarhi/rtmiii. 
Xo. -1 s ( > — :> ribs, 2 anterior granulosa, plus lirae. 

Two ribs are so mnch more strongly developed than the third, whi^h is situa- 
ted close to the posterior border, and the general outline oi' the shell place them 
in warhurtotfii. 
Xos. 479486 are Crom Upper or "Turritetta*' bed. 

380 Records of the S.A. Museum 

A perusal of these notes convinces one of the almost complete coincidence 
between Mr. Singleton's notes and our division; all the shells, will) the exception 

of 478, which has weaker, more widely-spaced ribs, that have *2 prominent ribs, 
fall into T. warbvr1<nui\ all those more than 2 ribs, exeept where the anterior pair 
are \ery strongly developed, go into T. shirlii. 

Oolpospira. Donald 1UU0. 
In 1 1 1 i s subgenus are included '/'. nivciiiithi Watson (genotype), T. snixahr 

Reeve, T. corfiisniei Watson, 7'. nci-isn Waison. T, aiding*}? Tate. 7'. tonspi^cubiUs 

Tate, T. irisiini Tate. 7'. aciiulhi Chapman and Oespin. 7'. pint tjspira, T. Wds. 

Ttriutklka &.CUISA Watson. 

This species has been corredly recorded by Watson ( s ), May ( jt ), Voreo 
( 10 ), and Cotton and (iodl'rey (It) IVom liass Strait. South Australia, and Tas- 
mania, all from depths of 38-200 fathoms, and specimens we have examined are 
typical and distinct from T. ritnciiiatu oceiirrin<: in the same localities. 

Among the Specimens from 100 fathoms off Cape Pillar in llie May Colleetion 
is a typical Specimen of T. nmtitoata which can Ihercfore be added to the Tus* 
mania n list, 


T. (risiini Tate. Pme. Roy. Soc, Tas., 1884, p. 227. 

7. tristwa Tate. Trans. Hoy. Soc, 8. Aust., xvii (ivL p. f$8-339 3 pi. viii, fig, 8j 
pi. x, fig. ::. 
Some difficulty has been experienced in the differentiation Of T. /nslini frem 

T. conspicrihiHs. The two species exhibit characteristics so cltosel} approximating 

that unless some rigid distinguishing feature is selected, this difficulty will al- 
ways arise so lonjr as the two are considered separate species. 

The holotype is a Table Cape shell in the Tat«' Museum Collection, and is, in 
Our opinion, the Only one In the colleetion that can be accurately related to the 
species. All other specimens on the tablet marked Turriff (hi tristira we consider 
woidd be better classified under 7 oonspirabUlS. On examining the tablets in the 
Tate Collection one cannot help noticing the apparent indifference with which 
he separates the two. 

i-i .J (Mil ii. I, inn. Soc, ZooU *v. IS*, p. 220, 

(») ClirrU list of Mollusc:. .of T;jsiii;i ui;i . L921, p. 60. 

(10) Trans. Boy, poe., 8. Aust.. xxxiv. E910, p$, LS&-123, 

(11) S. Ausl. Nut., xii, (ivl, August. 1931, \k ~u. 

Cotton and Woods Recent and Fossil Turritfludae 381 

There are. however, sufficient Npcejniens available, one from the collection of 
Mr. V. A. Singleton taken at demmy's Point, Jv;» 1 intiiM, and many which toe of 11H 
(N.JI.W.) has seen in the collection of the Commonwealth Palaeontologist, taken 
from various boringfi in Bic ( jJ i]»psl<ux I area, to justify flje retention rjf the species. 

In all cases, He characterist ic keeling is continued in vvvvy whorl towards tjie 

apex. The holotype, go Car as can be seen, tor the early whorls arc missing ex- 
hibits this feature, whirh BiafceH any similar specimens easily recognizable From 
T. coiis/)icabilis. 

Wc therefore recommend Ihc use oi* Tiurthild Irislira only for 1hosc ex- 
amples in which the dovelnpmcnl of throe even kn-ls is regularly produced 
throughout Ihc whole of the shell. This is in full agreement wilh Tale's original 
description : 

"Shell aeuminalely turreted; apical angle ahout IV ol' upwards of 1"-' 
slightly n.nvrx whorl* ; siilurc linear. Surface ornamented wilh three couspici 
oiis, spiral, acute ribs and spiral and transverse striae; the sulci on each side of 

the central rib are of equal breadth* J>ni the anterior ril> is separated from t\\e 

suture by a distance less than thai Which separates one rih from the next, whilst 

the posterior rib is separated from its corresponding feature by n distance irrcater 
'han Mi.- breadth of the medial sulci. Last whorl truncately angular al the peri- 
phery; hase spirally rihhed and striated. A|)erturc quadrate j outer lip iinper- 

Length 45 mm., breadth 12 mm. 

Locality, Table Gape, R. M. Johnston (one example;. 

This species is distinct from the few living species whieh are conspicuously 
three ribbed, \i\ shape, ornament, and ihe unsynimet rical position of the mvoivtftg 


lYATvrni.ers Donald 1900. 

In this subgenus are included T. qnadruta Donald i LO'itotype I. T. i/mlhiHinri 
Irrdah-. '/'. scilvht Donald, '/'. rmeumlifjalu Wren, and '/'. mrdio/cris Ycreo. \vp 

dale refers the last two to Colposqrirut bill this is surely wronc;'. fthe apex being 
quite different. He spe&ks <d' the genus as having a weak sinus, while his Own 

and Wren's RgKPfcs show a siron- one. Kinlay's specimens of T. '/itiihnnnei and 

T. </iht<h<ihi show quite a valid notch. 

The embryonic and subsequenl development is entirely different Eroiri thai 

of Colpospira With whieh Ihis series appears to have no relation. On the other 

hand, Pluiycolpys seems to be closely allied to Vt6y>mwlpuSi Hie only features of 

dilference mentioned by Iredale are the noduled kerls and w.-itk sinus of ("h uo- 
<■>>/ />hs. \odulin«r of the spirals arises irregularly in manv Turritcllas. 

382 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Glyi'tozaima [redale 1924. 

This genus with T. opulent® Hedley as genotype includes the fossil T. tran- 
senna Tenlson-Woods which Tate ( 12 ) referred to Mathilda and Grlyptozatia 
columnaria here described as new: 


Shell fcurreted, whorls 1(), protoeondh depressed, of 1' globose whorls, adult 
whorls regularly convex, sculptured with 2 keels on each whorl, the body whorl 
showing an extra rib at the anterior, crossed by numerous less valid axial ribs, 
about 24 on the body whorl. Base smooth, aperture rounded, with 3 flutes corres- 
ponding with ribs; outer lip rounded, slightly effuse at the base of the columella, 
which is straight, Suture slightly canaliculate. Animal unknown. 

Molotype. Length 4-5 mm., width 1-5 mm.; 100 fathoms. Cape Pillar. 
Reg. \ T o. T) 11438 SA Museum. 

ParEORA Marwiek 1931. 

Punnra Marwiek 1931, N.Z. Geol. Soc, Pat. Hull., xiii. p. 94, 

Here, with genotype Ef/lisia s(n'o!(tf(i llutton, we place Mrsalia si i/lacris Tate, 

the polygyrate protoconch and aperture continuous with the concave columella 
being consistent with the genus, 


Tuwitella terebra oocidm subsp. nov. 

Ki nib* )-iu subgen. nov. for Tvrrihllu kimberi Yerco. 

7'nm'fr!/(i nmrrayana svbrvrirs subsp. nov. 

Tvrrih /hi latissinia sp. nov. 

Tunit clla (tcricula (n/claidrnsis subsp. now 

T iirrilclhi acHcultt ricforirnsis subsp. nov. 

Titrritr/la (icricu/n /(tsmaviaisis subsp. nov. 

Turritella subacrivtilu sp, nov. 

Turritella trilix sp. nov. 

Glyptozwria columnmnu sp. now 


T. runvirmhi juvs. Ilopetoun. W.A. 
T. aeeisa. Ilopetoun. 30 fathoms. 

(12) Turns. Roy. Soe., S> Aust.. xvii, p, 335", 

Cotton and Woods — Recent and Fossil Tukkitiiludar 383 
T. (icasa, numerous. 8] I'liilionis, 80 u\. W. of Kucla. 

T. (icristt, 50-120 fathoms, Great Australian Bight, w. of fiuela. 
If, irc</<i!( i. Esporance, W.A. 

7'. shi'Uhuuu. :!()<) fathoms, 120 m. W. of Euela. 



Ttkkitella Lamarck 1799, 

Mein. Soc. II. Nat Paris, p. 74. 

Genotype (by Monotypy) Turbo lerebfa Linn, 

1. Turbo ftrcbra Linn. 1758, Sysl. \ai. ed, 10, p. 76$, 

2. TitrrihUa Ivrvbra occidm Cot'tofl and Woods, 1935. 

Subgenus KiMUEUiA Cotton Mild Woods. 

Genotype (by original designation) T. kitnberi Vereo. 

3. Tumirlh, Umben Verco 1908, Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Ausi.. xxxii, p. 342, pi. 
xv, fig. i i-ir>. 20 fntli. Backstairs Passage, SJL 

I. T urrilcflu nept U iicnsis Verco 1910, Ibid, xxxiv. p. 120, pi. xxx, fig. 7. 104 

frith, m miles S.W. of Neptune Is., S.A. 
;"). Turrthlhi nricroscopico May, 1911, PrOC Roy. Soc, Tas., 1910, p. 395, pi. XV, 
fig, 23. 

Subgenus Maokicoum's PHnlay, 1926, 

Trans. N".Z. lust.. Ivii, p. 389. Genotype (by original designation,) T. ro$eu 

Q. & G. 
(i. \Torntht murrayana Tate, 1885, Prne. Roy. Soc,, Tas.. 1884, p. 227, Tnnis. 

Boy. Soc, S. Aust., xvii, 1893, p. 340, pi. viii, 6g, 3. River Murray Cliffs, 

Dower Miocene. 
7. \Turritdla murrayana subrudis Cotton and Woods. 1935. Abattoirs Bore, 

Upper Pliocene. 
s. \Tnrrilr/(n latissima Cotton and Woods, 1935. Table Cape, Lower Miocene. 

Subgenus Stdracolpits Finlay, 1926, 
Trans. N.Z. Insi.. Ivii, p. 389. Genotype (by original designation) T. sym- 
metrica Ilutton. 
9. Turritdlo (/oitrffroyavu Donald. 1000, Proe. Mai. Soc, iv. Xo. 2, p. 53, pi. V, 
liii 1 . (). (5a. Bass St rail. 
10. Turn'/, Ha sutithiaixt Donald, 1000, Ibid., p. 52, pi. xv. fig, 1. Off Sydney, 

384 Re cords <>i xiii: S.A. Museum 

11. TitrrHr/hi allnitsout Tate find May, 1900, Tnnis. Roy. Soc, 8. Ansi., xxiv. 
p. });">. Ne*w name for T. iasmanica T Wds., 1876, Pioc Km. Bac M Tas.. 1873, 
j>. 140, ntm Reeve 1849. Also Tate and May. 190] ( Dec. Proa. Linn, goo., 
X.S.W., xxvi, :>. p. 378, pi. \\iii, fig. 15-17. Long Bay. Tasmania. Syuonynj 

T, htsuKiiarnsis (T.-Wds.), T;,1<- mid May, 1900 iDec'i. loc. Hk, <piotcd as 
equivalent name to T. lastm/iuca. 

12. Turr/hlfa nicdiiXinffttlafa VorfiO 1910, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Anst.. xxxiv, p. 
129, pi xxx. li-. s, 9. KM l'ath. 35 mflefc SAV. of I*epturi<a Is.. s.A. A cltteety 
allied species regarded by Wn-u ,-is a variety of T. ailwnxivtti. 

Subgenus <L\/.a.uki>a rredale, 11)24. 

Proc Linia. Soc., X.S.W., xllx <iii), 1924, p. 247. 
]'■>. Turrih/hf gunWli Reeve, 1849, Condi. Icon., v, pi. IX, fifr -I~>. Symon, T. 

philippCWtiA Walson 1881, -loruai. Linn. Soc.. x\\ p. 22:;, Cludl. Rep. ZoflL, 

xv, p. 479, pi. xxx, Hg, 6, 35 I'alli, Port Phillip. 
II. \TvrrihUa SCptiftOga Tate 1S!>:5. Trans. Po.c Soc. S, Ansl., xvii, IS!):!, p. I - 

pi, xviii, fig. 5. Spring Creek, danjnkian. 
15. jTumit/hf acrkula acriculxi Talc, 1893, //>>>/. p. 339, pi. viii, ftg. 4. River 

Murray Cliffs, Lower Miocene 

lfi. I TitrrifcHa m-rinila ■ nrfrlairii nsis Motion and Woods. PK!."). Abattoirs Lore 
Adelaide, Upper Pliocene. 

17. jTurrih !!<i. acfic'ida victoHewsis Cotton #nc] Woods, 1935. Ttirritella wcricula 

var. Tate, Trans. Koy. Soc, S. Ansl .. xvii, UJ98, p. 340, pi. ix, fig. I. 7. 

18. jTilrrHclla ahicula tasttwninm^ Cotton and Woods. 1935. Tuwitella fieri 

ruin var. Tate Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Ansl., xvii, 1S<>:1. p. :)H), pi. ix. fig. 12. 

i!i \ Turriff Ha mlacrtcttfa Cotton and Woods, 1935. 

20. Ttirritiilii hisiimiiica Peeve, 1849, ConeU. L'on., v, pi. ix, fc 42. Van Dic- 
nioiiV Land. Synon. Tiirnhlhf silbsqitilMlOSQ Dnnker. L871, Mai. Llatl.. 
vviii, p. 152 1 Lass Sirait. 'I'urnhfhi aciiht Tenison Woods, l S7(L Prqc. Roy. 
Six-.. Tas., 1*7(5. p. 143. Lono" Lay. Tasmania. Titrrlhfhi iainellOM Watson, 
1881, .lonrn. Linn. Soc. Zooi., xv, p. 229, Ohflll, Rep, Zool., xv, IrtSfi, p, 17 I. 

pi. xxix, fig, (). 40 t'atli.. off Ba»1 Moncoeiu 1 I s - Ba-sa Strait. TntrHUlla oxy* 

<vris Tale 1S!)7, Trans. Roy. Soc, S, Ausl., x.xi, L897, p. 41; new name for 

'/'. acuta T.-Wds., nan Mayev, 1859. 

21. Gazameda iredalei Fiulay 1927, Trans, NJR Inst., hii, p. 496, New name 

for 7'. rlnihrata Kiener, 1843, Icon. Coq. VlV., 38, pi. xiv, fiu. L ^<^i I)rsha.s<' s 

1838 "Shores Qf Ww Holland" (S.A.). 
22. f Tumh/h/ nutll irhn-lnnihs Chainnan and (Vespin. 1928, Pec (Jeol. Sure, 
Vic, v, 1, p. 116, pi. viii, fig. 16. Sorrento Lore 741 ft. ( Kaliiumiu) . 

Cotton and Woods— Recent and Fossil TvrrtteixjdAE 385 
Subgenus CTi-:\<>roi.n's hvdalo, 1928. 

Rec. A nsi. M m.s., xiv. I. p. 2^6, Genotype (by original designation) T. aus- 

I ml is Lamarck, 

2:\. Tnrrilrlh: uusiruJis Lamarck, 1832, An. S. Vert., vii, p, 59; also Kifcwer 1843, 

Ooq. Viv. 36, pL f Bg. 3. Synon. T. gratwUfer T. Wds., 187ft Proe. Boy. Soe., 

Tas.. 1875, p. 142. Port Ariimr, Tasmania. 

24. \T,irrHr//u patfrxlula Tate, 1893, Trans. Roy. Sue, S. Ausf., xvii, p ; 336. 

25 'Tiirrilr/ln / rrrhrlhi/a Ta1v. IS!):*, Trnns. Boy. Soe.. S. Anst., xvii. p, :;::ii. 

Limestone Cnrk, Clenclir River ( Werrikooian i . Noted as bring like T. 

jxif/ot/fila bin wiih anlrrior keel nodulose; this, 1oi;e11irr wilh the Locality, 

seems fo validate the species. 
2b\ Turrffrfhi ciinu/is Hedley, IJ907, Bee, Anst. Mns,. vi, o. p. $57, pi. Ixvii, flg. 

II). 8QQ Eath. 3q miles easl of Svdnev. 

27. Tfirrih/hi jn,i;ino< Hedley, 192:5, Prop. Linn. Soe., N.SAY.. xlvii, 3, p. ::il. 
\'e\\ name for T. ^O&lpO^pwa) en nuhihi Donald, 1900, PrpC. Mai. Soe.. iv. 
2, p. 52, pi. v. iitr. 2ii. no»Xys]. 1843, Synon. f urritdla rewi Cffinmftlt, HH2, 
Pss. Pal Coiup. ix, j). Ill), rcow Danrz and Wisher, 11)07; new name lot T. 
cnim lata Donald. 

28. tTumtelht medipplkaHlis Chapman & Crospin. 1928, Rec. Geol, Sitrv, viei.. 

v, 1, ]). 11(i, pi. viii, fig. 47. 1,46J ft, Sorrento Pore ( HalcombiaiC . 

29. iTifrrihll,! warhirtonU Tegison Woods. 187(5., Proe. Roy. Soe., Tas.. 1876, p. 

99; Tale. Trans. Roy, Soe.. S. Ansl.. xvii, 1893, p. 837, pi. viii. fi<r. 2 (topo- 
type). Table Cape, Tasmania (Lower Miocene). 
::<). l T,<n ;/</(, t sinriii r renisonAVoods, 1876, Proe. Roy. Soe.. Tas., 187(>, p. 99< 
Tate, Trans. Roy. Soe., S. Anst.. xvii. L893, p. :»:;S. pL viii. fife. <> | topoiy pe ; . 

Subgenus Coi.nnsriUA Donald. 19.00. 

Proe. Mai. Soci M It, 2. p. 31, Genotype (by original deaignaiioxi) '!'. rwici- 
mta Watson. 
Ml. Turriffllu nntcniala Watson, 1881. -loum. Linn. Soe., Zool., xv, p. 218, ('hall. 
Rep. Zool., xv, p. 475, pi. xxx, Bg. 3. 38-40 1'ath. Bast Moneoeur Is., p ; ,ss 
Sirail. Tvrculu tmnUimta Dunker, 180!), Mns. CodefL, Cat. 1. P- 77, No. 
:I4:5:{; X<.>ut<>t nudum, Pass Strait. MurcMaom sutrtris Dnnker, 1.874, ibid. 
">, p. 148, snbsfilnte name for T. h > iniilirata referred to Zaria on p. 212. Niinir 
validated as a synonym of mvvtiKtht by Donald !!)()(), Proe. Mai, Soe., iv. 2. 
p 50. '/ urri/r/hi higginsi Petterd, 1884. .bmrn. Oojtell., iv, p. 135: Tamar 
I bads, Tasmania. 

386 Records of the S.A. Museum 

r]2. Turritelh avvm Watson, 1881, Joum. Linn. Soc. ZooL, xv. p t 220, //>/>/. 
1886, ik 476. pi. xxxi, 9g. 4. 

:>:>. Tnrrihlln sinuitht ReeVe 1849, Touch. Icon., v, pi. ix, fig. 62. Tiwrilrlhi 
inrisa Tonison-Woods, 187ft PwWi Linn. Soc. X.S.W.. -1, p. 2(52. Ired;dc 
11)2."). lice. Ausl. ;\Iiis., xi\\ 4, p. 207, pi. xliii. fig. 23; TnrrilrUa sophi.u 
Prazier. 1883, Proc Linn. Soc, N.S.W.. viii, p. 227; now name Tor T. iiinsn 

T.-Wds.. W ^n Reeve, 1849. 

:M, Tttrrihlht ronlismt i Watson 1881, doiim. Linn. Soc, Zool., xv. p. 224, QJmlL 
Rep., ZooL. xv, 1Q66; p- 469, pi. xxix, ftg ; 1. 3&40 Eath, Baal Mancoenr Is.. 
BaSS SI rail. 

of). \Tvrriiclht plot ifs/yini Te3»iS0H»WoodS, 1879, Pw«. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., Hi, [>. 

234, pi. xx ; fig; 13. Muddy Greek la. i PaleoinUian). 
:>(>. r rnrrih!hf acilldla Chapman and Crespin, 1928, Rec. Oeol Snrw. Vic, v, 1, 
|). 11"). pi, viii, fig, 4"). 1,310 ft. Sorrento Bore (Balcouabaaii), 

:\l.\Turri/r/!a ahf>it</<t< Tate 1882, Trans. Roy. S,h-.. S. Anst.. v, 12; ibxl. Dec. 
xvii, 1893, p. 1136, pi. viii, fig. 1. Aldinga, S.A. Manjnkian). 

38, \Turrttetta compimUtk Tan-, lsi);;. Trans, Roy. Soc T , s. Anst., xvii. p. S39, 

pi. viii, tig. 7. Gippsland Lakes f Kalinman). 
:;«». \Turritrlh, hixiim Tate, 1884, Proc. Roy. Soe., Tas. ? 1 NS 1, p. 227, Trans. Roy. 
Soe.. S. Anst.. xvii. 1808. p. 33ft pi viii, fitr. S. Table Catfe, Tasmania | tiOWer 

Subgenus Platvcouts Donald, 1900. 

Proc. Mai. Soc, iv. 2, p. 53, Genotype (by original designation) T. (Colpos- 
pint) quddrata Donald. 

40. Turriiclla (Col pospini) qtoadro&a Donald. 11)00, Proc. Mai. See., iv. 2. p. '>.">, 
pi. v. fig; 8-8b. 45 fat h. Pass Strait. 

41. ColpOSpirU (luiHfimiici Iredalo, 1924. Proc. Linn. Soc.. X.S.W.. xlix, :i, p. 24ft 
pi. xxxvi, fig, 1, 15, 540 Eath. Twofold Pay, X.S.YY. 

42. TurrtieUa Gircivntfigata Vereo, 1910, Trans. Roy. Soc, 8. Anst., xxxiv. p. 123, 

pi. SO, fig. 3, 4. 110 Eath, Peach port. S.A. 
4.T Twrrit6lla incdinlrvis \'erco P»10. Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Anst.. xxxiv. p. 121. 

pi. xxx, fig. .V(>. G2 Eath. Cape Porda. S.A. 
44. TnrrifeUa qwtdraUk var. Donald. 1900, Proc Mai. Soc, iv, 2. p. 54, 

pi. v, fig 9. 

GnvpTozAKMA Iredale, 1924. 
Proc Linn. Soc, N.s.w., xlix, 3, p. 248. Genotype | "'by original designation) 

T. OpUlenta lledley. 

Cotton and Woods — Recent and Fossil Turritellidae 387 

45. Turritella opidenta Hedley, 1907, Rec. Aust, Mus., vi, 4, p. 292, pi. lxv, fig. 9. 
41-50 lath. Cape Three Points, N.S.W. 

46. \ Turritella transenna Tenison-Woods, 1879, Proe. Linn. Soc, N.S.W. , iii, p. 

234, pi. 20, fig. 8. Muddy Creek (Balcombian) ; Tate Trans. Roy. Soc, S. 
Aust., xvii, p. 335. 

47. Glyptozuria columnaria Cotton and Woods, 1935. 

Genus Pakeora Mar-wick, 1931. 

N.Z. Geol. Soc. Pal. Bull., xiii, p. 94. Genotype (by original designation) 
Eglisia striolata Hutton. 

48. jMasalia stylacris Tate, 1893, Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., xvii, p. 341, pi. ix, 

fig. 3. Aldinga, S.A. (Janjukian). 

t Fossil. 


By Edwin Ashby, F.L.S., and Bernard C. Cotton, Conchologist, 

S.A. Museum 


The writers are greatly indebted to Dr. Jaroslav Sule, of Prague, Czechoslovakia, for the 
gift of this valuable collection, and as no descriptions in English have yet been published 
we offer an account of the material submitted. The specimens are from the Eocene and 
Miocene beds at the places named below. In drawing up the descriptions here presented, 
the material was examined under a Zeiss binocular with paired objectives a3, and oculars 
No. 4, giving a magnification of 65 diameters. 



By EDWIN ASHBY, F.L.S., and BERNARD C. COTTON, CoNcuoLocasT, 5.A. Museum. 

Tin: writers are greatly indebted to Dr. Jaroslav Sulc, of league, Czechoslovakia, 
for the gift of this valuable collect ion, ami as no descriptions in ftnglish have 
yet been published we otf'er an account pf the material Submitted. The specimens 
are ErGm the Euocno and Miocene beds at the places named below. In drawing op 
the descriptions here presented, 1 lie malerial whs examined nnder a Zeiss bin- 
ocular with paired objectives aM, and oculars No. 4, giving a magnification oi' 65 

The numbers and tetters following the habitat indicate the geographical 
tlOrizOflS. Iveler to Side C 1 ). 

Luril>01"LKt'KUK PEi'OKATi;* Kss. 

The sculpture of the median valves is beautifully preserved, the lateral area 
is much raised, and Ihe growth grooves are almost as deep as in /.. cujt hums Poli. 
a living Eni'opean form. The pleural area is decoraled with granulosc, rather 
wavy, tongitudin&l ribs composed of Bat-topped grains, bridged across to the next 
parallel rib. as is usual in the genus ('uHistuchtluii. The same bridging 1 (or semi- 
network) sculpture is present in Ihe lateral area. 

Habitat: Rudolf ice, 2. I.e. (Three fragments of median valves), 

Lkpuhh'LEUEUs (Parachiton) tllielki Side. 

The type of sculpture much resembles thai of the Australian /.. rot nuuiun,<.s 
lledley & May, which was dredged by May off Cape Pillar, Tasmania. The 
posterior slope behind the inucro is very steep ami concave, tlie longiludinal rib- 
Lets are eloae together, and minutely granuio&e but without any bridging. 

Habitfft: Sleinabrunn, 10.1. (One tail valve). 


Head VOlv#: Well elevated, but the sculpture looks v^ry juvenile, coarse 
granules oniy .just beginning to show on the onto margin. Medium uatve: Decor- 
ated with squamose granulosc sculpture common to the genus Arnvthorliilon. 

I i i Suh\ Aimeli n dtfS NaturhistoriH-lini .Museums in YV'kii. Bd. 17, 1934, p. l-i.i], pi. 1-LJ. 

390 Recokds of the S.A. Museum 

Tail ni!r< : Mucro autemediaij., placed abtfut tlie anterior third; sculpture like 
i Iim t of the median valves but loss Artieulti/nifrntunw We cannot deteel atiy 

inscrl ion plate in the Ih^mI valve. Viewed from the upper side, t 1m- tail valve 
seems tq show an insertion plate and BOme short slits, bni it is possible that this 

edge is tegmentum. In mm of the median valves on one side, the insertion plate 
is well developed and practically complete, and there la no siem of a slit, not even 
an inside suture corresponding with a slit thai haa bw^i eroded. In this respect 

it accords with AfossocJu'hni Ashby. This is of importance because |)r. Side Mi<i- 
e-ests that the unslil appearance of some fossil acanthoid forms is due to the 
absorption or erosion of that portion of the insertion plate. It is evident Unit this 
species eauuot be referred to the gentlS U fink //</, sine- in lhat irenus there is no 
insertion plate in the median valves. 

Habitat: Kudolliee. 24-6* (One head valve, two median valves, and one tail 

valve ) , 

Mir>i>i:\i>nRiriA li:imi>a Rss. 

Hi, id ralrv: Anterior slope convex, sculpture closely minutely granulosa, 8 
small area al the apex smooth. Median ual'Vi : Arched and beaked, the side slope, 

in a targe valve, straight ateipjsl to the girdle but slightly curved near the ed^-e, 

the whole of tin' valve covered with minute decussate sculplure except close to the 
beak, which is smooth; laleral arrji unusually narrow and only a little raised; the 
granules ]U lhis * m ' a 1*'W' l ,i;,n in the pleural area; the sculplure of a smaller 
valve is flatter, but this amy be due to extreme .juvenility. Tail ualvt : Rathei 
Hat, mucro mediaji. posterior separated Erom anterior by a raised diagonal rib, 
posterior slope slightly concave. A rt icuhhiinthim : Head valve teeth sharp, smooth 
edged, with seven well delined slits (ischnoid in character ) , sutural laminae of 
r.)u\ valves weak, and suture between broad. Tail valve. Nine slits, median vaKe 
slits 1/1, the sutural Laminae at* Stronger and more produced forward than in the 
end valves. In the larger of the two median valves and the tail valve, the edges 
of the laminae adjoining the sutural sinus are strai-ht. and sel at an angle of |:> 
to the median longitudinal line. 

Ihtbital: Kudolliee, L'.l.e. M >ne head, two median, and one tail valve). 

( ' Aia.oeiMTON /Jozao Siltc, 
The two fragments of median valves and the fragment of head valve were 

examined. The minute decussate selilpture of the tegmentum, the propped teeth, 

and the spmmy eaves of the insertion plate conclusively prove that this is a true 


/hrhihtt: Ivniniee. 4. I.e. (Otua head, two median, and one i.iil valve, frag- 

Asiiijy and Cotton — Fossil Chitons from Europe 391 


Ih a, I rain : Klevated. showing in oik 1 valve indications oi five rayfohls, i he 

whole decoraied with closely packed, evt&ily arranged, Rat-topped urrains. Median 
r<tir<': Dorsal area narrow, raised and longitudinally grooved; the pleural and 
lateral areas are not differentiated, but equally decorated with flat grains similar 
to the [lead valve btti Urger, and arranged in longitudinal rows. 7'r7/7 ralr, : 
Rather worn, inurro central, well defined, posterior ylope slightly concave} a 
diagonal fold separales 1 he anterior from the posterior, sculpture similar to the 
median valve. .1 r! icuinnn nlvni: Mead valve insertion plate broad, slits five, 
median valve slits 1 1 ? tail valve two si it s. Tins is a typical AcqnthQchiton. 
TTubitaU Kniniee, 4. I.e. (Several of each valve): 

AcANTIinrillTOX I .') l<\\nUNIK\SlS Roell. 

Two fragments of median valves differ in I we respects from the Kniniee 
examples described above. Ear!) speeinuen shews deeper lon^it ndinal i»Tooyin<>- on 
the dorsal area, but (his difference may be duv to the better preservation of this 

The second difference is only exhibited in one of ihe (wo specimens. Tti this 
the «rr,'mnlose sculpture is more widely spaced, and many of the grains air broadly 
o\;ite. With more material, especially if it included end valves, the species may 
be specitieally separated from Aritiithocli/tmt faltiwimsis Koch. 

Habitat: Steinabriinn. 10.1. (Two portions of median valves with sculpture 
Well preserved). 

Cuvj'Toi'lax (?) wi:i\n\Nm Side. 

We selected seven valves, all medium live representing one species, and two 

anot her Term or distinct specie-. 

Form Xo. 7. Mcd'nin VftlVB: .'!••'> mm. lone-, 2 mm. broad. A little worn, teg- 
mentum complete, sntnral laminae fairly well preserved. Dorsal area narrow 
and seemingly .smooth, the rest of the reo'montuni decorated with six well raised 
ribs (Willi narrow interstitial grooves), of which four run the full length of ihe 
valve; two shorter ribs near the girdle; posterior of valve bluntly beaked, no 
granulose sculpture visible, and as the prcscrvat ion is good the sculpt nre cannot 
have been eroded. 

fialntat: Kniniee, 1.1. c. 

Form -V". : J . Mediae tmlm: One example is 1 mm. in width and 2-!> mm. in 
lengtli, The ctlier is frilly as witle, but only k J mm. in length (but this valve is 
noi perfect). Both have narrow dorsal areas and Longitudinal parallel ribbing, 

392 Records of the S.A. Museum 

the* ribs narrow and slu» 1 low. the inters! il ial grooves \ ^\ % y wide, and n<> irranulose 
sculpture. Tie grooving or ribbing is the reverse* of Form 1. 
Habitat i Kniniee, 4.1.e. 

II is probable that tWO distinct species at least arc represented by these 
forms. There is one sinking difference between these juvenile examples from 
Btirape and the speeics of the same <zenus now living ill Australian waters. In the 
[atter the Very juvenile sculpture is .irranulosr. and changes into Longitudinal 
sculpture as malnrity approaches, whereas in the fossils there is no <rrauuIose 
sculpture. Another important feature is that in the two fossil s|>ecies ('rif/jfophu 
htilU and Vryptoplwt !!<tH<ffi described from Australia, no example has been semi 
showing tegmenta] sculpture, whereas in all seven examples from Kuiuice, teg, 
mental sculpture is clearly seen. The cnlirc absence p£ teirmental sculpture in the 
fossil Australian species cists some donbt Oil their identification as val\es n) n 
('ytfinf,hi;r. The oidy feasible explanation is that some acid solution has dissolve, 1 
;i\vay the tegmentum and left the articnlamentnm. Against this is the fact 
that in the same beds with the fossil CrpptopUtlt are found well preserved ex- 
am pics of other genera of chitons. 

IsriiNornrrnx imth>i/i i< i,\sis Snlc 

Head vdlVB: The uppeT two thirds is smooth, the outer thircl minutely de- 
cussate. Tail valve: The niucro is well defined, and raised slightly ante-median ; 
the posterior slope immediately behind the anient is \ vry steep and then abruptly 
Hat, the flat portion being much extended posteriorly, giving the effect of a 
strongly concave posterior slope. Sculpture irregularly minutely decussate, the 
uraiiuies fused toeethcr in places. A diagonal rib divides the posterior from the 
anterior in this valve. The anterior is similar to the posterior in sculpt ure except 
near the maririn, where several i:ranulose ribs appear. Mnlian nil <'< ; Tin* frag- 
ment represents Only a little more than half the valve, but the sculpture is will 
preserved, it must have belonged to a specimen about three times as larue ; )s Ihos.- 
from which the tail valves come. The Sculpture ' s M*ry coarse, and distinei from 
thai on the 1\\o tail valves described above. This median valve is very Hatly 
arched, not carinated, the posterior of the dorsal area is smooth, with ill defined 
decussation where it adjoins the pleura] area. The lateral area is stronjrly raised. 
,-md crossed in 1 he outer half by four very much raised vermiform ribs; the upper 
half of this area shows only shallow transverse ribbing. The sculpture of the 
pleural area consists of twelve strong, sub^i'anulose, longitudinal ribs, the 
grooves beiwecu these ribs being only one-third thti width of the ribs. 

Articid'intni.lum : Head valve nine slits, the inside is highly polished, ami 

Asimv and Cotton— Fos^i Chitons from Ktrope 393 

showing parallel aroovin<r. Median valve slits 1 1, sntnral Laminae laterally 
hi'Oarl Inn anteriorly shallow. Tail valve twelve sliis, sntnral laminae imperfect. 

Ih/Irhif: Rudolf ice. 2.1.<5, (One example of each valve). 

The difference in the sculpture between the median valvr and that of the rod 
Viilvcs is so yfreat thai they appear 1o ho different species, 1> n 1 being aware thai the 
character of the aglilpttire in the v.ery juvenile is often reversed in the adult, m 
may assume lhat such is tin- in tins species. 

Chiton (OOftAJJilNus) EJENUDA.TTO Kss. 

Medim Wive: Carinated, side slope steep, dorsal area smooth; lalora! area 
raised. seeniiimlv nnsenl phired ; pleural area crossed hy .seven narrow longi- 
tudinal grooves, the ribs belween »»«Mim Mat, smooth, and mneh broader than the 
grooves, giving file appearance of weatherboardine- or imbricating filing. Tail 
vain : UuCTD .'infe-median at the anterior third, is barely raised, but defined by 
the sculpture, elevated, the posterior slope convex and sleep, nnscnlptnred, the 
anterior portion tySuIptunsd Minilar to the pleural areas of the median valve: five 
longitudinal grooves. Artieufammtim: Median valve slits 1 1. tail valve slits 
ten, ralh:'r imsfrakn, inside pink, sin oral laminae shallow, sinus broad. Although 
the serrated ed;ve of teeth on the insertion plate IS not clearly seen, it SCR1U8 prom 
able that this is correctly referred 1o the jrenns Clif/on s.s. 

Habitat: Kndolfico, iM.c. (One median am] one tail valve). 

Chiton buiikmkts Koch. 

Head Mhvs Elevated', slope fairly steep, very slightly convex, surface min- 
utely decussate, and with evidence ol' shallow ray ribs. Median r<tlrc: Fla1, Fqngi- 
tndinally narrow, side slope shallow, almost straight; lateral area raised and 
gfltOOtl); pleural area with tive longitudinal <> T ooves, ridu'es between wide and 
flat, gfvin£ the appearance of imbricating, fail ruin : \'cry Hat, mncro defined 
by a diagonal rib which divides the two areas, the anterior similar to the pleural 
of the median valves showing lon^il mlinal amoves, dorsal area wide and smooth, 
carinalion slmllow, posterior area smooth, posterior slope wvy shallow and Hal. 
Arhathinx uhtni : Pale pink, head valve nine slits, irregular teeih slightly srr- 
rate; median valve slits 1 ]. Jail valve slits 11, Irregular, Slightly serrate. 

Ihilnlal : Kndoltice. 3.1. ft (One head. one 1 ; i i 1 . and mie median valve). 


Ihthl valve: The entire surface pitted and wrinkled, the onter two-thirds 
Showing ihirirrn broad, snb^raimlose ray ribs. Mrdiaii ra/r/s: Fragments oidy, 
lateral area raised and divided equally by one deep, radiating groove, the ribs 

394 Records of tttr S.A. Museum 

showing transverse growth grooves, the pleural area crossed by seven Ipngi- 

tudinal. mucli curved, deep, narrow ^roovrs. Ihe rihs hetween proporl innately 

broad ;md flat; wlxere these grooves turn sharply upwards at the junction with 

the lateral areas they Form S6V6B dorp pits; dorsal area shallow. bro;id ? and 
smooth. Tall wfow: fitujcro ai the a&teririr third, defined by a shallow diagoii&l 
T-ih, anterior portion decorated as in the pleural area of the median valves I hut 
in shape slightly convex), portion behind 1 he muero shallowly concave, smooth 
hchind the nniern. outer (hird showing Iwenty short, shallow. «^rannlose ray rihs. 
Ariiriihniu ill inn : White find pale pink, highly polished. TIead valve slits six, 
median slits 1/1, lail valve s«'vimi slits, sutural laminae small, teeth serrate. 
Tfdhitaf: Rudolf ice, LM.e. (Oti£ tall, one head, and two median valves). 


Sulc identified this a« "flhiton'* rari>pticatu$ i bail we maintain t hat ir should 
be placed n\ Hie genus Ctilloehiiofi. 

Median rain: Ucakcd. showing suhcarinat ion near the beak, Otherwise 

arched, side slope straight exeepi near the beak; lateral area ^I'l'y broad and 
smooth, very slightly raised; pleural area smooth except for live shallow, very 
narrow rihs. thai cuniiiii'iicc a1 the lateral area, and wilh the exception of the 
outer one, traverse half way across the area; the third rih from the dorsal area 
has a short rih close to it, hut not in contact; Tail r<ilr< : Mucin ai ihe anterior 
fourth, defined hut shallow, posterior slope apparently faintly convex, without 
Sculpture Other than slight decussation seen under (io diameters ma^nitical khi ; 
the much reduced anterior portion, which is \{'vy small, shows three narrow, 
sharply raised rihs. ,1 rf icH.hinh < uluni : The half median valve has Iwo very well 
defined slits, the slits tang and dee]), the insertion plate broad and turned down 
wards in a peculiar manner; the sutural laminar' shallow, hut laterally very broad, 
and joined across the middle line. Tail mire: Slits nine, teeth show some 
L'Tooves. eaves spongy. 

Habitat: Rudoltice, 2. I.e. (One tail, and half a median valve). 

The douhle slitting on the one side of the half median valve, tie joining <>f 
the sutural laminae across the middle line, comhiued with the smooth sculpture 
and apparent propping of the teeth and the spongy eaves, show this to he a 
Callvchtton and not a Chiton s.s. Tin- bending downwards of the insertion plate 
is Ihe only feature lhal is difficult to explain 




Vol. V, Nc 



By Herbert M. Hale, Director, South Australian Museum 


Two of the species described below were collected by Mr. B. C. Cotton from stones 
dredged in shallow water. The third was taken by Mr. W. H. Baker a long time ago. 

Family Bodotriidae 

Cyclaspis G. O. Sars. 

Cyclapsis caprella sp. nov 

Adult male. Integument not highly indurated. Carapace more than one-fourth total length, 
and with greatest width only about one-half its length and equal to its height ; dorsum 
with a rather feeble median longitudinal ridge, and with a pair of shallow and 
inconspicuous depressions in front of the middle of length ; antennal notch distinct, and 
antennal angle subacute ; inferior margin on each side produced forwards anteriorly to 
form an acute inwardly curved horn, which reaches a little beyond the level of the ocular 
lobe. Pseudorostral lobes not quite reaching apex of the prominent ocular lobe, which 
bears a number of lenses, and is pigmented. 


By HERBERT M. HALE, Director, Sown Australian IVTusj sum, 

Fig. 1-6, 

Two of the species described below were collected by Mr. B. C. Cotton from stones 
dredged in shallow water. The third was taken by Mr. W. II. Baker d longtime ago. 


Cvci-Asi'is (i. 0. Bars. 

Cyclasims capitella sp. no v. 

Adult male. Integument not highly indurated. Carapace more than one- 
fourth total length, and with greatest width only about one-half its length and 
equal to its height; dorsum with a rather feeble median longitudinal ridge, and 

Fiff, 1. Cj/rhispis ctt/irt Ho, type iikiIc; m, Intersil view; b 3 <lors:i1 view fif r.-ir;i|i;i<-e (X Id) 

With a pair of shallow and inconspicuous depressions in front of the middle of 
length; antennal notch distinct, and antennal angle subaeule; inferior margin on 
each side produced forwards anteriorly to form an acute inwardly curved horn. 
Which reaches a little beyond the level of the ocular lobe. Pseudorostral lobes not 
quite reaching apes of the prominent ocular lobe, which bears a number of lenses, 
and is pigmented. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Firs! pcdigerous somite concealed. Second with an elevated compressed 
dorsal tubercle. Third noi so deep, with an indistinct elevation on each lateral 
face. Fourth and fifth with pleural portions expanded, each with a pair of trian- 
gular dorsal I nberelea. 

All pleon somite* with ;i fnini median dorsal ridge; on the firsl somite the 
dorsal ridge is elevated posteriorly as *» Muni tubercle, and there is an obscure 
elevation on each side; first five somites with strong articular processes. 

Outer flaejellum of firsl and'unao two-jointed. Lash of sceond anleiinae 

reaching to end of peduncle of itropods, concealed beneath Overhanging inferu 
lateral margins of pleon. 


Fig, -J. CydaspiJi eaprellu^ type mate; m, lateral view of fn.nt ..r eat-apace; l>, thinl mnxil 

ii|M',i ; ,-, ,|, ;um1 r>, first, weoiul, and ihir.l [teraeoporLfl fall \ -in ) ; t, uropoil (X 82). 

Basis of third maxillipeda scarcely bent, and with apical process reaching 
nearly to level of apes of earpnsj remaining joints together much shorter than 
liMsis; merns with very long external [xroceMs extending beyond apes of carpus. 
which is rather elongate. Kasisof firsl peraeopods equal in length to the remaining 
segments together, with a plumose seta at apex which is not a1 all produced ; carpi w 
and propod as equal in Lengthy dactylic a little shorter. Second peraeopods longer 
than third to fifth pairs, with basis alums! as long as the live terminal joints to 
get her * and with ischium dislinet. 

Peduncle of aropoda one-fourth as long again as eixtlnpod aud three fourths 
;is long again as telsonie somite, with a row of rater long setae, which diminish 
in length posteriorly, on the inner margin; rami subeqnal in length, the exopod 


slightly longer than 1 1 1 < - single- jointed endopod* and with Widely-spaced setae rtn 
inner margin ; endopod with setae and a few vt^'y Khfttl spines Ofl inner margin. 
Length 5'3 nun. 

Colour pale brown. 

I.uv. Sotlth Australia: Off Black Point. York* IVuinsiila, -Mi fath. bottom 
dredge (B, C. Cotton, Apl., 1934), Type, male, in SoufJi Australian Museum, h'e'j. 

x<». c.'joii. 

In Ihis dislinel speeies fhc rarapace lias procurved lateral cornua as in 
wuma* fm1 differs in having the basis Of the first peraeopodH not produced dis- 
tally into a poinlcd lobe, the SeGOnd LegN relatively long, With the- ischium not 
suppiv».M|, tixicl the iiropods typically as :n Hyctfulpk with clouti-ale peduncle. 

The strongly srulplured (\ bW%* Dale (1928, ]>. |I2, fig. 1 £) lias a pan- 0* 
<|cr|> and massive lateral project .ions on the carapace, hut has all 1 lit* farms 0l 


SYM^ODOW y\ V Slehhinu'. 

Threw speeies of ihe genilS may jiow be listed for Australian waters. The first 

of Miese was referred to ' s '. ufrmtmvm Stebbing b.v the writer (Hale, 1928, p. -in. 

n<_r. 9 10), t he second was recently described from Queensland ( Poxon, 1932, p. 388, 

fig. .'» (i), and the third is recorded below. The Austrarnm forms are easily 


a. Dorsal carina of carapace with three prominent teeth . . . . <ifrirannm 

aa. Dorsal earina of eai'apaee with no prominenl teeth. 

h. Dorsal carina of carapace with one dorsal tooth. First joint 
of endopod Of uropoda much longer Ihan second. Dae- 
tylus of second peraeopod slender, longer HlHTJ mrrus 

and carpus together anstraliensis 

bh. Dorsal carina of carapace With a row of more Ihan a dozen 
small spines. First joint of endopod of uropoda sub- 
renal in Length to second. Dactylus of second peraeo- 
pod stout, only ahoul as hum as carpus . . . . hat 

SYMi'onoMMA BAKERT sp. nov. 

Non-ovmerous female. Integument moderately hard. Carapace twice ftH long 
;is dee[), \ cry DATTOW, its «rreatcsl breadth considerahly less than rhedeplh; a little 
shorter than the five pedie;erous somites together, And b'ss than one-fourth the 
total leUgttt; dorsal carina sharp, with a series of fourteen small spiues, ihe first 
PltUated at one fourth of the length from the end n{' ihe ocular lobe, the last at the 

middle of the length. Ocular tobe narrow, subt rian<>ular. extending beyond 

pseiidorost ral lobes, and Wltb anterior margin crenulate; darkly pigmented and 


Records of thk s.a. Museum 

with several iem^ Psettdorostral lobes very narrowly BnWriincate in dorsal vh-w, 
wiili anterior edge^ crenulate. Antenna] notch \<-vy narrow hut rather <Jeep d *Mk1 

anionnal Millie rounded and ••ivnnlate. 

Firsi p^lin-orniissnnul.' widnied a<B».alIy And interiorly, its short lateral arras 

overlapped by tfoeweoucl somite; pleural parts of Ihirtl to fifth somites hackwardly 





■■ ' 8 


•; v : 

■l 1.4 

w- .- ' 

-. J 1 .'. 





Pig. :;. Spmiwdomma baptrt, type fcmakj a, lateral *iw; fci, rlatgal vitny pi parapack ( v 1 r) j 
e, antennal noteli and aiitwortoteral Migto of i*a**]i -'"<•, a, dorsal view of aat«ei lor i>ud of i ai rmai i 

(X 71). 

Pleon somites smooth; first to fifth successively increasing in length, willi 

posteco-Iateral margins hackwardly prmlueed \ t.-isonie somite only an long as first, 
prodnqed between bases of nropoda. 

First antennae with first joini of peduncle sinnt, widened hasally. nearly twice 
as long as the second, and mucli longer than the third ; flagelrura two-jointodj and 
terminating in a pair of jointed wetae; hcuqwot^ fla^cllmn short bill two-jointed* 

Basis of third raaxillipetls gently eii£ved 5 miich more than twice as long as 

the palp, and with produced dislal portion reaching beyond distal margin oL' 
merris; ischium, menis. carpus, and prOptidllK snbequal in lenirth. dacfylus i ex- 
clusive of tetig terminal spine) a little shorter. First peraeopods extending well 
t?eyond anlerinr ma¥g&1 of carapace; hasis slender, slightly Curved towards it£ 

Hale New Cumagea from South Austrama 


base, ami shorter fchan the remaining Joints together ^ merus with a shorl Rtoul 
apical spine; earpns and propodus fciibequal in Length, daetylus a little shorter. 
Second peraeopods stout and armed with spines; ischium distinct, carpus ftligflitly 

longer than merns and a little shorter limn dactylns; propodus short. barely hall' 
as Icing as menis. Basis of third pair somewhat shorter than rest or limb, thai of 
fourth one-half as Long as remaining joinls (including elaw of dud ylns ), and that 
of third less than halt* as long as rent O'f liinh: carpus of lasl three peraeopods longer 
than moms and propodiis; daelylns short. 


Pig, I. Si/tnj'otlnninitr hti/.rri, type l't*r*i;» It- ; ft, first ;<nt cim;i (X 4(1): 1», rhinl iiuim Hi |n-il ; 

c id L r , first to fifth pei'aeopods ; li, uropotls ( x 25). 

Peduncle of nropods nearly as long as fifth pleon somite, and one-and-thiVi'- 
fonrfhs limes as as Ihe rami, which are equal in length ; inner margin armed 
with more than a dozen spines; exopod with first joint rattier more than half as 
loot:- as second, its apex with several long spines, but inner margin with a few setae 
only; endopod with the two joints subo<pial in Length, the inner margins of eacli 
armed with abotlt ten spines of different lengths, and apex with slender spines. 

Colour brown, marked with dark" brown stellate spots. 

Length 10 mm. 

400 Records oh the S.A. Museum 

Lor. South Australia: Gulf St Vincent (W. H. Baker^ nun,. Type in 
South Australian .Museum. Reg. N". G- 2043, 

This species is named after my esteemed trieud Mr. W. II. Bakeff, who has 
done so iimcli for earcinology in our State. It has all the facies typical of Sympo- 
dQtnma, the narrow ovular lobe, the anteriorly produced basia of the third maxil 
lipeds, etc, 

The only ot her species of l he jjenns which l<i<-l<s prominent dorsal teeth oji IIm- 
carapace is S, wvheri (.Caiman, 1905, p. (>. pi. i. ftg< 7-1_l but thai species differs 
m having the carapace of different shape, with no distinct row of spine*) on the 
dorsal <*<i rinn, (lie daetylns of the first peraeopods much longer Mian ilie carpits\ 
the first joint of 'lie endopod of LllC UmpOdti nnieli longer Mian Mie second, etc, 


DiAKMfi'iiusi vus Zimmer. 

I )|,\loKUIOsTVUS ( OTTONI S|). llo\\ 

Male. Iiih-jiiineiil flexible and strong. ( 'arapace wit h well-marked and finely 
creindate laleral ridges: five of Miese are long and forwardly directed, the mosi 
poslerior snbmargiiial in |;he liinder edge, and I In- four Polioiviug n<>1 meeting in 

the uxid-line; a short ridge extends across the base of eaeh pseudoroytra! Lobe and 
meets the anterior rounded portion of the broad eyelobe, while a short ridge joins 

f he eyelohe al the in id die of if s Length, and connect s il wit 1 1 an ol)li(|iie baekwardly- 

directed ridge which touches the pseudorostral ridge on eaeh side. Carapace a 
little less than one-Miinl total length, and almost tw ice as lotig as Mie live pedigeruUs 
somites together^ vertical height about one half length, and considerably less than 
urealest widlh. Psendorost ral lobes short. sc,-i rccly nptiirned. apically subacute. 
Antennal nolcli dislin<'t and anfennal angle rounded. ( >nilar lobe with a single 
Large lens, which is not pigmented. 

Socond lo fourth pedigerOUH somites snboqnal in length, and fifth H little 

longer ; first largely concealed ; second to fourth side plates expanded, on I lie third 

pediuerons somite overlapping that of second and foiirt h. 

First three s.miiles o!' pleon snbeqnal in lengl h ; fourth longer and snbcpial in 
length to sixth; fifth nearly half as long again as sixth. IVison. including its 
apical spines, about as long as sixth somite; with a pair of nptnimed apical spines 
and throe spines on each lateral margin of poslerior portion. Second antennae 
with the (lagellnm reaching bad., n. end of peduncle of nropoda. 

Third niaxilliped with basis gonicnlale. \\ il h a row of plumose spines on distal 
half of the oilier edge and witli ap£S produced and expanded on inner side. Ihe 

Ham -New Cumacka from SotrrH Australia 


lamellate portion gapped with several long plumose setae; palp less than one-half 

as long as basis; isehiimi and merilfl short, together not mueli hm^er than earpus, 
which is suheepial in length to l>r<)|)0(lns ; inerus willi a strong plumose sela «m 
inner iimnim. Ivxopods ol* peraeopods expanded. First peraonpod extending for 
hall' its length heyond level of pseudnrost rum ; hasis geniculate nol produced apie 
ally, wilh plumose setae Oil outer edge ami apex; iseliium shorler ihan merus, 
whieli is half as lung as earpus: propodus almost half as long a«rain as earpus. 

Ki". r K TJvmw'phti&tjflis vMtftni, lyfm malih; u, Wteral \'"\v; k duntf] view of ii»pli«lothuraS 

Second pe^aeopofl reaching forward a little btyand hasis of first pair. Hie bfMN 
widened ;i1 proximal third Mvhere il is more Ihan one-third live leiigth) and with 
Ihe apie.d expanHWMa reaching to level of end of merus: isehiiini very short, and 
merits (.in 1 I'ourtli as hum" as the elongate .-arpus. Third peraeopod with basis 
similar t« ilmi of second, bill shorter, ami with apical Lamella smaller, i^aehing 

beyond dktal margin of the iseliium ; merus ami carpus Kllbequa] UJ length. Hasis 
nl' I'ourth pttftetipod with distal expansion shorter 1han in olhers; rest of limb 
much as in third. Kil'th peraeopod with hasis aln-upf ly narrower, widest al apex ; 
isehinm ahoul one-ihird as Loftg as merus, whieh is espial in length to earpus. 

IVdum-h- of uropodU twice as lohg as sixth ple<m somite, whll thirteen short 
plumose spines mi inner edge; rami, ineludin^ terminal spines, e<pial in length; 
wit hold 1 he spines tin- endopod is one-1 hir<l as long Rg&ifi as exopod ; first joint of 


Records DP the S.A. Museum 

endopod two and a half times as loiXg as second and third joints together, am! wil h 
eleven marginal spines ; third loflgtfj* than second, and slightly shorlcr than ter- 
minal spine; second and third Segments eaeh with one spine at inner apieal an^le; 
basal joint of exopod nnc-fourlh of the length of second, which is one-fourth as 
long again as tenninal spine. 

Colour white. 

Length 5 mm. 

Lac. South Australia: Gulf St. Vincent. :; miles off Semaphore, bottom 
dredge, 5-7 Eatn. (B. Q. Uotton^ Nov,, ll):\) ). Type in Smith Australian Museum. 
Beg. No. 0.2042. 

Pig. u. ttimwrphoslyUs cotimd, type tualej a, third umxillipedj b to f, first to liffcli rieraeopodB 
(X^!>); k« terminal somitea of pleitti ;m.l iiropod (X 48). Paratope ininwif mv i, |«J«; !,, first 
antenna ( x 77) ; i, terminal somites of plecwi and ui-opod ( x 43 I. 

A male 8-3 mm. in length was taken at the same rime. In this the absence "I" 
pleopods and the slate of development of the exnpods of tin 1 Leg« indicate imma- 
turity; (he ftrtt antennae are not hairy, and have the second joints of tile peduncle 
only about halt as lonjr as Ihe first, which is longer Ihan the third; the accessory 
tla-elhim is small and two jointed, the onier I hr<v-join1ed, the last segment minuie. 
The telson has a pair of apical spines, but only one »pine on each lateral margin 
near the apex. The uropods are relatively shorter than in the adult, the peduncle 

Hale— New Cumacea from South Australia 403 

being only one and one-half times ms long as the sixth pleon somite, and barely 
longer than the endopod, instead of nearly half as long again; ihe proportions of 
the .joints of the endopod are different, being 38 i 11 : 12, and the terminal spine 13. 
The peduncle of the uropods is armed with only eight marginal spines, the first 
segment of the endopod with five, and the second and third segments with one each. 
The male of I), cottoni resembles the male of the genotype, from Japan, much 
more closely than does the Queensland I), austmlis Foxon (1982, p. 890, fig. 7-8). 
The antennae, uropoda, and general facies are quite similar, but in the South Aus- 
tralian Form there is an additional, oblique, lateral ridge on the carapace, only one 
Ocular lens instead of three, and no lateral flaps on the telsoii which has only two 
apical spines; further, the fifth pleon somite is apparently less elongate in I). 
usidlta, (Zimmer 1921, p. 144, fig. 47-55). 


Foxon, (J. E. II. (1982) : Great Barrier Beef Expcd., 1938-39, B& Hep., iv. 
Caiman, W. T. (1905) : Sibogu Exped., Mon. xxxvi. 
Hale, Herbert M. (1928) : Tram. Boy. Nor., B. Aust., Lii. 
Zimmer, C. (1921) : Milt. Zool. Mm., Berlin, x. 


By Herbert M. Hale, Director, South Australian Museum 


On the eastern side of Gulf St. Vincent and south of Adelaide is a series of flat reefs 
formed of Miocene limestone ; they are largely exposed at low tide and, towards the outer 
edge, covered by at least a fathom of water at high tide. 

The following notes concern a reef half a mile in length and situated at Sellick's Beach, 
30 miles south of Adelaide. 


By HERBERT M. II \IT, I), .. mi \. mkauan Mi i i 

Fig, 1-23, 

On the eastern side of Gulf St. Vincent and sonili of Adelaide Ls a scries Of Ha1 
red's formed of Miocene Liirortoitt; they are largely exposed a1 low tide and, to- 
wards ihe oniei- edge, covered by al least a fathom of water al high tide. 

The following motes concern a reel' half a mile in leifjsrth and situated a1 

Schick's Ucach. 30 miles sot 1 1 li of Adelaide. 

Paris of 1 lie onler areas of 1 li i- reef are covered with Mai. loose sl.mes. delrilus 
from Ihe hard Camhrian afad Precambriail roeks and Ihe Miocene hed The 

latter in particular are clothed on the tipper free* with a short lilaniemons alu.i. 

and lliis. aided by the natural rmie/liiioss of Ihe sofl stone, loosely holds a film of 
sand several niilliniel res in 1 hiekness. ; m( | much , llore w | u , n . [\ (j]] s ( . Vl[r \ {> , . |IM j 
ereviees. Investigation showed lhal Ihe smimI Lodged OX\ these stones provider a 

tooting for a surprising number of burrowing Crustacea, including Cunmcca, 

These liiioral sand duellers were collected by lifting atones otff ihe bottom* 
carefully bringing therw to the surface so thai the sand Mm wro diatiirtad as little 

.•is possible, and immersing then, m a large hnekel of mImmi! 1', formalin (com- 
mercial forimilin 1 part, sea water 41) pari-, ; after a period ihe rocks were well 
rinsed in I lie NO] Lll ion and removed. The resiillanl clebria was Ihen poured iuto a 

strainer of 2 mm. mesh to separate the coar>est material, which w;j> bottled in 

nlcoliol separately; Snallj Ihe smaller detritus was washed in a elot h sieve, which 

removed most of the sand but retained the small crustaceans, ete. 

II was found iieces,;,r\ lo leave the stones in the formalin for a perir.d of tf1 
|,l ' lsl fifteen minatefr; Amphipoda, in particular, leave their retreats al once, bill 
some other iV.rms are moiv resislanl. Immediate "grading" of Hie dehris 

found to be advantageous as the more delicate driiHtaeea fchtus survive dtpiiagp. 

Sandy patches or the reef, and ihe adjacent beaeh betwoeu bide marks, were 
also investigated. As regards Cumacea, collecting over a tew wjuare y.-.rds of the 
vrr\' \)v the methods outlined above produced ihe following results: 

i 1 I A.1 leasi fifteen species, belonging to eleven genera, live in ihe shifting 

eoaline-nf sand on ihe stones tot I lie reef. Two of these also occur in sandy patches 
on Ihe reef and in the adjacent bead), where a form ; Q« phffiwmmtl (Xtflt -en. el . sp. 

uov^j uo1 so far taken on stone*, is found as well, 

Hale Cumacea from a South Australian Reef 405 

(2) All l)ni Eater of the species from the rfcei have no1 been recorded from 

Australia previously, 

(3) All Im>h-1i no tow-netting was patfibcl, males are represented in all bill 
three of the species taken, and in only one of these three were more thai] twH 
specimens secured. 

our knowledge of Awtralian Oumaeea lh regrettably fragmentary* busludiug 
the Tonus described in this paper, forty-six species are definitely named and re- 

OOFdedi Of theae, I:\ven1y-live are now known lo Occur in South Australia i EiaJe, 
1928, pp. -?1 -47. 1929, 1932, and 1936] ; only one lias been taken in Victoria iSars. 
1887, p. 12J ; t'i.'iu-KMMi were found off Western Australia (Zimmer, 1914 -1 wo un- 
identified species also mentioned- and 1921; Hale, 1927, p. 17). and eigjil have 
been Listed from Queensl&nd waters (Sarfc, 1887, pp. 19 and 20; Foxon, 1932- 
who mentions that apparently three other species are gigo represented in the 
material which lie examined). During i\ recent brief visit to Tanmaiiia Mr. X. 13. 

Tindale, ill the writer's rnpiosl. was goOd enough to pass some sand-(ihned stones 

from a reef through weak formalin as described above, and bur species were found 
amongsi Lhe debits so secured (pp« 117, 41s, liM and 187). 

I-'amm^ BOPOI RllDAE. 
Cyclahpis G, D, Sars. 

Cvei.Asris n i:a sp. .nu\ . 

i)\ ioei'oiis female. I nl <•- 1 1 men! (inn. bill delicate and easily brokeilj Finely 
rcticulaleand sparsely pitted. Carapace with dorsal edgq Slightly arched, riightlj 
less than one-third total Length of animal, ils depth more than hall' its length, and 

aqua] to the greatest breadth, Psendorostral lobes barely teaching apex of the 

unilar lobe. OcUlar lenses blaek. Antennal noteh inoderale and tooth siibaenle. 
inundcd. Sides of carapace devoid of ridggft or sculpture, bid dorsiun wilh ft 
dist inct median Carina. 

Greater pari of first pedigerous somite concealed ami second large, with a 

clorsAl carina. Third and Eourtfa sonnies slightly elevated dorsally, and doi-ai 
margins in lateral view slightly (ioncavo: dorsum of third with posterolateral 
•les tumid. 

First live plcun so miles with well-developed lateral aHicnlar processes and 
With barely discernible inferodal eral ca;'inae. bid no other scnlplure: lirsl to Imiri h 
and lolsonic somites all of approximately equal lengl h. 

Kirsi antennae with second and third segments of pediuiele Kubequal in length. 
Mud together tshortuv ih;in the shm! btu&U *egui*n( ; inner Bagellnfi! represented by 


Records of the 3. A, Museum 

a minute veatige and the outer Lhree-johrted, tin- iirsi ^g^enl fcwiee as long as tic 

Other two lo<refher. Mandibles willi h-n h. hreLve tipme* Oil inner ed-je. 

Musis o!' second maxillipeds nearly one third as long a<rain as rcmainhm aeg- 
ouiuts together, and with a Long* plumose^ apical sel^a mi inner edge, Basis of third 

. **&<}' r ' ,;,/ " ' '•'• | .i" female; «, tertcrnJ view; L>, dorsal ?!**> of earapaiw. e, Latea] 

view DfttJTotyjN male (all X 28). 

maxillipeds tW4C6 as Itillg as resl of limb, belli outwards a1 middle of length, nn<l 
Willi outer apical porlion widened and extending forwards h. ie-VCl o! insertion of 
carpus; ischium subcyliudrieab and Outer pari of nierus ^really produced, extend 
ing to external apical angle of the carpus. Fir->i pwHt20pod abmil as long as cara 
! i;i,M ' With carpus reaching slight W beyond level of am emial angle: basits distinctly 
lougor I ban oi lier segments together, mirrowed dislally and with inner apical angle 
somewhat produced, Iml nol reaching ilV rx of ischium ; carpus as hum- as ischium 
ami meriia together, and longer thai) either pmpodu* or daclylus, which are sub 

equal in length. Basia of second legs ma quite as long as remaining segments 

Male— Cumacea i-rom a South Australian Reef 


together; isehiitm short, merits longer ihan carpus, which is Longer than propodus; 
dactyhig as long as merus. 

Pfcdimele of i$ropad.8 slender. n< ;j »1 \ twice as long ns telsonic somite, and one- 
rmifih as long again as fifth pleqn somiie; cxnpod a little longer than endopod, and 

less I han two-thirds as lon<r jis peduncle ; endopod with two spines on inner margin. 
Colour white, with dark brown tiiottlings and stellate markings. 
Length 4-7 nun. 

Iflg. 2. i/i'hispis puTOi nvi^'cnius tVin:ile: ;». first nntciimi (X HO.) : b ami C, stvoinl ;ui<l tliinl 
iii;i\i!li|MMls (X 70) ; 'I, <\ and P, first, second, and fourth pertuwpMla (X 7(1) ; g, uvopiul ( X 60), 

Adltll male. Differs from the female in having the carapace relatively a little 
shorter, the ocular lenses larger, and the aiitennal notch somewhat wider, the tirst 

pedigerous somite wholly concealed, the second pedigertius Koniite shorter, and the 
urupnds proportionately longer. The pleural parts oi the ihird to fifth pedigerous 

somil-'s are more expanded. The inl'erodaieral carinac of Hie pleon arc much 
more distinct, overhanging the (lagellum of the seeojid anienna. whicli reaches 
back to beyond the middle of length of peduncle of riroporL 

Length 4- 7 mm. 

hoc. South Australia: Hull' St. Vincent, Selliek's Ueach, burrowing in sand 
mi edge of sea ( II. M. Hale, Mar.. 1336), and Selliek's Reef, on stones 1 Path. (U, M. 
Hale. Mar. and Apl., 1986 ) ■ Yorke Peninsula, ( 'able Bay, on stones II. Womersley, 
Apl., l!i:;(ii. Types in South Australian Museum, Reg- NV C. 1 ?)1>f>-1 !>!)(i 

Tn immature specimens I he uropods are relatively shorter. Thus, in an ex- 

408 Records of the S.A. Mi ;fujm 

fttuple •'>•- nun. in length the peduncle is only ms Long i|H 1 1n- fifth pleOrt somite. Mini 
Hi.' CXOpod is Deafly as lonir ms the p&dlltlt'fe, while in m ^peeiltL0W 2-3 nun. in length 
the exopod slight!? exceeds the peduncle in Length, 

This Species Was bimwing in whit? smihI with YVhfcb iin.\ I'nmments of (lend 
k-HVes of Oymodocea. dark brown in eolotiT, were s|)mi-m-Iv admixed. The coloiini- 
lion of the mimiiimIs closely shim 1m led tlmir siiiTnimdin<vs. all foeing tuil k-\\ Idle find 
vnryinn-ly marked with dark brown. A few examples have lie eohmr paltrm 

marked <>ni by widely-spaced dots. 

(\ )>nrn belong to tin* grOltp ol's|»ecir> in which I he psondomsl ml lobes do pd 
meet in front ol' The eyelobc, ; ,,,d \ u which ihc earapace is not mmi! |)l niv«| exCi 
in.u for the dorsal carina which is often present. 11 resembles (\ I, ris Thomson 
which Iims been recorded i'mm Queensland by Fox..,, [f)32, p. ;{f)()^ | Ml j j| |r | ms j s 

of the first Leg lacks m long apical scIm, the nropodd of ihe adult are much Longer, 
(here are no dorsal Mnd Uhteral keels on the pleon, and there is no trace of s feeble 

l-;<e| running l>Mek from the ant etUkal notch. In V. pusQtti S.-irs ( ls,s7, ,,. if). ,>|. j, 

ftp. 21-23; tlieearap^cefe'^aJjnoHtpJobtrlat-^ with the .dorsum m<w arched; there 

ism slight median dorsMl keel m, the pleon somites. ami tin- nropnds are relatively 
shorter in the adult. 

(\>,c/«.<i>is formosat Ziminer (1921a, p. 124, fig. la-18) is mIso rather like 0. 
prim, bur ihe carapace of thai ftpecfes apparently lacks m dorsal carina, tin- basis 
Of ihe first poraeopnds is shorler tlnm ihe rest of the limb, nnd Iims an MpicMl spine 

reaching to the End of the tseJfinm, while thj? basift of the second pemenpo&s is m 

little lon-cr than Ihe remainder of Ihe h- : liirlher the uropoda are of different 
proportions. Millionth il ma\ be noted Unit Zimnmr's specimens are immature. 

Ivi.nneT'MA G. I >, Sars. 

An undeserihed species I'mm Sclliek's Keel' is apparently refeiablc 1o 
Li />/<)ctt,)i<(. 

Apart i'mm I he ^moty pe. / . krnh, njii S ; ,i-s | 1S7M, p. '-'1. pi. vi. li- L>!U:}:n. hvfe 
other specie*. £ mimt Cftrrnftli (1012, p. bib. f>£, 14*20) ami A. fwUmnci II ilr 
I 1928, p. 88, fig. 7-H i. haYO been referred to tin- -enus. while m firth VlWnihonlp 
soma i J.) nnsfniHtrvZhumw (1921, p. I, fig: 17). is linked to t his lit I le assemblage 
of species by em-rain ol;' its charaet rv*. 

L&piocuntXt kmbiirtfti is known only from the female, L. minor from lie- adult 
male and Eemale, /.. pulimnw from the immature ruaje and ovigeroii»s Eeuujle, /.. 
s/mtrttf sp. now from the female mii.I Pa inif limn psmn'a (.': nnslrnlntr i'mm m 

jvivcnije rtiaie. (n view of rhe itmufficieney of our knowledge regfardijip l-.he^e five 

[M^ies. mimI in order to Mvoid snle;e«|iient rn U \'w-A<^i. i1 seems desirable teiaporarilj 
i" refer litem nil to Lcptocttma. They m;i \ br separated thus: 


;i. jive nni pigmented. Paeudtorofctral lobes not or scarcely produced 

in IVdiil of ocular lobe I roj>o<l;i with e&Qpod shorter ihan 

endopod • • • •. ! '"' 1 " '■'(>' 

m !■:><• | > i^!. 1 1 mmlI e<l . Pseudoroslral lobes a Little produced in EtOnl of 

(xmiI.i t- lobe. [Tropoda with exopod as long as fir longer than 

b. Proximal segmerd of endopod of nropoda shorter than second pullnnn 
hl>. Proximal segmenl of endopod of nropoda much Longer \han 


(5, ( , ;iriHis of second peraoopods barely more than half as loitg 
ns raorus. Proximal joinl of endopod of nropoda Eour 
io five times as Long as second .. ... ,. . . midynliac 
.•,-. ( ';n-f»u> of second peraeopods longer than mem*. Proximal 
j'ninr of endopod of nropoda twice a« long as second. 
d. f tarapaee withoul median dorsal carina. Firni ^eraeo- 
|xm|s with basis m Little Longer than rest of limb, airid 
with a i tit't of Long I airs on propodus. Corpus of 
second peraeopods no1 much longer than inertia (a-s 
Long ;is ischium and merits together I . . . . minor 

rill, rnrapaee with a median dorsal carina. Firs) peraen- 
pods with basis shorter than real of Limb, and wh'h 
out Lift of long hairs on propodus. Carpus of 
second peraeopods more Hum Mne and one-half 

limes us Long as merns ( disl iu<-1 ly Longer th;in 

ischium and moms together; .. .. sftedvdi 

L. sli<<ti<ii is the only one of the above species lacking a gubapic^l tttfl nf hairs 

mi Ihe pi'Mpcdus of lie first penieopods. /,. affltiVil-ih* alone h.-is a large spoon- 
shaped apical process on ihr basifl of llie first leirs. and, according Io Zimmcr. also 
has wry unusual fllird maxillipeds. These two tonus differ from the others in 
having tin- five terminal joints of the Ural peraeoptids together Iringer than the 


The Carapace lias a median dorsal carina in /.. pull 4 iuri, /,. ami ralinr. and 
/.. slicurdi. 

The male (.f /.. awtvattdi and /.. pullcinri- possess™ five paira of plectpods; hnl 
in /.. minor only three pairs are presenl in 1 lint sex. 

Kxopods are well developed on the first four pairs of penieopods of lilG adult 
male of L. minor, i.nt in the immature male of bofh /•• awrtraHttt and /.. shwtrtli 
thai nf the Fourth leg is rudimentary-. Ziinmor ftupgeftt* thai Ll>is iuenmplefo 
\elopinen1 of the last exopod may he a aharueter of the juvenile male. 

Liii'TOrr MA siir\m>l sp. flOV. 

Female. \un\x slender, a little compressed, Tarapaee nearly one-fourth ivf 
total Length, its vertical heighl eijiial to two-thirds its length; the Lateral areas are 
marked with radiating sn-iac, and the rt'orsmii baa a medhyn longitudinal ridge 

I\rn<l«a-Ms1ral lobes shorl and rmmded. produced (bill 0O1 in Contact) in front of 


RECORDS OF the S.A. Museum 

ocular lobe for a distance equal to cmd-half of length of lasknamecl. Ocular lobe 
wide and pigmented, Aniounal notch very wide and shallow, and antenna! angle 

Firsl pedi<:orous somite concealed except jug for a small dorsal seel ion ; second 
wilh pleural parts overlapping first somite ami carapace? third overlapping K6$onri 
ami fourth somites inl'orodai orally ; pleural portions ol fourth and fifth somites 
a little produced backwards. 

Fig. 3, L' ptoritnxi xhr<inii t \y\» Female; a, luteal view; h, dorsal view of compact (X 20). 

First to fifth pleon somites successively increasing in si/.e, llie fifth being 

twice as long as the first ; tolsonie snmile Iwn-thirds as long as preceding somite. 

First antennae with the tWO terminal joints of pednnele sube^ual i tl [engrth, 

with the flagelluM two-jointed and the accessory Ma,uellnm single-jointed. 

Third maxillipeels with palp three-tit'ihs as tog as basis, which is wide and 
prtklnxsod laterally (but uol forwards! ai dfeta! «-ml. peraeopods vrith basis 

m»t nearly reaching to level of anionnal milch, shorter than remaining jointfi 
together; and wilh phmmse hairs and a Long subapical spine on inferior margin; 
the merus is distally produced on the ouler margin, is suhe((ual in lenirth to the 
carpus, a little shorter than rhe prnpodus. and barely Longer than the dactylus. 
Second peraeopoda with basis fiv^-sevenths .-is [ong as remainder of limb; ischium 
distinct; carpus more than half as long again as mcrus. which is slightly longer 
llian either propodus or daHylus^ liasis of Wi'w<\ peratfOpedH a bom as long fis rest 
of limb, lhal o\' fourth ami fifth pairs much shorter. First three pairs of pora-".> 
pods With a well-dcvolopcd oxopod ; fourth pair with rudimentary exopod, which 
is tv>o jointed, the second segmeni minute. 

Hale— Cumacea from a South Australian Kim 


Peduncle of uropoda oufe-third ;is Long again as tolsonie somite, and ono-icnth 
aakuigagaiti ;.srami; endtfppc! almost BQ-Haj iii Leiigth to cxopod (36: 8.6), with the 

proximal jOTtlt hviee t® tbng as second: inner margin of peduncle and eudopod 
with spinules aild several prominent spines, six on ihe peduncle, (ive on tM BttSt 
JQint, and (me »n (lie second ; the endopod bears three apical spines. Hie loimc-i 
nearly one-third the len<rlli of Hie minus; Hie EKOpOCl has four apical spines (the 
longest half US toilg as Ihe ramus), three slender spines on Ihe inner mamin. and 
fire on the outer. 

W# 4. LeptntHma shetirdi, type frftiale; a, Am antenna; b ami •-. second an <1 diiol u 
iii„,i, •; _ ",i -„i,j;,>i i..i,t't!i peraeitjinds; i, telwinle sotflite and irropticl (all >■ '67). 

( 'olour white, with brown markings at anlennal angles, termination of psettdo- 
rostnil sutures, and on pleural parts of second podi-ero i.s somite ; 1 he -roaler parts 
oMholhirdaud rmiril. feg-bearittg somil es and of the second, t bird, and (it'th ph'on 
Numil os arc brow n. 

Length 6 nun. 

Lor. Soulh Auslralia: Cull" Si. Vinrent. Sellick's Ueet. on stones, 1 t'aih. 
i II. M. Ilalc ApL 1536), Type. IVmale. in Soulh Australian Museum. h>j. No. 
0. 2015, 

This specif- is named after Mr. R>Hh Sheard, who has assisted in separat in- 
SIUH II Cushcr;, Iron, collected at SellickV licet', and to whom my host 
thanks are due. 

412 Records of twr s.a. Mtjset 


A juvenile 2*75 mm. in lentil] has the fifth peraeopods a.s yel Linrievrfoped ; 

nevertheless, the esopdda ol' 1 lie- first to fourth pairs are as in thp ;k1mI1 female <\r 
seribed above. ;,nd are similarly furnished with setae. Long in the case of all h M | 
ttte rudimentary pair. It W0ldd WeiU that the period at which I r > n - setae appear 
on the e\.»pods varies in different s})eeies. in s <,i,,c subadull Xaniiastacids I hev 
are not developed, and in a relalively lar<>e male of Die ItmaclactyllWl (described 
'•l>.-\\]iere in this paper) they are very short. 

/.. sltutrdi apparently resembles /.. minor Caiman rather than lite other two 
Auslralian Kpedies, L. putieinni Male (South Australia) and L. (tmMUiae Ziminm 
i Western Australia.! ; from both of ! hose it may be separated at a <rlaneo by the 
proportion^ of Hie Iirsl and second peraeopods and iiropodfi, 

<ilCIMI\ KO< IMA geU, Mm 

Pseudorosf ral lobes contiguous in front of ocular lobe. Eye present. First 
antennae with t hree, jointed peduncle and with aeeessory fl&gellunq rudimentary. 
Second antennae of male | Mibmat mv | with fia^ellnm composed of short Joints. 
Mandible with lon<r spine row. Branchial leaflets lew. Third maxillipeds with 
well-developed exopod in bolh sexes and with apex ol' basis <rreatly expamled and 
api.-ally |>]'odueed mi inner side. Peraeopods similar in both sexes: first pair 
massive, with ischium and carpus expanded ; fii'st and second pairs with well de- 
veloped exnpods: third pair- wilh small. tWO-joilited exopod wilhout [tyig setae. 
and 1'ourlh with a rudijnenlary. single-jointed ©xopod. Male with five pairs of 


Pleural parts q{ second to fourth ped bjeroiis somites baekwardly prodm-- !. 

expanded and generously drerlapping bases of peraeopods- Fifth plegoq sunn 

not distinctly Longer than any of the others. ;md telsonic seejmonl produced betwrci, 
bases of nropods. 

(Jeiioiype: (i< pf\ ifrornma p&la Sp. nov. 

Outstanding' features of the g'enilfi are furnished by the character ol" the 
maxillipeds and first peraeopods. 

OiauiVRmi M \ evi, a sp. noy. 

Subadull female. Intoe/unioni moderately tirm. Gfttftp&Ce deeper than wide, 
e-pird in length to the pfldigerous somites tonethei\ and longer than pleon; with an 
obsolete, lone-itiidinal dorsal earina, otherwise withont sculpt lire, Pseiulnrnsi 
lobes meeting For a short distance, each apically trim. -ale in dorsal view. Ocular 
lobe wide, snbtriann'uiar, and eyes pigmented. Antennal noteh small. 

Only a short dorsodateral section of brst pediiierous somite exposed ; inferior 
maru'in of baekwflrdly produced pleural portion <>\' second twice as long as dorsal 



teugth of the somite, and third with dorsal length serv simri ; fourth somite twice 

as long as thai of lirst to third together, and wild pleural portion truncate; iil'U) 

small (inly ahoTil as Large .-is pleoii somite^ which are aubetjual in length. 

PifKl antennae with peduncle stotlt, the third JOUH loflger ihan second, and 
i I m • fii-fil Innu'rr than the other i\\n tog?o1 her ; H&geHtim hvo-joiiited ,-m<l HeC'ewOrj' 

il;i-_u'llnm rm.mdrd. Single .i« -i n 1 .-* I. minute. 

Wig. 5* (IrftJti/roro.'Ha /«////, ty|ir fcm.-ilc ; -i, l;i t M ;i I v'ir\v ; !>, dflTSaJ v i'-v, n|' <-;i rn | m. <•. <•. I.:i i ;i I 
View "I' allotype ni:ilr ;M l6), 

Basfeof ihird maxillipeds massive, and with tl»r .list ;i I lobe very wide, apieally 
siilH rniHjii r. and reaching to levd of apex { >t' pfropodija ; outer apical angle with y 

pair of plumose setae, and inner margin wil h three honked plumose setae; palp 
only one-third ih long as basis, w ith daetyhis gtCHlt. First peTaVOpnd* with oarpilfl 
rf.M'IniiM to ejid Of psmi.lorost rum .- basts very stout, aiirved, tftsarcely longer thai* 
resl of liiub; ischium with inner pari greatly expanded and prodtieed tq beyond 
level nf arlirulation of earpus; merus short and tnt0W S*ub.1 riam_ruhir in shape 
nwing to ihe lamellate inner edge; proppdltf widest distally. lender than earpns, 
and twice as hum 1 as isrhinm and merus together; daetyhis only half as loic_r m 
• •arpns. Second peraeopods with basis stout, one-lhird as long again as rhe remain- 
ing segments togel her ; ischium and rarpiis shorl, iihtiis and propodns subequal in 
length, pmcIi shorter lhan dactvlus. Third and fourth LegN oaeh with merits, elon- 


Records of the s.A. Museitm 

gate and as long .-is the basis; ischium ami carpun approximately equal in lfui£th. 
Fifth legs shorter, with merus and carpus elongate, subeqiial in length. 

Peduncle of iiropofts somewhat shorter than telsonic somit**, find bklf as long 
ms the rami, which are gnbeqnsl tfi Length and practically unarmed; endnporl iwo- 

joiulod. I he second segment nearly two-thirds as long as the first. 

(.round colour of first find second pfcT&fcopOfhn and of anterior portion of.cara 
pace, yellow, of remainder of animal white. rephalothc'/rax, bases of first two pairs 

Of legs and pleon l)oldly splashed with dark hrown. and with dendritic markings. 
Length 2*5 mm. 

Fig, ii. Gephfirtfetunu gala, a, Piirsl anteiuui trf paratype female, Paratope male; l>. firs! 
antenna; e, iliiiH inaxillipecfj <\ in h, Brat to fifth penwoporhs; i, fcelsmui 5 gomite .nd aropocl (a ;o««l 

I), X!^; e to L X 58) 

Submalure Differs from the female in the following characters. The 
carapace is not so deep, and the whole efcphalofchorax is more lightly htiilt. The 
[)leon is relatively larger, slightly longer than the carapace instead of a little 

-holler, and 1 he inlVro-lal end margins of the firsl to fifth somites ;uv expanded l»0 

overhang the bases of the peduncles of the pleopoda. The first antennae* are stonier 
and larger, and the JmsIi of the second pair reaches nearly to the hinder margin of 

tlm second pedlgerons somite, and is composed of numerous short joints. The 

first and second legs are relatively more massive. 
Length 2*4 mm. 


Lnr. Smith Australia ; Gulf Si. Vim-eni. Sellick'H Befell, bntroWing in s;m<l 
,n nmr<rin of se;i ill. M. [late, Maf^ A pi. and Sept.. !!):;<) i. ;nnl Selkirk's Reef, Dii 
sarulv patdi I Q. M. Halo. M;ir., t930). Types in Spilth Australian Mnsenm. Rfif?. 
Xo. (VJUOO. 2001. 

As wiih Oyclnapix punt. I'icrocnuHt poerilotti, and Ocptomnut ahcarrti, the 
colouration accords with that of the sand intermixed with dark hrown fragment* 
Of Ci/ino'h.K-ca. 

Willi the tegS folded, this interesting species has the form of n [fhml-ltOsad 
bullet. The baaia of the first legs Ls twisted in the beginnings Of a spiral, so that 
the inner face (its sniisrly aiiainst the sides of 1he carapace and the preceding Hp- 
penda^vs. while bhe palp like, five terniinal joints of I he second leg are folded b;i.-k, 
as shown in the skeleh of the male. 

The Mrs! Ipits of Zinmier's Vaunt hOinxoriitl <-' <nt.<fr<tliac (above i 4 el'erre<| 
tentatively to L< pfoci/nin) , from Xnrl h-wo>lern Australia, are similar to those of 
OephyrQOWnUl* bu1 are h*ss markedly expanded. 

(i. pala is the only one of the species herein recorded which was not taken on 
the reef, bill e.nly on the adjacent beaches, h occurs at I he water's edge atoiUg I h" 
whole of the hiiy. three miles in length, between Sellick's Keel ;ind Porl Willnn-a. 

I'm ■[{<» i;viA g©n, nov. 

I'scudoroslral lohes cnnlimions in front of the wide ocular tobe. K\ e present. 
Kirsl antenna.' with three-jointed peduncle and with rudimentary accessory 
lki-ellnm. Mandible with spine-row short, including only four and five opines; 
lacinia spinit'orm and molar process stout ; incisor porlion greatly elongated, with 
cutting edge tridentalc. 'Third maxillipeds furnished with exopod and not 
markedly differing from lirst peraeopods ; basis not produced apieally. Kir>l 
peraeopods short, and second to fourth snbcqnal in length ; (irs( to third pairs willi 
VVell-deVOloped etXOpodS in the female. I'ropoda with eildopod sine-le-joiuled. 
Second pedie;orous seutnent much longer than the others in the ovigerous female. 
Adult male unknown. 

(Jonotype: PieroCUWVa poicttot'f sp. nov. 

The salient features of I he genus are fonnd in Ihe struelure of the mandibles 
and the nnspecialized third maxillipeds. 

Ph'iaxa \r\ roixu.oTA sp. nov. 

Ovigerous female. lnlegumeul nol highly indurate*!. ( 'nrapace as Wide as 
depth, which is little less than the length: surface .month. I'soudorost ral lobes 
meeting in front of ocnlar lobe for a distance greater than length of last-named; 


Records <>f the S.A, Mi sium 

apieally bluntly rotinctecl in dorsal view. Ocular lobe twice as wide as long . eye 
darkly pigmented. Antenna! aotuh \ <*i .n wide and shallow; antennal ongla ob 

I tisely r<ni 1 m IcmI. 

All five pedigcroiia Mnniles expO»Gd^ second almost as long a> third to fifth 

(opether, .'iiul with pleural parts little fetpanded, hid overlapping Br»1 and third 


Fig, 7. Pii'lCrUitHI /KUcifnht, !v|.r lrm:il. ; ;i. I ; I f (MH I \'ic\v j !», .lnr-:il yi<> w Qf r.'l r:i | »:i< ■■<•. 

«•, Lnlrinl view of juvenile (nil X SO I 

I'h'nii with first to third somites si;i$c£afdvely increasing in leiagth; fourth aa 

long as third, m im I tilth much logger ; lolsonic somite Itboul ttS Long ."is third. scarce!\ 
produced between bases of uropods. 

First antennae with first joint of peduncle very siont, not \rvy much longer 
than second or third segments, Which are Ktibeimal in lei mill ; ilai>vlhmi tWO-joittted, 

and accessory fiagellnm conical, minute. 

Ahindihlc wiiii several (lifts of hair posterior Co thespine-rOwj distance Erqiu 
the distal spine of row to cutting* edge ctiual to abonl one-fourth of total length of 


Third maxilliped reaembLinp firsl p^racoptKl and of abcml same length, I > 1 1 1 

v, il h merits. CATpiUA, and propodua sloulor ; hiisis a little shorter than rest of limb; 

carpus as long an ufchiuni and rn<*rua together; propodua wibpquaJ in Length to 

merus. First perawpoda reachine,- only In (eve) of antennal notch, with joints oi 
approximate aarae proportions as in third maxilliped. Second peraeoptidx short 

;ind sloin. with ischium cfisl inct ; merus longer than carpus and shorter Hum dacty- 



lus; propotlnn nhortet than carpus, Last three pairs terminntixig in a elaw, and 
with l>^sis shorter than remaining joints together. 

bropods slooi ; peduncle nearly as loiig as fifth pleon somite and one-t bird ;ts 
[ouj* again as ondopod : exopod a little shorter Hum ondopod with t wo lerminal 
spines, one short and the Other rather more than One-third as long as tlie mums; 
ondopod single -joint ed with inner edu'e serrate nnd with tenninal spines similar 
hi those of exopbd, bill with the longer one slightly shorter. 

Pig. 8. rivfocuiitit jKUfilcthi, ]>:\i:\\y\)v ovi^oonis Prsttfll^; a, first ;tml StfCOlwl antennai 1 

(X 200); b, rnandibta (X 200); t and (I, ante raw portion* of botli mitndihlQs (X 450); r. third 
uiaxiliiped (X 100); t' f g, Antf lv first., second, and fifth peraeopwls (X 100); i, uropod (X L00). 

Colour white* boldly marked with brown, 
Length 1 -0 mm. 

I. or. SpUth Australia: Gulf St Vincent, Sellick's IJeet*. on KftmtiH and io 
sandy patches i.Mar. and A pi.. 1936), and SeUiC&'u I leach, burrowing in sand at 
lltargjU of sea (H. M. Hale, Mar.. Apl., and Sept.. 1936), Tasmania : \Y\nyard. 
Knssil Keel', on stones (X. B. Tindale. A pi., UKUi). Type, ovijremns female, in 
Smith Australian Museum, Reg, No. C. 2006, 

During the periods noted above this wa> by far the commonest Cumarran at 
Sellick's lieaeh : il was abundant on the reef between 1 fathoms, and occurred 
everywhere in the wave-lapped sand of adjacenl beaches ; although many hundred^ 
ol' examples were Secured, all are inimaliire. although a tow snbadnlt Females are 
present. .Mr. Tindale. however, look uviovrons females during a brief virtfl to 

.Juveniles 1-2 1 • I mm. (fig. 7, e ) in length hav<- the form mneh more slender 
1 1 1 ,- m i in tile adult female, and the second to lifth peraonn somites not differing 
markedly in length. The nrnpods are. as usual, relatively shorter and slmilcr 111 
the young. 

418 Records of the S.A. Mim 

Kamh.y diastylidae. 

A\< iin iiu i-i g SieMring, 

A < HHMH.Cins WAITKl Hale. 

4 nchocolurus trait d Hale, 1928, p. 45, fig, 15-16, 

This species was previously known only 1'roin material collected in shallow 
water M » the sonth-east of South Australia. Both sexes were taken ou SeUick's 
Reef. The carapace is marked wiih numerous fine ridges, which are noi shown 
in the figure ut mp 

!.<><■. South Australia: Gulf St, Vincent, ScSlick's Reef, on stones, 1 fath. 
ill. M. Halo. A ) > I . . 1936), and L&rgg &$# (W. H, Baker, Nov 4 , 1889). Tasmania: 

Wynyard, Fossil Reef, on slones i X. II. Tindale. ApL 1936), 
lldh. South Australia and Tasma nia. 

(ivNoi)iA> Caiman* 

(ivxoniASTVUs siAinas Zinmier. 

Gynodiast yUs similis Zinmior. 1914$ p. 189^ fig. 15-10. 

Ziminei* described ihis species Eroni a single uon-ovigeroiis l*omn l*\ not ijuite 
2 nun. iii length. Ii proves to be rather common on Selliek's Reef, and I have 
before me adult males and ovigerous females* as well as subaduli examples of both 

The male baa large exopodson the first four perafeopod& SSubadull males. 1 -6 
1 -7 nun. in length, have theexopods of the Legs well developed, bul the flagellura of 
the second antennae shorl and TOsegmwted, These immature males, and all the 
females, closely resemble Zimmor's specimen, excepting thai the carpus and pro- 
podns of the first poraeopods are relatively wider than as shown by thai author; 
the nropods, excluding the terminal spine of the endopod, are one-third as long 
again as the sixth pleoM SOmite, the rami are snhoqnal in length With only a tew 
spines, and thecndopod is dist inetly two-jointed. In fully aduli males (1 • S-2 mm. 
in Length) the uropods are relatively longer, being oiie-hali as long again as the 
sixth plrou somite 3 and have the endopod one third as tang again as tin 4 exopod, 
with no apparent suture dividing it into two joints, and well armed with spines 
ami spinnles on the inner margin (see fig, 9 e) . (Mi the character Of the uropods 
alone one might regard 1 liese males as represental i\ cs of a differnit specie^ but tin' 
Other appendages SO closely agree with fh08e of females and younger males as to 

leave no reasonable doubt, 

Hale— Cumacea from a South Australian Reef 


in theadnll male the basal 4mut of the firsi antennae is barely longer than the 
second and third together? She flagetlum is three-jointed, is aboul twice as Long aa 
the two-jointed accessory Uteb, and is equal in length to the third peduncular seg 
ment The flageUum of the second antennae is twice a* long as the peduncle, and 
is composed of eleven or twelve joints. The other appendages do not differ appre- 
ciably in the adults of both resets. The mandibles have Lean than tea spines En the 
short row. and the basis of the third luaxiUipedx is trol produced apieally, Ui the 

SMg. !». OynodiastyUs wiuAM*. A.inlt roaJej a, first and sfvi.n<l antennae; l), c, and cl, first, 
swjojuL ami ftftti peraeopocfe; e, tfclson unfl urppod. IS Telson nn.l uj-opocl of turnutall malt'. 

n r.-]son and uiwipn.i of ovigenous female (all x _oo). 

firsl peraexxpodfl the bawds is equal in length to the remaining jbhits together, and 
the carpus ih only one-fourth as long again as the ischium and muftis together. 
ThestOUl basis of tbesecond pcraeopods is a little longer than the teal pf the limb; 
tke ischium is well developed, and the carpus hi a little longeL' than the propodus, 

which is siiImm|ii;iI in length to the (laclyius. The basis of the fifth peraeopods is 
shorter Ihan the resl of the limb, 

Ovioerous IVinales are 2 2* 15 nun. 01 length. 

L,>r. SoiiHi Australia: Gulf St. Vincent, Sdlidk's Reef, on si ones, 1 fatli. 
ill. .M. Hah-. A P L 1936 

Ihib. Weslern and Souih Aiislralia. 


Records of the S.A. Musfi m 

Gh N'udiastvlis Tnamuv Hale. 
0ynQdictetyUxturgidm Sale, L02&- p. Il\ ftg. 11-12, 

Adult male. Integinnenl firm. Carapace batchy more thaw one-third total 
length, with numerous, fine, lateral ridges; siirfhee between latter reticiilate, pedigeroiis somite partly concealed. Third segment of lirsi antennae 
longer than second, and basal joiaii longer thai] either j inner flagellant frwo-jointed.; 
outer lash Eow-jointed, and almost as Long as third peduncular segment, 

Fig. 10, GifitotUafdjflis turyulm* A.lnlt male; a, fatcjttl urw ; i>, dorsal vitew of etmrjiacG, 
e, Lateral new of etuapaco of another male ( x 50), 

Terminal joint of second antennae stout, curved, ami with a dense marginal 
fringe of hairs; flagi'llum tftily as long as pedunele, cotttposed of eleven to twelw 


l.asis of third mnxil 1 ijxhI geniculal <\ one-third as long again as remaining 
segments together, widened proximallj but not produced. First peraeopod stout, 
with carpus reaching to level of apex of pseudoro^truoci \ hasis widened at prori 

inal third, belli Outwards, and shorler 1 luin rest of limh; ischium shorter than 
morns, the two together leSH than half as long as the Htont carpus, and subcuual in 

Length to pvopodufy which has a ilense fringg of long setae mi the inner margin 
of its widened distal portion; daciylus imieh shorter than propodus, with Long 

Male Cumacea from a South Australian Reeb 


apical setae. There is no marked interval between the Kfecond and third tega ^ in 
Lhe DvigetiniK female. Ba&is of second to fourth legs expanded, in the second and 
third with, a rebate into which the exOpod flte. Second pjyfteopod with basis shorier 
than the cert of the limb, and atooul two-thirds a* wide as toiig; ischium diRtiud ; 

morns niiiiv llian Iwo-thirds as long a« oarpilf), and dnclylus slender, withoul the 
spine as long as the nierus and longer than pn-podus. Third pefaeopOds with basis 
almost as wide as lou^ 1 . and lnnuer 1 ha u rest of limb. Hasis of fourth Legfiuhoul as 
Long as remainder of limb, and also very wide. Fifth leg* with basis about equal 
in length to regaining joints together, and relatively slender. 


h%. II. Qffli,otito*Wte lurfiiAiis, ad'ttli Qinlfc? ;•. Ural :>»<! sutumd antenna*; h, third nnutfl 
liped; -- Lo g, Bral to liftli pemeopodff; h 5 kofcon and iiropods (all X 60). 

Peduncle of uropods Ktout, nearly three times as long as telson, and as Long as 
fifth plecitl snmite;e\r>pod three-fil'ths as jnn» as endopod, wilh two terminal spines, 
one lonper than the endopod, the other very short ; endopod one-half bo l&® than 
iwn-1 birds as Long M8 peduncle, its segments Mibetjiuil in length, the first with fcwO 
BpineB en inner ife&rgiii, the second Willi two on inner margin and 1 w<> apical spiUfi 
our of the latter shoi't and the other as long as endopod. 

Colour while 

Leno-th 12 * 1—12 - ri mm. 

Lor. Smilli Australia; fililf Bt. Vincent. Sellick's Reef, on stones. 1 fail). 
I II. 91. Hale, ApL, 19H6J ; :i miles off Semaphore, bottom <\v<><\^ ill 5-7 Tath. ( ['». C. 
( 't.tlon, Nov.. 1-9X1 '. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

The species was previously known only from the female. A male was token 

'>.v Mi'. Col I on, and both sexes were found on stones a! Sol lick's Reef. The first 
peraeopods of the female have loug terminal hairs as in the male. 

Smaller males lhan those described above have the carapace shaped more as in 
the female (fig, 10, c), although the difference is really very slight. 

Die Stebbing. 

DlC lasiodactyu-.m Zimmcr. 

Die htsioritii't i/l urn Zimmor, "1JH4, p„ 193, %. 17-18. 

A number of females and immature males. 1 -75 mm. to 2 mm. in Length or a 
little more, agree with Zimmer's description and figures, The first peraeopods are 
variable ill tangthj in some examples they are as long as the thorax and first live 
pleon somites together, whereas in others they are shorter, as in the Ovigerous 
female figured by Zimmer 


pig. 12, Die Umodactylwn, male; a, lateral vtcwj i>, dorsal view of cephalot borax (X 30) 



A nmle, 3 nmi. in len.uf h, laken in ISOJirpany with these smaller examples, is so 
difltaenl LbAl one was at first inclined tp regard ii as representing a drffereni 
specie. It is noi fully liitfture: the second antennae rearh only a tittle beyond the 
posterior margin <>!' kll* rarapaeo, and have ihe llagellnm sloul and composed of 
only a fewnointti, white 1 he oxopods ol* Hie thurnrit: appendages have no long hairs, 


Fig^. 1.",. Uir Jasiutlarhihtm. tfalfl 3 HUH. in L&igtU; :i, liis! antettlM ( X 1 15) ; l», tlnnl iikim 

lined (x 57) : <• to f, first, sirdiiil, thir.l, :im.I fifth penwopudt (X 41) ; e', terminal part of tint 
pcra*opo<l I X U£>; g, telsouie sOinite and nropofl (X 57). h, Tiilsonie somite mid urtiporl ol I • 75 mm. in kvngth ( X 57). 

The eurapaee is covered With V&ty small spines interspersed with which are some 
larger spirvea; ihmv is a shallow, median, dorsal trough The firal antennae have 
the Second peduneatflrjoinl only half as long as the third ; the two-jointed llagelltmi 
terminates in two long jointed filaments. The mandihles have seven and eight 
spines in the spine-row; the anterior pari is slender, with the Gutting edge narrow. 
The Iirs1 peraeopo&s have the hasis only ahonl oimd'onrl h as long as the rest of the 
limb, the carpilK and the pr0pO&V3 of aboill Ihe same length, and 1 he daetylus a 
little shorter. The seeond peraeopods hilVG Ihe ischium suppressed and the earpus 
elongate, longer than propodltU and daelylns lot-ether. The last three pairs of 


Recoups of the S.A. MUSEUM 

legs luivr the (laHvlus claw-like, ami the terminal joiiits are armed with 9 few 

slmrl. stout spines. 

This large tnale differs most strikingly from wrualJer males and female how- 
ever, in the proportions of the telsori and uropods. As in the other de.s6ribed fcpeciw 
of i in- genus (I), fitilmam Stubbing and />. tubal ic<<i/<l<r Caiman- see Stubbing, 
l!M:i, pp. 160461 I the telson is much longer than the tfxth pleon somite, and than 
the peduncle of the nropftda. Tin- tbree^joititetl endopod of the aropods is abcnil 
four fifths .-is long as the cxojmmI. and its long terminal spine is considerably Longer 
than the raxttna; the fcsopod is shorter than the peduncle and its spine is longer 
than the latter ; the peduncle is fuimfehed with a iVw spines, and is less than thtee- 

fonrths as Long as the telsou, which is armed inl'crinrly wilh Large spines. 

too. South Australia: (Juir St. Vincent, Schick's Reef, on stones, 1 Eath, 
ill. M. Hale, Apl.. 1936). TaSm&aia : Wynyard, Fossil Reef, on stones I 'N. B. 
Tindale, ApL, 1936) . 

Btt&« South-western and southern Australia, 

Pachystylis Hansen. viF/rrs sp. nov. 

Ovigenous female, tntegumenl moderately indurated. Carapace half as wide 
again as deep, jmd one and I wo-third rimes as long as pedigerous somites together ; 
dorsum with a pair of Hold-like, convergent ridgaa meeting behind theotmlar lobe; 
each side wilh a similar outstanding carina ; surface covered with closely-set Spin- 

Fig, II. I'lirliifsl jilix ri<h<<, |v|tr rVimilc; il, lrlter;il \ irw : I.. <lnrs;.l view t)f Bephfflothorax 

(X saj 

Hale — Cumacea from a South Austrai ian Reef 


ules. and with sparse hail's set on small elevations. Psoudorost ral lobes broad, 
pointed anteriorly, and meetinjj; Tor almost o 1 1 * • - f i it 1 1 of total length of carapace. 
Ocular loin* wide, rounded ami armed with a pair of spines; eye noi discernible 
Antonnal notch nol well marked, and antennai tingle rounded. 

Ftrsd pedijjvrons somite exposed, short ; second and third somites eoiml ill 
length 1o first dofsally. hnt with pleural parts expanded, the inferior margin of the 
third being longer than in any of the others; dorsal loin-th of fifth somite greater 
than that Of fourth, and equal to that of second and third somites together. 

Fig, !."i. Fdrhitstjifis fit htx, type FemAfcj ■•!, Mrst ;i nt ruin ; l». Ihiii] tii;ixilli|M'i! ; <•. «l, Jiml i\ 

1 1 rat, srciiml, atwl third peraeopoila ; r. telsim and aropod (all X 62 

First to sixth pleon somiles not markedly differing in length j telson not much 
more than half as Iting as preceding somite, with a pair of exceedingly shorl, blunt, 
apical spines, and a pair of setules. 

Kinst antennae with first joint of peduncle five-sixths as long as second and 
Ihird together: third much longer than second ; Maxell um four-joint ed, as long as 
third peduncular joint : accessory fla^ellum three-jointed. Mandibles with leu 
spines in the spiue-ro\v. 

Third maxilliped with basis curved, considerably widened distally but not 
produced, and equal in Length to remainder of appendage; carpus longer than 
iscliium or merns. slightly shorter than pr0p6dlis 3 and about as Long as dactylus. 
Kirsl peraeOpOd^ long, niore than two-thirds as long aa the whole animal, and w itll 
the merus reaching lo level of paeudoroHtral lobes; basis strongly ^cnieulate, a 

+26 Rkcorbs of the S.A. Museum 

little widened distally bui not produced, and not rnueh more than one third as 
long as the resJ of the limb j fa^pua shorter, ami propodiiH braver, than basis; dactj - 

luS "in- I Kill' 0fl Loilg 8.8 carpus, and etpial in length to ischium and incriis together* 

Second pejaeopods with basia more than thvee-foaytfe as Inn- as remainder of 
limb; ischium distinct, this joint and ihe menis wider than the three terminal 
.joints, which do noi differ much in length, lifisis in three posterior legs ftttoul us 
long as ischium ami menus together, 

ivdnucle of uropods slender, as long as th& tetson and two preceding pleou 

somites together, and twice as long as mini ; With live HpiiLCS on inner margin; 
endopod wilh 1 lie throe joints jftibequftl in length, each with a suhapieal spine on 

inner edgej apiea] spine of endopod aboui m's long as die two terminal joints; exo- 

pod barely hm-er than endopod, with Hie aj)i<-al spine as Long as ihe ramus. 

Colour white. 

Length 2-4 mm. 

I,oc. South Australia: (lull' St Vincent, Sellick*s Keef. on $tOXtes, 1 lath, 
i II. M. Hah-, Mar., 1936). Type in South Australian Museum. Heir. Xo. <\ l?()17. 

The getms was previously known from a Single species. 

Ali.ooiastylis gen. nov. 

Like (lintixiutslyUs Caiman i 1!)11, p. 367)., but differs in having the first an- 
lennae relatively nuieh more developed in both sexes, and \\ il h t he accessory tla^eb 
linn relatively large. further, the lelson is larger, with a pair of well-developed 
tf,piea] spines in the male, and the third legs are not widely separated from the 
second in tie adult female. 

The male has no pleopods, ami has well-developed exopodfi <<n the third maxilli- 
peds and on the first four pairs of peraeopods. Tin- endopod of Ihe uropoda is 
1wo-join1ed. and Ihe tclson has no lateral spines. As in some species of &ynodias- 
hf/is the ischium of the second leus is obsolete* and the lelson of the female has a 
pair of rudimentary apical spines. I can find no exopod* on any of the perampods 
Of I lie female, or on the third inaxillipeds. hut it is nul\ lVir to add that the single 
specimen is in a dirty condition. 

Genotype: ,1, en la/ us sp. now 

Ai.LMhi.vsTYUs . im'tah's sp. nov. 
Ovigerous female. Integument indurated, chalky white. Carapace not much 

i M -re than one-third total length, its depth eqtial to urea lest breadth, which is one- 

half its length; dorsal Margin sinuate, serrate, and inferior margin serrate; each 

>ido witli a dorsolateral ridge. Psoudomsl ral lobes meeting in front of ocular lobe 

Hale— Cum acea from a South Australian Rekf 


lor a distance equal to nonrU one-third <>r Length of carapace. Qeulu* Lobe wide 

wilh colourless lenses. 

All five pe&iyerijTO sjomifen exposed. together more than one-half as long us 
Mrapaee; the first short find second and third with pleural parts expanded. 

First six pleon segments mere or loss equal in |*nffth ; iHson longer, tnininnl 

ing in a pair of inconspicuous spines. 

Fig, in. Alfortimlylis firetatus. Type i't'inn K- ; :i, l^tetftl v\aw\ i>, rlwajd view of ce}ihaJjithorax 
28). Allotype male; p, lateral view; tl, dnml tiew of ceplmlotliorax (X ;;, i 

First antennae With the firsi Joint robnsl , longer than the second, geniculate, 
ft lid armed wilh a pair of short, stout spines: third join! longer than tirsl and 
fcWJCOnd see;nienls together; flnjrellum t'ou r-.joint <m! . more than one-third as Icing as 
last .joinl ot" peduncle, and twice as lonir as accessory Ha-cllum, which is apparently 
only one jointed. Mandible with eleven spines. 

Third maxillipeds gt(Ul1 ; basis shorter than palp, apically considerably ex- 
panded (bill 1101 l'orwardly produced), and furnished with lonir plumose setae; 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

mortis, earpns, and propodns of approximately equal length, dactyhis a little 
shorter. Coxa* of ptfraeopods large. First peraeopod on left side peaching be- 
yond apex of pseudorostrum, with hasis only pne4hird as Ions as remainder of 

Fig. 17. Allodiafitylis ei'ctattos. Type female^ a. first antenna 5 h third maxitliped; c, lie: 

peraeopod of left side: -I. second peraeopod (all X &!) ; <•. ctOrsal view of kelson and uropod 

• j ; i', lateral view of tdsmi. Allotype male; g, Brnl antenna; !i. third maxilliped; i to 1. 

tfrst, second, third, and filth peraeoports (.-ill x 62 ) ; m, dorsal new of telson aufl utgthhI (X45); 

ji. lateral v iew of telson ( x 45). 

limb; carpilS Mild propodns subrenal in length, each More than half as long again 

as dad vlns. Kii->i peraeopod of rLdn side apparently regenerated, with the three 
terminal segments considerably shorter Second peraeopod with basis narrow. 

Hale— Cumacea from a SOUTH Austrat ia\ Kki i 429 

two-thirds ?is long as peal of limb; dactylxis more 1 Vimh twice ms long as pvopoduft. 
Third to fifth legn with merits Longer than any of other joint* apart from basis. 
Fifth Legs more slender, hat not shorter^ than others. 

Peduncle of Lirapods slightly longer than telson; exopod sube<pial in Length 
In peduncle, with a tn-minnl spine as long ms ramus, ink I with several slender spines 

nn nnler margin : endupod aboul two-thirds ms loilg ns exopod, with the first joint 
Approximately bwo-lhirds ms long ms second, with ;i terminal spine ms long as the 
ramus, and with several spines on inner margin. 

Lei ii! th -J nun. 

Male, Differs from tin 1 female as follows. I nleejumeul translucent, brittle. 
Dorsodateral and inferodatcral areas of the carapace each with an olevaled ridge. 
Eyes larger. Telson less si out, and with a pair of apical opines, each of which is 
half its length. First antennae stouter, with the accessory flagellufll t hree-joim .-d 
and ms long as the five-jointed Hatrelluiu. Third uiaxillipeds narrower, wilh exo- 
pod as long as basis. Hasis of first to fourth pcraeopods wider, bill proportions of 
joints as in female. I'ropods with a few sj)ines on inner margin of peduncle. ;md 
w ith more numerous spines on inner margin of ondopod. 

I mm ml 1 1 2' I mni. 

Lor. South .\ustralia: Gnlf St. Vim-cut, Sellick's Reef, <m stones, 1 fath. 
i II. M. Hale, ApL 1936). Types in Smith Australian Museum, Reg, Xo. CI 2019, 

An adull male and female, and a juvenih' 1^2 mm. in length, Were taken; in 
ilm last-named Hie eye is pigmented. 



Seiii:/;n'iiu:,MA mnaexs Caiman. 

8fi1itefiire$M bifron* Caiman 1911, p„S62, pi. xxxiv. ii- 18-21. 

The carapace bears scattered tubercles and small spines, or small spines only. 
Th*' second mikI third joints of the peduncle of (lie first anletmae are sid)e<pial in 
length < t**TCh 1©W than half as Ion- as the geniculate first joint: the Haired ii iii i> two 
jointed. The third maxillipeds have the basis very wide and produced apically. 
While the merus also is considerably expanded and produced : there is a lontr apical 
sjiinr i as well as plumose hairs! on the merus and CMrpus. The hasis of llie first 
peiaeopods is less than half as long as the remaining joinls together, and IS armed 
with a row of moderalely large spines in addition to Rilial] spines; the carpus is 


Records OF the S.A. Museum 

slightly shorter lli;m the propodns. The second peraropods have tfie basis wide, tittl 
much shorter than rest of limb, and armed with a row of \^vy larire spines ; I he ear 
| hi- is niuiv than twice its I « n 1 u ;is tin' propodns. and suluMpial in length In the 

• !;lr|\ his. 

PJg. is. Saltizoiwrnu biffontt; lateral views of j :i i rmtle au<1 (h) female ( x (JO). 

The male differs from the female itl having the eara paer nol SO deep, the '&!&<$- 
>or.\ HagellllW of the first antennae larger, and I In 4 third and fourth peraeopnds 
with widened basis. There are well developed exopntfs on the firfcl td fourth Legfc, 

The branchial r^gionH of the vara paer are swollen in both sexes, hip t \ie I umidi- 
fcieH are Cinch more developed in some specimens thai) in others. 

In,-. South Australia: < J u 1 1' St. Vincent, Sellick's Reef, on stones. 1 l';itli. 
I II. M. Hale. Jan., Alar., and Apl.. J!Km;. 

Hub, India and Southern Australia. 

S. iflfcOTKEMA BtTOONti Caiman var. Ari'i a;\T\ var. nov. 

Some examples of both sexo*. both juvenile and adult, differ eonsistently in 

having 1 he spiny armalnre inneli more developed, and Tor 1 hese the varietal nam- 
tH'ithala is proposed. 

The accompanying figures of thr appendages n\' the variely would illusrrale 
equally well those of short-spiiied typical specimens. 

Hale — Cumacea from a South Australian Ref.f 


Lor. South Australia: (U\\\ si. Vincent, Selhek's Reef, pu stones, 1 fath. 
i li. M. Hale. Mar. aiitl Apl., 1986). Tj pe in Smith Australian Museum. Keg. No. 

Pig, 19. Srhiiot r, ntu hi frmi* Yiii". ucUltola, tyjjq female; ;i. lateral view ( >< U'l > ; b. first 
i nti mm : e, t li i i ■ I maxilMped ; d fco <;. firsts sectrtuJ, third, anil fit* t h pe*aftnpod& ; b, hetenu atxl ut:c»porl 

(all x I'J'M. 

X.w'xastai'is Speiice Bate, 

NANNASTArrs IfAXSKN'l ('allium. 

XuntHisfffi'iis ht/nsriii ( 'riliMJin, 1905, p. II, fig. I, a-e; SJtebhing, raiff, p. 172. 

Two males were found burrowim: in a layer of saild on a stone. In one ol' 
hhtiKG 1 1 1< l spiny armature is liinrc strongly developed ihan in 1 he specimen lijiurcd 
hv ('alnian ; Hie 'Mow rounded lubereles" of the carapace are higher, and many ol" 
iheni have become short spine**, whicli aitc particularly prominent a1 the posterior 
portion of 1 he carapace. The subey lindrical dorsal prOceSHew oi the pleon are dis- 
linclly stonier, and have the apical spines longer, while several oi I he -uli;ipical 

tubercles are developed as strong spines, 

In bol h specimens now examined I lie ;intei'odateral an<rle of I he earapaco beaiti 
a shorl spine. 

43 1 RECORDS of the S.A, Museum 

Lor. South Australia: Gulf St. ViUccni. Sellick's Reef, on atone, 1 feth. 
ill. It Hale, Mar., 1936). 

//<//>. Siunia Sen and South Australia. 

Nannastai rs (iiia-.dsrs Caiman. 

\ <iiimi.s!<ici(s (/ibbOtiUS ("aluian. 19U, |). 355, pi. xxxiii, fig. 16-21 : StebbinLr. 1913, 
p. 170. 

This species is not uncommon on Schick's Reef. As noted by Caiman, it varies 
considerably in the degree of inflation of the branchial regions and in Hie size of 
[he hinder dorsal tumidity ol' the carapace. In one female Hie carapace is SO swol- 
len that its greatest width is equal to Eour-fifths its Length, while the pleural parts 
of i he pedigerous somites are v<'\'y swollen and prominent. In some examples a 
hairy covering is well developedj in others it is sparse or almost entirely absent. 

In the male the poraeopods are much as in the female. I nil the basis is expanded in 
the third and Fourth pairs, being twice as Long as wide in the third legs and one 
and One-half times as long as wide in the fourth. The uropods do nol (\\\)\>v 1'rom 
those of the female. 

Loc Soulli Australia: Hull' St. Vincent, Sellirk's Reef, on stones. 1 fath. 
ill. M. Hale. dan. and ApL 1936). 

Hob. Gulf of siam and South Australia. 

Nanxastaci-s ximmkki Caiman. 

Nantuistucns zimmeri Caiman, 1911, p. 352, pi. xxxiii. fig, 1 15; Stebbing, 1913, 
p. 169. 

This species was takes] in company witli A. </ihhos)is. 

Males approximately 1 "6 mm. in Length are as described and figured by Cai- 
man, but larger males (2*2 mm.) have the branchial regions more inflated, and 
there is a posterior dorsal tumidity on the carapace. 

Fnxon ( 1982, p. 392) records the related .V. stf/nuii Sars From (Queensland. 

hoc. South Australia: Ghilf St, Vincent, Selliek's Reef, on stones, i taili 
I II. M. Hale, ApL. 1936). 

I/ab. Ceylon and South Australia. 

< JiTMISLliA G. 0. Sars. 

i mklla lakvjo Caiman. 

CinnrUa htrnx Caiman, 1911, p. S50, pi, xxxii. fig. 25-27, St ebbing 1913, p. 182, 

OvigerouS female. Carapace and ploon tinely irrannlose. ( 1 arapaee cme-third 
the total Length, its depth more than half its length ; subtriani»-ular in shape in 



lateral view, and with .1 faint, median, dorsal carina; dorsal margin straight^ 
slightly sinuoiiH. Psendoroatra] lobes .short and truncate, meeting in from of eye- 
lobe lor a distance equal to the width of the lasi -named. Antero-lateral margins 
almost straight, antenna] notch wide and shallow, and antenna] angle rounded; 
inferior margin serrate, with a small tooth a1 anterior angle. 

I'ih 2(K (hnnclki Ut<v<\ lateral views of (a) mule and (b) ovigevoua female (x 50), 

Pedigerons somites all exposed, together two-thirds as long as the carapace, 

Pleon shorter than eephalothorax, and with 1 ho first three aomites slightly 
elevated dorsally* telsonic somite about two-thirds as long as preceding somite, 
projecting slightly posteriorly. 

Eye pigmented. First antennae with peduncle stout, slightly geniculate, 
more than one and two-thirds limes as long as second joint, which is subeqnal in 
length to the third, and rather more than twice as long as wide; flagelluni somewhai 
longer than lasi peduncular joint, composed of two subequal segments^ accessory 
flagelluni rmliinenlary, single- jointed. 

Third raaxiiliped with basis as long as palp exclusive of dactylus; Ischium 
\ei-y shorl ; nierus strongly produced al outer apical an^le. and about as lotlg as 
propodus, which is one-third as Long again as carpus. First peraenpod with basis 
curved. almost two thirds as long as remaining joints together; carpus slightly 

43 + 

Records of the S.A. Museum 

Longer thaw techiuu] and merits together; propodus-i five-sevenths aa long an carpus; 
and nearly twice as long a« daciyhi& Second perneopod*i with basin tour-fifths as 

long? ft« t*e«1 of liuih. ami wil li ;i small stoitl spine n<nr baae ; ischium <list inrt ; hhmmis 
and c;n-|)ns subp(|n;il in length* each i bree-fourl lis as long as daetylutf, the long 
terminal apine of which is longer than the joinl ; propodita barely more than halt' 
as long ms carpus L;ist Three pairs of leg« rather aiender, ISams of third pah' 
ihree-i'ourihs as long a>s rest ol 4 limb, Fifth witli hn-is hah' <is long ms remaining 

jninls loirel her ; '';ii'pii> Iwilf ;is long' again «is morns. 

r'-j. :'i. cuiixihi hi, v, . Ovigerous female; a. lateral \tfev d! Rutpriin 1 purtfiuji of earapnec 

:- '•: |>, [irsl ;ml.'nii:i ., X 150") i .-, tliinl mnxilliprd ; «l to g, lirwl. ><'<m)IhI, third. ;iii-| lit'tli 

I i . ... -i-nis; h. telsoii ami uropod. A Mult roalcj i. third muxUHpod ; ,j to in, first, second, Hiiril, and 

lif'tli |M'r;u-n|MMi>; 11. Iclsun ;nul lir.i|iu.| (all X 92). 

I'ropods rather sterol ; peduncle half an long again as telHomu somite, 

Oil inner edge; : filldopod almnsl as long as exOp&d, I hree-fmirths ;is Inim as peduncle, 

willi the Iting terminal spine half the length of the minus, and with four snbapieal 
spinen on inner margin; exopod serrate on inner margin, with apical spine alxftil 
hill)' as long ns ramus. 

< 'olour smoky \zvoy. 

Length I si min. 

Adnll ma)e. The carapace is subreet angular rathe? than i rianguUir in lateral 

view. The third maxillipeds ami iiisl In fourth peraeQpodti have the basis murh 
more massive than in the female. In the third maxiHipeds it is two ami one-third 


limes ;is long as wide, and considerably longer than the palp. In I he ftral peraeo- 

pods il isnimn-i m i*m^ as the remaining joints toilet her. ami bears a row of larm' 
&tou1 spines 00 the distal half. Tin 1 second leiis haven row of similar spines oil tlli J 
basis, which ix nearly hall' as wide as lone,-. Hasis ol' third and fourth peraeopods 
about I wo and one half limes as loii^ as wide, serrate mi outer edge, ami much 
longer than rrsr of limit. Fifth pair much as in female. 

I'ropods relatively Longer Mian in female; peduncle more than two-thirds as 
lone, a^-iin as tclsonie Somite, and more than half as lon<r airain as endopod ; ler 
niiiial spines more than half length of respective rami. 

Lengti 1-6 mm. 

Loc. South Australia: Gulf St. Vincent, ttelliek's Reef, on stones. 1 I'ath. 
(U.M. Hale, Mar. ami Apt, 19&6), 

//(///. Qulfof Siam and South Australia.. 

YoUUg males resemble females in tin 1 shape of the carapace. In juveniles of 
both sexes ilie nropods have the peduncle relatively shorter, nnd in inm 
females 1 -2-1 * ."> mm. in length it is barely longer limn the tclsonie SOJUlte. 

The ovm'orous female deseribed above is sri exceedingly close to (Oilman's de- 
scription of ft, hi, rr 1 hat I hesitate to describe it as new. Caiman's adult female 
differs from the specimens now examined in the following particulars: 

Tim size is smaller (two-ihirds as long as South Australian examples i ; the 
hist segment Of the peduncle of the first antennae is described as shorter than ! Im 
preceding joint, and the basis is relatively shorter in the first and second peraen- 
pods. The peduncle of ihe nropods is staled to be nearly twice as long as the lei 
sonic somite, whereas in none of the adult females before me is it more than half 
as long -ae-aiii as this somite. Imcauseof these differences, and because the male of 
('. <<t< u\ \> unknown, the South Auslralian material is described and figured in 
some detail. 

I 'l MKLLA LIMA sp. ||OV. 

Ovmerous female, Carapace and pleon L-rnnulose. Carapace almosl one- 
Iliird total leue;ilL ils de])1h half the length, and less lhan greatest width ; there is 
;i I a rye tumidity on each side, followed by a smaller swollen area, so lhal a bileral 
\ iew of the carapace KllOWti a depression )ir;ir the hinder margin, while in dorsal 
\iew the hack is (nldle-sha ped ; at about the first third of the length is a pair of 
small dorsal elevations. I'seudorost rum long, directed slightly upwards. Am no 
lateral margin concave, and ant(mnal unyio <piadrate. Ocnlar lobe wide. 

PedlgOrous somites all exposed, the third to fifth wilh dorsal t umidil ies. 

I'leon nm miii'h shorter than eephalot borax, with the hrsl four somites ininid 
dorsaliy; tclsonie somite IhreeTourths as lone- as fifth, broadly rounded, and only 
siightl.V produced posteriorly. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Byes black. First antennae with peduude stout, the second joint produced 

dislally. and the third only two and our 1 bird times as long as wide-, ftagellum 

short, little more Hum halt as Long as third pertmieular s^-gtnent, two-joinied : ac- 
cessory ftagetium small, unjointed. 

Pig. 22, Ciiituito Hmu<, t.v[H' fruKiir; ;i. f^ r < ■ ia I vii'w; n, dorsal view wf ettphalothtwax ( x 53) 

First peraeopods with basis not much more ihan hall' as long as ren! of Linvb, 
and with merus one-half as long as parpus. Second peraeopods with the stoul basis 
rather more than two-thirds as long as remaining segments; ischium no.1 distinct* 
Third to fifth slender \ basis of third equal in length to resl ofliinh, thai of fourth 

and fifth shorter j fifth leg with carpus twice as Long as mcrns, and hardy four- 
fit'l lis as long as basis. 

[fropods StOUt, the peduncle threc-fourl lis ;is Long as the telsonic somite, and 
w ith six thorn-like projed ions on inner margin ; endopod longer than the peduncle. 
terminating in a distinctly marked off, finely serrate spine, which is more ihan 
half the length of Hie ramus itself, rind with a snbapical serrulate spine abnin one 
third as long as the terminal spine; inner margin Of eiK J apod with six to seven 
thorn-like spines: exopod two-thirds as long as endopod. with a slender terminal 
spine as long as ramus. 

Colour cream. 

Length I '5 mm. 

Male. The basis of the third and fourth peraeopods is greatly expanded, the 

breadth being equal to half llie length. Tin; 4 carpns of the fifth lei: is nearly three 
limes ms long as the merns. ,md not much shorter than the basis. The pedunrle 
of i lie nropnds is longer, being fllightly greater in length ihan the lelsonic somite; 
the endopod is a little shorter than the peduncle. 

Halk -Cumacka from a South Austrai IAN Reef 


Length 1-6 mm. 

Lac. South Australia: Gulf St. Vim-mi. Schick's Kerf, on stones., 1 I'aUi. 
ill. SL Hate, Mar V j UKW). T^smaniM : WynyjnM. Fossil Reef ( N. B. Tindale, ApL 
L936). Types in South Au.sindh.n Museum, Reg. No. 0*2037, 2088, 

Fig. 23. ( wmdJaUnUL !';not\ po P.mhhIo: ;i, jiiiI.immu (x 190) $ b to f, first to fifth pew podtt-j 

elSUU ;i?i«l ii t ri|>< it I . P;o'n<\|.r ni;i!<'; h :nnl i, fourth ;ni>l fifth peragOpO&S mil X L20). 

This species is represented by «' number of examples which resemble ('. kispuh 

(Caiman, 1911, p. 347, pl.xxxiL ftg. 15-18), bnil ditfers consistently from Caiman** 

description iii the following particulars. The size is smaller, ovi<rorous lVmnles 
being 1 ■ I mm. to 1 •"> nun. in length (2-55 mm. (Oilman ), while the first anlemme 
nre stouter. I he third joinl beillg twice io (rwO mid OIK? third limes ns loiii; as wide 
(three times Cnlmmi :. Ziniim-r I 19H P- 170) comments on the f;iet that the ftrfcl 
antennae <irc simitcr in the Western Australian specimens which he immes as ('. 
hispida. The uropocbl, tDtt, are different, Cor in ''. hitipiifa the terminal spine is 
indistinctly m;ivked oit from the endopod, nnd this ramus, together with its Ion- 
Spilie, -'measures a Little more than Ihe length of the peiluirele"; in (T. lima the 
rndupud with its spine is one and iwo-thirds to Iwiec as long as the peduncle. The 
armature of the uropocta is not as described Tor C. hbpida, mid the proportion - of 
ihe Leg segments are different. 


Pnx.,11. (1. B. II. (1932) : (rl. Harrier Beef Bxpe4., M28&9, ttoi Rep** iv, pp. 38T- 
395, %■ 5-10, 

Lfale Herbert \1. ( 1928) : Trans. Hoy. 8oc* S. .Ws/.. Iii., 1928, pp. 31-48, tfg, 1-17. 

438 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Hale, Herbert M. (1929) : Crust. 8. Aunt. (Brit. Sei. Guild Handbooks, Fauna and 

Flora of 8. A Hst.), pp. 844-855, fig. 344-353. 
Hale, Herbert M. (1982) : Eee. 8. Aust Mm., iv, pp. 549-550, Bg. 1. 
Hale, Herbert M. (1936) : Bee. 8. Aust. Mus., v . pp. 395-401, fig. 1-6. 
Sars, G. 0. (1887) : Rep. Sei. Res. "Challenger", six, pp. 12-20, pi. i. 
Zimmer, C. (1914) : Fauna Sudwest Aust., v, pp. 175-195, fig. 1-18. 
Zimmer, C. (1921) : Kungl. SrensJm Vet.-Akad. Hand., lxi (No. 7), pp. 1-13, fig. 



Caiman, W. T. (1905) : Siboga Exped., Mon. xxxvi. 
Caiman, W. T. (1911) : Trans. Zool Soc, xviii. 
Caiman, W. T. (1912) : Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xli. 
Sars, G. O. (1873) : Srcnska Vet.-Akad. Rami., xi, No. 2. 
Stebbing, T. R. R. (1912) ■ Am. 8. Afr. Mus., x. 
Stebbing, T. R, R. (1918) : Bos Tierreich, Lief., xxxix. 
Zimmer, C. (1921a) : Mitt. Zool. Mus., Berlin, x. 


ByH. Womersley, F.R.E.S., A.L.S., Entomologist, 
South Australian Museum 


Although the genus Telmatogeton of the subfamily Clunioninae of the Chironomidae has 
not been recorded hitherto from Australian coasts, it is represented in the Southern 
Hemisphere by species from the coasts of South America, South Africa, St. Paul I., and 
Japan. Eight species have been previously described as follows: 

Telmatogeton sancti-pauli Schiner, St. Paul I., and South Africa. 
Telmatogeton minor Kieffer, South Africa. 
Telmatogeton torrenticola Terry, Hawaii. 
Telmatogeton abnorme Terry, Hawaii. 
Telmatogeton trochanteratum Edwards, Chile. 
Telmatogeton simplicipes Edwards, Chile. 
Telmatogeton japonicus Tokunaga, Japan. 
Telmatogeton pacificus Tokunaga, Japan. 

An INTERESTING chironomid telmjtogeton 


By II. WOMKRSI.l'.Y, F.R.E.S., A.L.S., KNTOMaj>n<:;iyr, Serin \\<vr.\]aan Musi;i .i. 

Ai/riiotun the gremis Tvhnakagetm nf 1 1n* subfamily Clwiiiotdnik erf the OhiYono 
nridaehasno] been recorded hitherto from Australia!! coasts, it is represented in the 
Southern Hemisphere by species from the coasts of South America, South Africa. 
SI, Pan! I., and Japan. Kijrlit Species have been previousl y described fis follows: 

Tehntitoy&lm mneU-p<mti Sebiiier, $t. Paul I., and South Africa, 

'/',h>htfo<!> Ion minor K ieffor. South Africa. 

Telmtiiogetow torwnlwvfQ Terry, Hawaii. 

Tdmatogt ton tlbnorHU Terry. Hawaii. 

Tthinito;/' ton trovhantwntwfi KtfwdrcK Chile. 
7\ Imatogi ton simplwipcs Edwards, Chile. 
Tetmutoyeton japomcus Tokuna*>a. J&pan. 

Tch))<ifo</< (mi pnt(ficUS Tokunaira. Japan. 

Tin 1 genua IS essentially marine, except for the two Hawaiian species whieh 
mli;ihi1 torrents. The species described herein is the first 1o be recorded from this 
country, and differs from all previously described forms. It was first found by 
Mr. II. M. IL-de, frequenting the reef Off Sellick's Beachi South Australia, iu Feb- 
ruary. March, and April, 1986, and again by Miss .loan Campbell on I he reef off 

The genus was created by Hehiiter for the genotype T. mnrti-puuli from St. 

Paul I. in the Indian Ocean. It has in recent years been better defined by Edwards, 

who showed 1hat the South African species T'issorhuiio fn.«'i i>< » >ns Kietl'er was 
synonymous, and also thai Schiner was wrontr in stal ing that the ])alpi in T. s<nicti- 
>>ui{li were four segmented. Ihese being aetually only t wo-se<rmeufed. Kieffei', in 
hi>. monograph of the Cli iroi)omi<hi< in Hie (Jencra I nsectorum. placed the gfenus in 
I lie Cftirunoiiuintt , bid it is now placed in ihe ( 7 u rn'oni na< , a subfamily easily dis- 
tinguished from all others by Ihe absence of 1he auepisternal sulure. The ( 1 lunn>- 
nhutv comprises a number of <rrnera \vliii<*h <iit more or less marine in habit, and 
many of which are apterous or semi-apterous in one or bol h sexes. As some of these 
other <rcnera may be found l(\ tycCUl 1 alou^' our coasts, the following key. taken from 
Edward* (l)iptera of Patagonia ami Souihern Chile. Pari 2. fasc. 5, Brit, Mus„ 
tdtil) is given. 

440 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Key to *i mi: known (Iknuka of Cm 'nioninae. 

1. Fifth tarsal negmenl deeply fcrilobed at tip . . . . . . . = 2. 

Fifth tarsal soiiniciir simple or slightly bilnbed . . .. ... 6- 

2. lioth sexes fully winged .. .. .. .. .. ■;. 

l>olh sexes braehypieroiis .. .. .. .. .. ..4. 

'\. Lees unmodified ; hairs of tibiae Weak - T( f itifilofjrfou Sehiner. 

Front lees of male modified : femora swollen ; i ibiae with tubercle at base; hairs 
of tibiae strong? sometimes flattened (Wesi Goanl North America), 

Paracl'U/nio Kieffer. 

4. Wings abnul as long as thorax in berth sexds; halters preaenl (Europe). 

Pmmtnttthiomyia Deby. 

Win^s and Imlferes minute or abseiil ( Eemaie i . f Antarctic} fX(tlitrytii& Eaton, 

f>. Eyes bare? tarwi long, fourth segment eordiform and much shorter than third 

Or fifth, seeond hind tarsal seemenl longer than third ; thorax with rows of 
acrostichal hairs continued bael? to seutelknn; both sexes hilly winged] an 

leunae b-seemented (both sexes). (Atlantic, Indian, and I'aeilie Coasts). 

T/"ih/ss(mif/i(i Sehiner. 

(= (hilajHKfoniiiut Johns.) 
Eyes hairy; tarsi shorter, t'oni'th segment not markedly eordiforni; seeond 
hind tarsal seemenf mil longer than ihird; thorax withoiil aerosl ielial haira; 
wines redneed (al least in female). .. . , .. .. . . (i 

6. Seeond hind taraal aegmenl subequal to third; fifth tarsal segment on all legs 

simple: wings si r;i p shaped ( both sexes? ; palpi lone. M-b-seement ed ; antennae 

6-segmented (male) or Segmented (female). fOattfomia). 

I\n * nhi/fhni itellOg. 

Second hind tarsal segment mneh shorter than third, fifth sliehflv bilohed; 
win^s fully developed (male) or ahseni ( female ) ; palpi rudimentary ; an- 
tennae 11-seemenfed (male) QV 7 -seemenl ed (female). (North Atlantic and 

NorthWest Pacific Coasts). .. .. .. Qlmto Hallday. 

Tut m ato< ik'v< >x Sehi uer. 

1866 TrfmafnfjrtoH Sehiner. Verb. }>.»•. Ge$, Wien.. 16,931. 

IMS Oharadrornnjia Terry, Proe. Haw. Enl. Soe.. 2£92< 

1920 TriHsochvrdo Kieffer, Ann. S. Afr. Mns.. 17,523. 

1928 Tvlma'togetm Edwards, Konowia. 7,234, 

1931 TetmatoQcton Edwarda, Diptera of Patagonia ami South Chile, I't. 2, 

fase. 5 t 304-3 Brit Mils. 
1985 Telntatogeton Tokimaea. Philip. .1. Sei.. 57, 481. 
l£3fi Tt -limilof/f (on Tnknnaea, Chironomidae from Japan (3), Alnshi. ft, lo. 

Theeenns can he easily recognised by Ihe complicated stmelnre of the trilohed 
fifth tarsal segment, and by its frilly developed WlTtgR in both sexes lis nearest 
related <j:enns is f*aruclnnia from North America. The eenns is eonlined to the 

Sniithern Hemisphere, 

Wdmkrsi hY A CiiiKoxoMtn from a South AUSTRALIAN Reef 441 

TKI.AlATnril'TMX U'^TUAU' I :- >|). 110V. 

Dtwripfihm <>'' AfhlU: la-no'lh (both nexi»0 #'t) iimi.. winii' expanse 4-0 nmi. 
Head LijfJil Miii^h-rey with dark stripes as figured. Seiilellnin and postsentellmii 
dark hmwnish. A nlennae dark, palpi darkish. Body LigB.1 ish, villi ureyish mqtUtrUk 
ami laterally Oil ea<?h side with a pair of fine dark" lonejit ndoial stripes; hypnpy</nmi 

I v im. I. A<!uM i n ;i 1 1 • : ;i. riilirr,- I., win-; .- , ;i n t v\\ u;i ; (I, labium ;i:ul l;ilii:il p;ilj)i; <\ fil'tli 
I .-lo/il <iuiH<.'ht of n i i « I • 1 1 4 * [eg frcm Blile; F, Minn 1 t'nnu ;iljove; g, liy popvu in m. 

dark |)rtiYftlifl(l; wind's in Lifp pearly -navy opaltSKGPUl : legs gTej ish In-own. An 
tennae 7 ^('LiiiH-iil c({, basal seejnienl larue. as bread as long, villi about 8 Seta* 1 ; 

second segment slightly more than twice as long as wide a1 the tip. without setae; 

segments I.II-YI tfubglobone without setae-. V I I 1 w ice as loflg as wide, laperiuy; 
Inwards lip without terminal process and with two mi&C; palpi I wo segmented as 

Figured. Eyes larnv. hurroinrdetl with fairly long uiune«otw fcetae; itiesoiiotiiiil 
apparently nn H Inuit discernible seta^j sciitejhiffi wit 1 1 t\Vo laiero-aniorinr setae 
and 1*0111' subpnsierior >etae. WfligJS opaleseenl, venation and seiae as iiuured ; 

fort of Cui Cuo wry Khghtly ftiatad of r tjij macrotrichia on radius (Kt and 

442 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Kg .-, | noi very pnmerotiK; ahmii 30^ snhcosta ttittj ribout li marroirirhia R 7 
slightly less than fialf lengtti erf li, - , squaiii/ie fairly Large, frmged^; tedtpres 
yellow. Leus long and slpnder; femora on nil fegg somewhat thwiker oc baaal i\v»- 

thirds; nil I rorhanlers simple; fifth tarsal segment I rilnbed as in melius; rlaws with 

basal membraneous plates which are broad baldly and taper to a sharp point 
claws bifid almost to base* times arm pointed, outer arm broadened, espeeially ai 
apex, which has a fringed appearanee i in this cegpeel the species approaches T. 
trockuntertttum ham Chile), empodaurci long and long-haired ; abdomen with 

sparse short hairs; hypopy.<rium as figured. 

Ihtlotyix male and othftypt female and paratypes from Selliek's Ueaeh, 
Soiith Australia, April. l!):»r» : other Specimens from same U-alily Febi nary ami 
March, 1936 I ll.M.II.i ; also from Noarlnn-a, Sonili Ausiralia, April, 1936 (MfaH 

Jtt murks: The speeies deserihed in this paper is elosely related to T. tfiwhtoh 
hiahnii Edwards from Chile, and T. minor Wiener from South Ai'riea. It differs 
from bOtlj in the shape of ihe hist anlennai se^meni, and also in the laek of a pro- 
luberaime m, the middle troehanler in Ihe male. The outer arms of the tarsal 
elaws of the male are smnewhal larger limn in '/'. minor, aeeordin^ Io the excellent 
figures and redeseriplion of this specie l -'i\en by Hesse (Tr. Koyal Entom. So6.i 
London, vol. S'2. 27-10. 1984} a while Ifcere also appears Io be slijrln differences in 
I hi. venation at 1 he .junH ion of r m with R, , -. 

Description of hurts*, lamirth of the two specimens found 4-0 and .">•() mm. 
r.-peetively. Colour in life probably wliit ish-oreen. only ihe la-ad brown. General 
laeies that of previously figured speeies of the geiiUH. Head eapsule non-rel raet ile, 
lon-rer than broad and highly ehit iuixed, the surface senlptured With line raised 
dots. bu1 apparently without the numerous line hairs of T. japowicil'to Tok., the 
unpaired dorsal seloriP- between ihe anterior arms of 'he eeplmlie suture is oval. 
wakxf before ihe middle, lit 1 1 HOI as \\ ide as in T* ptpOMGUm, .ftlFIlitihed with a pair 
Of lateral subanterinr setae, lateral selerites each with Iwo setae and a medial pair 
of eves, <ui each selerite are fmii* pores, one elose to the anterior setae of the median 
-'•lerite. one just belli,, d and bileral of tbe eves, and two at the base and etose Io Ihe 
median arm of the eophalie suture. The labrum is dorsally as figured with -'I paiTH 
of setae. The antenna*! are t-gegjttettted, the first see/mont hpifxg slum and about 
lull' as lousi airam a* wide, the seeond similar but smaller, and the third and fourth 
\'iy small and elongate. The mandibles are .Vtoollmd with :\ setae, while the 
labium has o teeth on eaeh side besides the large broad median l.ootli. The lab'ud 
palp is small, and as figured. The body is elongate, with few but wry u,,e setae 
mm eaeh BKRULeitf, the anierie.r psemlopods are furm<hed wilh a series bf POWH of 

gradually Lnereamftg fumpl?. curved hooks, rtie pfitfferioi 1 pstftdopoda have a single 


apparently) circle! ol strongly ehitinized hocks which have an inner basal pro 

jrHinn. The last body segment has (wo pairs of strong setae, each pair arising 
from a single base. 

Pig-. 'J. Larva: a, entire dorsal view; b, \w\u\ dorsal viow; «•, mandible; d. labium; <\ labial 
palp; f, ciorliel. of posterior pseudopods. 

Locnlihf. As for the adults, March 3, 1936, 

llio/o(/icft! Notes, With the exception of tin 1 two Hawaiian species all members 
Of this genus are truly marine forms living 0M reefs al low tide level. The Hawaiian 
species frequent torrents. To Mr. II. M. Hale 1 am indebted for the following 
observations on our local species : 

'The two larvae were found floating on the surface film of rock pools at the 
extreme edge of the reef at low tide. The adults appear, often in thousands. Oil 
calm days with bright sunshine during the rammer. Few. if any. emerge during 
cloildy days. They are seen only at low tide near the outer portions of Ihe reef, 
which arc covered at high water by about a falhom of water. They move rapidly 
with a hopping movement Over the mossy rocks and abmit I lie small pools. In 
April examples were seen in copula al Hie edges of the rock pools, ihe tide being 
then dead low/' 

It is interesting lo notice that while the Japanese species are. according i<> 

Tolwiiniiiiia, noelnral insects, our Local one, as with the related Kiiropean I'fiut'tu 
marinus Hal., is diurnal. 



By Keith Sheard, Hon. Assistant in Zoology, South Australian Museum 


The reef at Sellick's Beach is exceedingly rich in the smaller Crustacea, among which the 
Amphipoda are the most abundant in number and variety. The collection made by H. M. 
Hale (March to April, 1936) includes over two hundred separate forms, more than half of 
which are apparently not referable to known species. Yet from collections made for this 
Museum in Tasmania (N. B. Tindale), Queensland (J. T. Mortlock), and on Yorke 
Peninsula (H. Womersley, Dr. T. D. Campbell, and B. C. Cotton), all using the method 
described by H. M. Hale (Cumacea from a South Australian Reef, Rec. South Aust. Mus., 
1936), it is apparent that this variety and number is not exceptional, and that careful 
collecting methods on most coastal reefs will provide a wealth of interesting, if hitherto 
neglected, material. The reef forms are in the main highly specialized for successful 
existence in their respective environments, and afford, when sufficient variety is studied, 
an excellent opportunity of separating ancestral stock characters from those resulting 
from habitus. A study of such forms should result in a better knowledge of the family 
relationships of the Order. 



By KEITH SHF.ARDj Hon* Assistant in ZoolocYj South Australian Musi « m. 

Fig. 1-4. 

The reef a1 Setlick's Beach is exceedingly rich i]i the smaller Crustacea, among 
which the Amphipoda are the most abundant in number and variety. The collec- 
tion made by II. M. Hale (March to April, 1936) includes over two hundred separ- 
ate forms, more than half of which are apparently no1 referable to known species, 
Yet from collections made for tins Museum in Tasmania ( N. B. Tindale), Queens- 
land (.1. T. Mortlock), and on forke Peninsula (II. Womersley, Dr. T. 1). Camp- 
hell, and H. ('. Cotton), all using the method described by H. M. Hale (Cumacea 
from a South Australian Reef, Roc, South Aust. Mus», 1936), it is apparent thai 
tins variety and number is not exceptional, and that careful collecting methods on 
most coastal reefs will provide a wealth of interesting, if hitherto neglected, 
material. 1-he reef forms are in the main highly specialized for successful exist- 
ence in their respective environments, and afford, when sufficient variety is studied, 
an excellent opportunity of separating ancestral stock characters from those re- 
sulting from habitus. A study of such Forms should result in a better knowledge 
of the family relationships of the Order. 


LbwHArsToinrs; gen. now 

Bacls broad, tapering to antennae and telson. lOycs invisible. First an- 
tennae arise from a small process barely covered by Hie short, pointed rostrum. 
Accessory lke_rollum SUbequal to flagellum. Second antenna with penultimate 
joint of peduncle greatly expanded; first, second, and third short and rin*! 1 like. 
Mandible with simple cutting edge and accessory plate, spine -row Eeeble, molar 
large, palp long. Second joint the longest; third club-shaped with setae. Firsl 

maxilla with one jointed palp. Maxilliped. phites short and narrow, palp with 
second joint expanded, setose; fourth, tinker-like. (Jnathopods 1-2 as for Rausto 

446 RfeCOftOS (H THR S.A. Ml.'SKCM 

rius tin iiiits slabber. Pgn*eopod.s 1 2 wiih dactyl spine-like. Peraeopod '■'> with 
joints 2S expanded, heavily sprngd. Peraeopoda U~». second j'oiul widfly expanded, 

remainder moderat <'l y expanded Slid ftnJl0Ur$cL IVraeopods 3-5 \villi<Mil dactyls. 

Pleopods well developed. Propods heavily setae, biramous: uropod '\ wiih short. 
Wide peduncle and widened rami, outer stouter and wider than inner, jointed near 
lip. TelsoiL sliorl, broad, entire, margin wit li font" spines Sid'-plates: 1. short, 
pointed, curving forwards; 2, comparable, both hidden by (lie Forward lobe of 
plate 3, which is Ihe largest; broadly produced forward, the infero-disial edge 
narrowly produced backwards, and lipped with a U)ng spiii<« ; 4, as !on*r as. bill 
narrower than .'>. backward production comparable; T>. B, 7, very small. 
I'l-opods with setae, wry finely plumose. 

Genotype : /'. holei ap. now 

This ii'eiius represents a combination of the characters of 1I<nisioriiis, I'rolhnt 
and P/ioxfCf piH/ff//)sis, most noteworthy differences beini: spine like dactyls on 
peraeopods 1 and 2; the shape and order of the sidcplales; t lie entire tel'HOll, and 
f he one-jointed palp of the (irsl maxilla. 

The two species here referred tO ('rolntiislu, -ins may be separated as follows: 

ft. Onalhopod 2, joints 2 and 5 subequal . . . . . . . . . . huh i 

BA. Onathopod -, joint 2 twice joint 5 . . .. .. .. vifcoi 

TtRorursToinrs mai/fi sp. nov. 

9 Head short, broader than LonR terminating in a small. sbarply-poiuted 
rostrum. Sideplates 1-2 small, acutely produced forwards. 3 the largest, longer 
than brOad, covering sideplates 1-2 and tbe base.s of guatbopods 1 _' and pefftfiopod 
3, lower margin produced acutely backwards, terminating in a long spine; 4. 
large but smaller than 3, longer than broad, covering the base of peraeopod 4. 
narrowly produced backwards. and terminating in a long spine: J" very small. 

The third pleOn segment is ptoduced backwards, the process terminating in a 
spine. Pleon segment 4 tbe longest. 

The body is {'n^^ from setae or spines on its smoofb surface. 

Post antminal angles distinet, Lateral MJimer.S moderate. 

lives, not visible. Antenna 1 : the pair are jointed to a small t wo-brancherl 
process arising from tbe frontal margin of the head. The junction of t his. process 
with the head is clearly visible, (Se6 fig. 1 \£.) Kirs! joint large, and tumid, as 
long as 2-3 together, and one and <me half times as broad as the second joini. whi(4i 
is setose, and more than twice as broad and slightly longer than the third; aeces 

soi \ flageflum ^-jointed. SagelTum 8-jomted. Antenna -■ first .joint small and 

rillg-Hke, apparently soldered to the head ; second free but short: third erpial to 
1 ami 2 together, with 1 he dorsal ed^c slightly |)roduced find rounded ; the fourth 



Ki^ L A-C L ), llTQfMMtorhlif Iml'i. tvpi 1 • m ; 1 1 1 ; A, lut<?tt|l virw : B, inslruin ;in..l liljteiliml 

ui'MT^ <\ IMiMHtii' !j 1 I , r I J I 1 1 ttg && g^ " '' ' ' ' ' ' " ' '■ ' ' ' i( ' i '- ittttJCllllI i: F, ITlftvDUl - ■ B| 01 3 .\ I I I I | II! (I j 

II, nu;iiliH 1( <Hl I: I. gnathopwl -: -J-N, i-Kji-n i - ,i r i: " ls I :> ; Hi yloopofl &! I'. Mttpliug hfloka PI 3; 
Qj ttH)pO<l9 • 1 1 1 - 1 tt'lSOlL K :i. Irolnnixtoriits ruvui; R, ni;i\ilhi 1! ; B, gUHfhupur] 1 : T, gnathojicu] 2 ; 
r. ^ u ; 1 1 1 1 « . | ( •: .« I I2j chela; v, peraeopotl l. q»iw*a af jbirtl li :, <"l <ln«-tv); \v. -t.i,< pl;,tr ."; ; X, hide 
]tI;i(i-4: v. mopod l; '/,, \\n>\nn\ i!; n, uropofl 3 aiid fcfclaon 

448 i\i<"i,ir of thr s.A. Museum 

joinl ia Leaf like, one and ofte-hali! timed the length of the fifth, and varying from 
three Limes afl broad in the male to twice a> broad in the female, strong uetONe, 
with plumose setae in both,; tin- fifth j'oim is swollen, with lony plumose setae; 
Bagellum equal to length of Eourth joint, 8 jointed ; antenna iioj longer than head 
plus first loin- pomeou segmenl ?. Mandible; palp long^ first joint shon and stottt, 

second nearly 1 wiee third. fl hticfc is EritXged Otl (he underside 1 the tlxStal half With 

plumose setae; molar strong, Cutting edge simple, accessory cuttinpt edge simple; 
spincrow feeble. Maxilla 1 with one jointed palp, terminating in four tang spines. 

.Maxilla 2 with the outer plate twice as broUd and slightly longer than the inner. 
Marillipeda : inner plate small, outer small; palp with seCOttd joint loftg and 
swollen, bearing long setae, third curved, fourth cylindrical, weak; 

Gnathopod l ■ second joiui long and iiarroWj third very small, fourth small, 
produced inferiorly 3 fifth as long as kpcowI hut nearly twice as broad, .sixth ej Lin- 

dried, weak ; seventh mirved, Yi'vy weak. (Jnalhopod 2 <'">" | >■< ra Id. \\ it li tirsl, hul 

slightly larger*; finger opposed b\ a -pine, forming a small chela. 

Peraeopod l : sidfe plate the Largesl ; first joint distinct, iwico as broad as Inn- . 
second the longesl ; third ring-like, twice as broad as Long; fourth half as long ;<> 

se.-ond. and comparable in expansion; fifth ttibequal, spined on inferior margin ; 
Sixth lialt' as. broad and siincqual m length; seventh spine-like. Peraeopod 3: 
slightly longer than first, with plumose hairs on the inferior man/in of the tnurUi 
and 8fth joint-. Peraeopod Si side plate little prod need, v\eakJy bilobed j distal lobe 
the larger, Second J0JH1 expanded, articulated to third by a slight collar; third and 
fifth joints equally expanded, subeipial: fifth less expanded, a little louder; sixth 

finger-like* equal in length to fourth; seventh not present; the whole appendage is 

relatively nne-sive, !he joints :; o studded with I'liws of spines, tYraeop,,d I the 
tongft£1 ; side plate y^vy small ; second joint longer than broad ; I bird riu<rdiko, 441 

cylindrical, heavily spiued; seventh not present. Per&eopod 15 eomparable i<> i 

Fourth and fii'tb joints more produced di-sially. 

Pleopods: stout, with plumoso setae; third the longest w it li it-, inner ramus. 
more blander and about two-thirds as Long as Outer; two sipkle-^hiiped coupling 
hOoka on each peduncle, which is moderately expanded, t'ropod 1 tie- Longest; 
rami Slightly Shorter than peduncle inner ramus slightly the shorter. I'ropud 2 
the smallest; rami siibeqiml. longer than peduncle. Frnpod \\ with rami and 
peduncle expanded, rami >ubr<pmj ; outer ramus Longer ;n»l broader than inner, 
t wo-joiulrd. the J0lp1 comparable Willi i ho-.r n|' the plfOpod rami; is close to thfl 
distal mid of the ramus. All uropods heavily ejptcisse With pltimofle Setaei 'IVUtni 
one and one half limes ms broad as lnn«r, semicircular, undivided, with four mar 
•i'iual spines. Telson dOCS OOl roach to i')\^\ of peduncle of third uropod. 

Length, type male, £»{i mm.; oviggrouia type Female, I!) mm. 


hoc, South Australia : null' St. Vincent, Selliclc^ Reef, burrowing in sand on 
s;iml\ ]>;»t('lics on reel'; exceedingly COmniOH (II. VI. Hale. Apl. 1<);!(i'i. Types in 
South Australian Museum. Reg. No. C, 2080, 2081, 

This species, the mosl interesting AinpHipod from the reef, has been named in 
recognition of the careful collecting Work done there by Mr. II. M. Hale. 

The male and female arc little differonl iated, although in the male the lateral 

lobes of the body segments are slightly more produced, and the body is flatter and 

slightly more leaf-like than in the female, which fro<pien11y assumes a more or less 
Sphaei-omid like shape. Immature nodes and females are much Halter than the 
i.iji ure forms. Mud the fourth pleon segmen.1 is not wider than the two adjoining in 
i he specimens examined. 

The species possesses lon<>'. stout, darkly staining hairs on the antennae, pleo- 
pods, and uropods, sparsely scattered ainontr the plumose setae. These stain blackly 
wifh mairenta i-ed, and the darkened interim- appears to arise from well within the 
chiton. The \\ hole has the appearance of a Long hollow tube freely conned ed w il li 
interior of' the appendage. The tubes are fringed with very line seiae, and appear 
tq Sew both sensory and aeration functions. 

rianiArsTomrs viae 01 sp. nnv. 
Th if* species is ver\ close to Chain', wiih the following as the chief differences : 

Antenna 1, accessory R&gellufti with five joints, tia^elliim with seven. Side- 
plate I nearly as wide as long I /'. hull i at least three times as long; as wide). 

(iuathopod 1. .joint 2, one and one half times joint 5 (/'. liahi with these joints 


Gnathopocl 2, with joint 2 elongate, more than cm iee joiui 5 i./'. halei, joints 2 

and 5 subeMUal). 

['ropod 1. inner ramus one half Outer | f . halo, gfibeqiial). 

Uropod -. Ltiner ramus less than en c half Olittfr [U. Ixthi, more than half i. 

Length, 5 mm. 

Luc Western Ausi rulia : Geographe Bay [J. C. Verco). 

In lie lyjn- female the dad \ Is of pcraeopods 1-2 are unmistakable | lin. 1. \' ;>, 
while thcaiilenual process is clearly marked off trom the head. 

The spr.-i.s is named after its collector. Dr. .1. ('. Yorco. and is interesting as 
illnstratin<i' l he wide range of the geniiti 1 n the same dredging was taken a specie-, 
of HdUstoriUf) with the pleon setrnienls very reduced, lie- lelson cleft to 1he base, 
anlennac little expanded, and with side-plales approaching those of I rulnntslornts, 
Tli is will be described later. 

450 Records of the S.A. Musecm 

Delia Yalle (1893") : F. VI \<<ij«l. xx. pi. lx. fig. 22-2:). 

Holmes. S. J. | 1906) : Bhll thS. Burcaii Fish, x.xiv, |>1. v. 

Stubbing (1906) ; Bft Tierreich, Uf. xxi, pp. 118-148. 
Barnard (1932) : Discovery UeporiSj v, p. 94. 

Su'iioNoiui-yn^ si.ii.K ki sp. aov. 

The points of difference from N. uustntfi* 8tebbitig( 1 ) are as follows 
Bdstrum: Definitely pointed* projecting beyond eve-lobes. 

Kirst Antenna: Five-joinled fla.irellum. Ihe (il'lli join! minute. 

Second Antenna : Fifth joixil of peduncle the Longest. 

Head; Equal to longest peraeon se<riiiou1 (fifth). 

Side-plates: All are shallow, first and second acutely produced forwards, Ihe 
remainder softly rounded. 

l'leopods: Inner ramus 1 wn-l hirds outer I .N. ausimlis sub-equal). Both r.nni 
are joillted very elose to the proximal edge of the peduncle, and I heir roots are 

I'ropods: First, outer ramus equals two-thirds pedunele. which LIS not spined. 
Second, outer ramus shorter 1hau pedunele. The inner is small, and its base is 
pari ly overlapped by I he peduncle, which is produced on its inner side to a rounded 
lobe (fig. 2 N I . Efinged with very short spines. The third uropod is vestigial, the 
• niter ramus vt^vy .short, is fringed with live Long hairs. Tile pedunele is prolonged 
on its inner side, and studded with five spines. In the ventral view (fig. 2 X ) it 
has U\c appearance of being open at the lip, forming a suet ion-plate. However, it 
is diflieul! to clearly define the detail at the magnification employed. 

Lor. South Australia: Gulf St. Vincent. SelliekV Reef (II. M. Hale, 1930 j 
Tvpcs in South Auslralian .Museum, Reg. No. 0.2114, 2117. 

This Amphipod lives in short, hollow pieces of C'l/modoeeu stem (-) loosely 

lined with silky material. Ihe specimens described frero collected in -January. IIKM, 
by Mr. II . M. Hale, when he not iced fragments <)\' Cymodoced stem moving indepen- 
dently of the currents in a small rock pool at Sellick's Reef, al low tide. ESlgkl 
.stalk's containing ovigt*i*oius Females wen* found. Repeated searching since that 

dale has only disclosed one more specimen. No Males. \n ere discovered. The 

females o{ length I mm. contain 10-11-12 egga arranged in echelon, the whole 
amphipod completely filling the tubal space. 

i i i Stabbing, Mnii. Ausl. Mus., iv, UNO, p. i;;m. pi, lvi. 

Kale, Tr&mt. Rov. So<-., S. Au.str., xlviii, 1024, |>, 22,0, and Crust. S. A ust. ( tirir S.-i. I 
ililii-llM.ok), 192$, p. 322. 


S. srliirl-i boars iis antennae in 6 characteristic Brucifafm m&nnerj they are 

Orange, spot t* * 1 wilh blaek; the body is slaloy -urey to the fifth p&raeqp segment, 
|,he remainder pallid. Infolding Rod rapid dim fruition in sfe£ (sommences witli the 
fourth pleoii segment seKJije^ts (5 mid (5 being eonsiderably induced; the telsoa is 
as long as kke Eourth pleon seginent. 

tf. 5- r/r/ 

Piga -. Xi-ithnHfirrt tf.S srllirl-i: A, l;ih'i';il vii'W of l'cmnlr J B, i*vr -loin 1 ; ( \ si-culld ;i ii! rh 111! , 

D lirsi giiathopodj K, steroid gnathopod; I', second peraeopod; Gr, linger nf E 1 ; ll. Fourth 

|,rr:ji -..jmmI ; J, tiffii | h- i :n-i ■] Kid ; l, ruaxilUpctl : K , third plecrpod ; l.. and utopods; M. heart; 
\, s.'.-.m.i ;inJ i iiir.l im,|M«i ; O, mil ing edge of right mandible ; P, cnitl tag edge "t lefl mandible. 

The proporl ions of the peraeon appendage}* of tfie fy pa- specimen agree Cairly 
closely with thft&e ft)* Siphnnoecetcs australfe, bul the individual specimens vary 
sliulilly. as nii.uhl be expected from the nature of l 1km r environment. 

In jjvueral, the speeies bears stonier ;i ppenda^os than S. ausfnilis. and w< 
appenrjuiee is slijdil ly more robusl ; in nil specimens 1 1 i u* h magnification and appro 

priate Gaining are necessary to deteal the sutures of thu sixtb segment. Without 

452 Records of the S.A. Museum 

dissection ii imm\ be separated from n. (wstraHnt by the Following characteristics: 
the third joint of petaaopod 2 is cylindrical, as broad as long} the fifth joim pi 
peraeorpod I is twice as long as broad [&. austraJis o#c -and one-half limen an broad 
us long i. iiixl the small rostrum is sharply pointed (S. ausfntHs bluntly Pounded). 
The species is vrery close i<> 8. sinithianns Rathbuit. 


EXOEDK KU'os St ebbing. 
ExOEDK'EKns KtACUIiOSI ;-S|i. liny. 

9 Byes moderately large, oval, wilh the surface rounded* Antenna 1, jointa 
of peduncle successively ghorttrand ntore slender.; first joint aa long as second and 
third together; flageLlnin of about 30 joints, e&ch carrying a small calceoli winch 
gives the flagellum a saw-like appearance; accessory flagellnm, a single rudimen- 
tary joint, tipped wilh tong setae. Antenna 2j lirst two joints of pednnele short 
and stout, appearing to Ui^ with the head; third is free and abou.1 ow-half the 

width of Lhe lirst; fourth is stonier than fifth and slightly longer, equal to twice 

third: flagellnm as for antenna 1. but with about 40 joints; antenna 2 about one 
and one-third as long as antenna 1, and proportionately stouter. Mandible, wed 
developed, palp large, first joint short, second three limes, And third two and rare- 
half times as long; molar, cutting edges and spin&4?ow well developed; gnathopod 2 
larger than 1, but of similar form ; fifth joint widened and setose, produced to pahfi 
of oval sixth. Peraeopods 1 and 2 possess no finger, and Lave the fourth joint 
widened: fifth and sixth no! widened, sub-equal, Peraeopods 3 and I have fourth 
and fifth joints only slightly widened. Peraeopod 9, lirst joint with vn-y small 
plate, seeond joint ipiadrale, hind margin nearly straight; length o\' peraeopod 5 
o(|iials twice peraeopod 2, 

Pleopods with side-plates of pleon segments I '■> progressively largpr, postero- 
lateral angles rounded; each of the plates of the pleon bears an inner row of 
double spines close to the inferior margin, and a large chroniatophor ai about ihe 

centre of the plate; these eharad erist re chromatoplmrs <irc also preheat on lhe 
uropod segment and telson. 

Iropod 1 bears slom spines mi the snb-r.pial rami, inner ramus equal to 
pednnele. Iropod 1 is nearly twice as long as pednnele plus Outer ramus of 
nropod 2, and one and one half times as long as nropod !J. Cropod 2 the smaller 
and more slender ; inner ramus sliglnly shorter than peduncle, outer slightly longer, 
both slightly spined. 

Sheard — Amphipods from a South Australian Reef 


tlropod : > atout, with peduncle and outer ramus spinel, inner ramus lanceo- 
late, with long sH;ir; rami equal, and equal to peduncle in length. THson. small 
entire, quadrate, equal in length to second tiropod segment 5 normally carried 

K- S. del 

Fig. ',{. EXOi (iter rO& HKtcuiusus, l\|)c r t ' 1 » 1 -• i h ■ ; A. rnil t'iiii:i<' 1 ; j i i • 1 ros» nun ; B, peduncle of 
inilriiiiri I; < ', : i 1 1 -. ii;i 2j l>, im;i udi Mr ; ]■], gljatHopod -; F. pHlm 0f F; << K, pemCOpods l-5j 

L. uropods an. I n i pleopod 1 ; N-O, peduncles and plates of pieopods 2-3, 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Length, 3 mm. 

I, or. South Australia: Gulf si. Vincent, Seiliik'-s Reef; common in aandj 

pools left ,-ii low (ide ill. Mi Hale. Aj)l. 1936 )« Types in South Australian Museum, 
Reg. Xo. C.2084, 2083, 2086. 

K. S. dd 

Fig. 4. Msuiilihles of Eirar,iir< ros fOtltOt (A H) :ni<l K. iimruhfsiix (C-D) ; itmxill:i 1 of 

ti. fosnor { v*) and /••'. maoutosus (F-O)j maxilla a of E. fo&aor (U) nn& B. muwtoms (JL)\ 
inayiJlip^O Qi /•■'- maciUoMUB ( J) ) wde-platc and guathopod I of K. K.) and A', rrwrc-w 

Through the courtesy of the Australian Museum authorities I have been able 
to examine speeimeas of tBxoedwi roa foswr I 0< tlicerus wt tvfcolQ Haswell | . ( See 

(i«r. L\) The main differences brUseen I his species Mini E, macUlosUS ;in i as follows-. 

size (mature females) : A'. fv8sor § length, 7 mm.; gte&tesl width of peraeou. 

:J mm. A", mueulnms. Length, 5 mm.; greatest Width Of perm-on. 1 •"> mm. Kostrum: 
A\ fossor } short, and not reaehin<r beyond middle of first joint of pedunele oi' Rrs1 
antenna. K. >i)<icf<l>>su.s, relatively lonirer. reaehin<2r beyond middle of iirsl joint 
of peduncle of firs* antenna (this eharaeterist ic is eoustant for immalttre. sub- 
adult and adult speeimens examined of both sexes i . 

Colouration (spirit speeinnms ) .- A 1 , fossor, no traee of eliroiua1'»pli"irs. [<}. 
micnlosm. brigtil l*6d chromatophores as described. 

Mjindihle: E. fussor, spine-row weak; ae«-rssory cutting edge pointed and 

Shears — Amphipods from a South Australian Reef 455 

simple. E. maculosus, spine-row with strong spines; accessory cutting: edge small 
and dentate. 

Maxilla 1 : E. fossor, inner plate large. E. maculosus, inner plate small. 

Maxilla 2 : E. fossor, plates wide. E. maculosus, plates comparatively narrow. 

Side-plate 1: E. fossor, five sets of spines on inferior edge; two spines on 
distal edge; narrow. E. maculosus, five spines on distal edg-e; comparatively wide. 

Embryos still within the egg-ease were possessed of fully-developed fifth 

In washings from the wave-beaten beach (Hale, Sept. 1986), UroTiausiorius 
Iki lei and Exocdiccros maculosus were abundant. 


Haswell (187!)) : Proc. linn. Boc, N.S. Wales, iv, p. 325, pi. xxiv, 3. 

Stebbing (1906) : Das Tierreich, xxi, p. 239. 

Pirlot (1932) : Sibof/a-Expcditic, Livr. cxvii, Mon. xxxiii, b, p. 106. 



By Keith Sheard, Hon. Assistant in Zoology, South Australian Museum 


The examination of five new species of the family Phliantidae provides an opportunity 
for a brief revision of the family, which falls into two divisions: 

a. Genera with first maxillae incomplete, telson entire, 
aa. Genera with first maxillae complete, telson cleft. 

1899 Phliadidae Stebbing, Tr. Linn. Soc. Lond., ser. 2, Zool. Vol. 7, p. 414. 
1906 Phliadidae Chevreux, Bull. Soc, Zool. Fr., vol. 31, p. 87. 
1906 Phliantidae Stebbing, Das Tierreich, 21, pp. 200, 726. 

1909 Phliantidae Chilton, Tr. N. Zeal. Inst, vol. 41, p. 61. 

1910 Phliantidae Kunkel, Tr. Conn. Ac. Sci., vol. 16, p. 19. 
1910 Phliasidae Chevreux, Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr., vol. 23, p. 201. 
1916 Phliantidae Barnard, Ann. Sth. Afr. Mus., vol. 15, pt. 3, p. 155. 

1927 Phliantidae Rebisch, Handbuch der Zoologie, Kukenthal, iii band, i halfte, 

p. 799. 
1932 Phliantidae Pirlot, Siboga-Expeditie, M. xxxiiib, Livr. cxvii, p. 105. 




By KEITH SHEAR!), Honorary Assistant in Zoology, South Australian Museum. 

Fig. Mi. 

The examination of five new species of the Eamily Phliantidae provides an oppor- 
tunity for a brief revision of (In- family, which falls into two divisions: 

a. Cenera with first maxillae incomplete, telson entire, 
aa. Genera with first maxillae complete, lelson cleft 

1890 Phliadidae Stabbing, Tr. [.inn. Soe. LoudL, ser. 2, ZooL vol. 7, p. 114. 

1906 PkUtoMda.4 Chevrenx, Bull. Soe. Zoo!. Fi\, vol. 81, p. 87. 

1906 Phliantidae St ebbing Das Tierreich, 21, pp. 200, 726. 

1909 Phliamtidae Chilton, Tr. X. Zeal. Inst., vol. 41, p. 61. 
EHO PhHantidae Kunkel, Tr. Conn. Ac Sei.. vol. 16. p. 1!>. 

1910 PMUmdae Chevrenx, Mem. Soe. Zool. Fr., vol. 23, p. 201. 
1916 Phliantidae Barnard, Ann. sth. Afr. Mus., vol. 15, pi >l p. 155, 

1927 Phliantidae Resbisch, ffandbuch der Zoologie, Kukenthal. iii band, i halfte, 

p. 799. 
1932 Phliantidae Piriot, Siboga-Expeditie, M. xxxiiib. Livr. cxvii, p. 105, 

In order to accommodate the very diverse genera and yet give a framework 
strict enough for valid identification, the characteristics of the family have been 
extended, and two subfamilies have been erected, although the claims of Birct nna } 
Eophliantis (gen. nov.). and possibly Kwria Walker to inclusion in a separate 
family are strong. 


Peraeon strongly developed. Picon segments 5-6 subject to degradation. 
Antennae 1-2 short, antenna 1 without accessory tfa^ollnm, Ha^ellnm with sensory 
filaments, Upper lip with distal margin usually undivided. Dower lips without 
inner lobes. Mandible without palp. Maxilla 1 variable, Maxtllipeds with palp 
joints variable. 

Shrard — Amphipods of the Pht.iantid Group 457 

(iii.-iiliopods 14! simple or feebly chelate. Peduncle laterally produced in on* 
or more pleopods* rFropod 3 usually not biramous. Telson entire or cleft . 

Willi f\VO subfamilies : 
;i. Telson cleft EophliatUinnv 

nn. Telson entire Phliantwat 

a. EopiiLiANTiNAi:. Subfamily nov. 

PeraeoTi strongly developed. Picon segments 5-6 very small. Antennae 1-2 
shorl mid slender, antenna 1 without accessory ftagellumi Upper lip not divided. 
Mandible without paJp, molar variable. Maxilla 1 with inner plate and one-jointed 
palp i '.' Kitrui). Maxillipeds, inner plate reaching to outer; palp four-jointed. 
Gnathopods 1-2 simple or feebly chelate. Meopods hiramous, peduncles expanded. 
[TrbpOds t-2 biratrious. Qropod 3 variable, very small. Telson cleft to base, up- 

Willi three genera and fivte species; 

a. I 'mpod 3 biramoua EapKlianHs 

aa. I 'l'opod :\ noi biramoiis. 

li. Side-plates shallow Bircewntt 

Mi. Side-plates deeper than segment .. .. . . .. Kmhi 

Kni'iiuwTis gen. nov. 

l'eraeon strongly developed (sub-cylindrical). Head almost spherical. Eyes 

small. Side-plates shallow. Antennae 1-2 short and slender. Molar preseiil on 
right mandible. Maxilla 1 with outer and inner plate and one jointed palp. IVrae- 
opods 3-5 with second joint widely expanded. Peraeopod 5 1 he longest Pleopod 1 
peduncle slightly expanded; pleopods 2-3 with peduncles widely expanded; all 
hiramons. Prnpods 1-3 biramons, ttropod 3 Very small bid with joinls dearly 
iimrkcd. Telson small, elefl to base, upturned. 
I le&otype : E. tindalt i sp, now 


9 All segments to the third pleon segment very loosely articulated. Head 
wit li dislinet neck. Antenna 1. ultimah joint of peduncle the longest; flagelllUU 
tive-joinled with, sparse setae, Antenna 2, shorter, division of peduncle and Bag- 
elliim no1 marked ; total seven-jointed. Right mandible w it li weak molar and feeble 
spine-row. Left, clear, with cutting edge produced. Maxilla 1. outer plate bear- 
ing six. toothed spines, inner with six( f) ; palp one-jointed with a single apical 
seta. Maxilla 2 With short base ;md long SUbequal platen, onler with eight, inner 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

with six slender spines. Maxilliped as in //. fnlw Chilton. Gnathopod 1 long and 
slender, with a secondary unguis and accessary spine on the seventh joint. Gnaiho* 
)){)(] 2 Long and very slender, otherwise comparable, For perneopods, see fig. 2, I-K. 

M '05 mm. 

'1 mm. 

"2 mm. 

Pig, l. A-U Eophtiantis twdai&i, malp; A, lateral view o* ttp€ male; B-C, rigbt niamliUe; 

J)-E, left muiiriihlc ; 1\ m;i ndible, tin in a 1 ure : G, inanm'ble, pHTtttype male; H, maxilla 1 ; T, spinas 
i.i plate; J, maxilla - ; K. inn xi 1 l;i 2 rii form wit li iiiaiaiiMe l-i ; U ami lel&Ml; 

m, comparative scale for B, G, l>, EJ, 71. 

Pleopods 2-3 with broadly expanded pednnele twice HII wide as long, rami 

moderately setose. 

Two sets of three spines each occur on the righl and lei't postero-dorsal edges 
of the third pleon segment Segments Mi small trot distinct. Hrtipod 1, outer ramus 
equal to peduncle, inner one and o;fte-thi*d times longer ; inferior margins of eaini 
lined with tine spines. Inner ramus equal in length 1o inner ramus pins peduncle 
ol' second uropod. I'ropod 2 t hree-<piarters as long as nropod 1, with inner ramus 
equal to pedunde, outer one and one-halt' times inner, margins smooth. I fropod •'• 



slightly shorter than peduncle- Of liropod '2, rami round'edj equal to peduncle, outet 

riiiims with ouo. iiuior wilh two apical spines. 

Telson short, triangular, upturned, completely alefl into two I triangular nearly 

opposed faeios. eaeh tipped with two spines. 

Fig. 2. I\<>i>i<lxhi tu tn\dnh'K tVm.-itr ; A, m nl eim.'i 1: II, ;i ni .i'iiii;i 2-j D, giiatllnyFOds 1 i' ; 
E, gnatljopori -, srwnili .joint. paratyphi F, gnathopod 2, seventh joint, typej FT— Tj, perneopnda 

I 5 ; V! N". i»l<'o[ioils 'J-;;; ( ). liro|io<ls ;nnl telsOB, 

Colour, pale yellow. 

I .olio'lh. I IIMII. 

JjOO. Tasmania : 1*1. Wynyard, in line sami Mini algae, on bictal rocks, penOdj- 
eally flooded wilh river water. I "\. B, Timdale. Apl. 1 !):•(;). Types 111 South Ans- 
In-ilim. Museum, Beg. Xo. C. 2072, '207'\. 

The type node from the same locality differs from the female in the following 

pari iculara ; 

I'd Records Of the S.A. Museum 

Antenna 1, flagellum six-jointed. Antenna *-. total eight-Jointed, 
Griiathopods 1-2 with the infero-distal an&le of the sixth joiiti slightly attire 
produced. Ijifero-lateral edge of peraeon sfcgmenl 1 slightly more produced with 
three spines on each of the antero and postero-iateeal angles* Lnfero-lateral edge 
nf peraeou segnienl 2 bears J hree spines eenl rally. Two seta of six moderately stoul 
spines are preseui on the postero-dorsal edge of the third pleon segments 

Dropod i with inner ramus only slightly longer lhan peduncle of uropod 2. 
Uropod 2 Longer than uropod 1. with Inner ramus equal to peduncle, outer nearly 
Iwiee inner, with inferior margin armoured with very short spines. [Tropod 3 
longer than peduncle of uropod •'». The sex differences are very slight. The in- 
dividual variations in fhe mandibles and sixth joints of the gnathnpods are of 

Females have been noted carrying From three to eleven developing ova in the 
brood-pouch, ( >ne male was peculiar in possessing an accessory r»nv of small spines 
nn the plates of the second maxillae (fig. l. K :. The difference in the manner of 
carrying the tiropod segments in Hi is subfamily as typified by B. tiiulalei compared 
w !t!i thai of the subfamily PhttuntivM fe striking* 

UlUCI.NNA ( Mlilloii. 

Body broad. Head nol rostrate. Antennae short, subequaL both pairs very 
slender; second with prominent gland cone* Mandibles wuhnui palp, molar want 
ingorweak. Maxilla 1 with inner and outer plates and one jointed palp. Maxilli 
peds'with outer plate nol extending beyond inner, palp lour-jointed, fourth joiui 
small, nol ringuiforni, Pirsi and second j?nathopods with (he hinder ape? of the 
sixth joint a little produced* Pleopods all biramaxrs, and with the peduncles 
broadly produced laterally. Uropods 1-2 with unequal, curved rami. [Tropotl : > 
rudimentary. Telson clefl to base 4 each hair triangular and more or less opposed. 

With i liree species-; 

a. Molar wanting. 

1 1. I'ropods t-2 with rami nearly twice peduncle > . . < fulva 

l'l». Uropods 1-2 with rami nearly equal peduttclp .. .. .. crussi pes 

aa. Weak molar present both mandibles . .. .. .. . . mcJtollsi 

\>un enna iii va Chilton. 

One of the syntypes was kindly lenl E0r Examination bj the Director of the 
Canterbury Museum, and IS here figured in detail. The three-membered first 

maxilla is to be uoted niir. :>. E, F, Gk), There are three spines on the postero 
dorsal margins of the third pleon segments 


■I hi 

lilKTi:\NA XI< HOI/LSi Sj). IIOV. 

9 Peraeou much larger than pleon. Head n«»i rostrate, but slightly bulging 
forwards over antennae, v< 4 ry small. Antennae very slender and wjiort"* 
Second with small ealceohis on distal edge of fifth joint of peduncle, IHagdhiro 

K. S. H 

Pig. :>. A-X, !lnrr),„a fultVl, Pewalej A. auk-mia 1: li. antrum. ^ : r | >, man, lit, Irs ; I-], 

iri.M.\ill.-i I, outer plKte nncl pal]*; l\ tip of outer plaits <;. inner plate; 11. tip or li - plutt'j 

I. maxilla - ; .1, maxillipnls : K L, gmithopotls I--; M-< t >, pgfrttiHijiqdfl 1-"'; R. gJiatftnpoil 2, 
terminal joints, r"l,v]"'; S T, |)1-'o|m..|s 2 '■'<: l\ m m|«, m |s r»ml trlsin; Y. uropod I: \V, feJaOH an. I 
uropull :', ; x, :-i 1 1 r. . liiib lojjofl of lower lip. 

two-jointed. Mandible with weak molar, putting edge produced. Maxilla l witli 
miier plate bearing six finely-toothed spines, inner with live simple spines, out* 
jointed pal}) with one apical seta. Maxilla 2 with very sftori ba$e and long, aiib- 
•«iu,il. flattened plates* Maxillipeds very smalt, with (bird joini of short palp the 
longest, fourth joint mote swollen than in B+fnVixi* Gnathopods 1-2 like /». fiUvu, 
but production of infero-distal edge of ai^tli joint not as acute, and with gnatha- 


Records of the S.A. Mpsktm 

pod 1 slightly longer than gnathopod "J. Ptraeopod 5 is slightly shorter than 
peraeopod I. Pteopods 1 -3 with peduncles more than hvice as broad as Long (B. 
WtY/ less than twice as broad as long*)* 

K, 5. <H 

Pig. 4. A-K, r>nr<xn« » i,-hoUsi ; A, iinl.-iinr! 2; B ( \ ni:ui«l flilCS : D, ni;ixill;i 1 ; E, iu;ixill;t 2; 

r, jiorfirui of raaxilliprd j G II, gnattiopods 1-2; I M. peracopodfl l •'• ; X, arupods 1-2 :iml trls.m j 
o. uropod 1 ; P, ofiopqd -; Q, ranpod ■'". ; R, pleoppti 3. 

ETropod 1 with cami], slightly shorter than peduncle, with a atrial] 
hooked spiiKMui eaflh eainns near the apex- [fropod 2, rami ftubequal, inner slightly 
longer, equa] to peduncle; fhe whole appears to form a hooked Htrucfui'e. Uropod •'■ 
extremely smalt, apparemlv consisting of fl peduncle and single mums, tipped with 
two setae, hidden by 1 lie shorl triangular, cleft telson, 

size. 2 mm. 

Log, South Australia : St. Vincent 's Gulf , Seiliek's Beach, among algae grow- 
inrv on. tJie film Of sand covering L'Oeks belOW low-tide mark (II. M. Hale, 1936), 
Type in South Australian Musimuii, Reg. No. C. 2074. 

The oviirerous female wit h two developing eggs was the only specimen collec- 
ted, II has been named in honour of Professor G. E. Xieliolls, of the l r niversity of 

SiiKAkD ampiupops of the Phliantid Group 463 

Western Ansl ralia. who Ikis vrorketl Oil a number of Austral inn and Antarctic 

In general \\ resembled 8. fulva t&ifly closely. bu1 is remarkable for the short- 
ness and sIi'ihUm-ik'ss of the gnathopods and peraeopod.8, the Longest being only vcit 
blightly longer ihan the depth of the body; />. fulv&, al least twice as Long as the 
greatest body depth. 

Kfria Walker. 

i:hk; \at. Jlist. Bokdtra and AM-El-Kuri, Wverpoo] Km. p. 22& 

II is evident that this genus is closer to llirc< una than to the typical PlUian- 
tiiHh ( , bill il is desirable that the first maxillae be re-examined. In this revision it 
has been placed, lent a! i vly, with the EopMumtinac. 

It isdifiirnlt to accept Stobbineys positive identification ol' /linncoliiht dlgicolil 
Delia Yalle wnii /;. Gttwdcuhcs (Ampithoc an maul us Stebbing). It may be of ad- 
vantage to re-examine the types o\' the first-named with special reference to the 
mom li partfi and lelson. 

aa. Piiliaxtix.u; Subfamily nov. 

Peraeon strongly developed. Pleon segments 5-6 subjeci to degradation. An- 
tennae 1-2 very short. Antenna 1 with joiuls of peduncle irenernlh expanded, no 
accessory fiauelluuL fla.uellum with sensory lilaments. Upper lip with distal mar 
gin usually undivided. Lower lip without inner lobes. Mandible without palp. 
Maxilla 1 incomplete; maxilliped with palp variable, (iimthopods 1-2 simple or 

weakly chelate. Peduncle laterally expanded in one or more pleopods. Pleopod 'k 

iiuier ramus subject to degradation. I'ropod :\ usually nol l)iramous. Telson short, 
entire, not upturned. With 8 penera, 10 species. 
Synopsis of genera : 

a. Maxillipeds, palp Iwo-jointod .. .. .. .. Tiuntofihlias 

aa. Maxillipeds. palp more than two-jointed. 
b. Maxillipeds, palp three jointed. 

c. I'ropod '•) biramous . . .. T . Phi ids 

cc. I'ropod r! not biramous. 

«l. UtOpod 3, pedUiaCle and ramus distinct .. Pcn'mnofus 
iU\. I'mpod :>. peduncle no1 distinct from ramus Putin not us 
bb. Maxilliped, palp four jointed. 

e. Pleopod : k inner ramus well developed . tpkinotus 
ee. PleopOd 3, inner ramus rudimeiitar\ . 
r. Propod :>, peduncle distinct from 

ramus . . . . , , . . QufmtilOdia gen, now 

\'\\ I'ropod 3, peduncle not distinct i'rom 

h. Maxilla 1 wiiii palp ., .. Plioplaieia 

hh. Maxilla 1 without palp .. .. Tphiplutcia 

464 Records of the S.A. Museum 

QtjasimodU gen. ttov. 

Body depressed, pleou strongly flexed* Segments of body tuberetdate in 
niedio-dorsal line- Peraeou segmenl 1, oiedio-dorSsa;] area produced., cowIJike, over 

the head. Mouth parts as tor Tphiplaleia. (Jnathopods 12 simple. Pteopod 3, 
inner ramus vestlgea! n 1 u 1 non-setose or rudimentary ami setose, I'ropnds 1-2 
hiramous. Uropod :; ronsisi in^ of pedunek and ramus, inner ramus sometimes 

presenl in modified form. Telson short, entire. 

Willi three species i 

a. LMeopod M, innei- r;inius xesii-.-.-il, aon-setose <)■ womctskyi 

nil. Pleopod 3, inner ramus rudimentary. fcetOSfi, 

|,. (Jjropod •>. tamU8 twice as Long as peduncle . , .. Q. (uij,rimrnis 

hh. IJropod 3, ramu8e<|uaiti> peduncle .. .. •• Q.barmtvdi 

i >\ ejerous females ol* Hie spfccies deserihrd were a-sociated with specimens ol 

the same me, lau Lacking marsupial plate*, and with a slightly grater develop- 
ment ol' sensory setae. These 1 assume 1o be males. Although 'I" 1 -mierie and 

specific eimraeiei-isiies keyed are of small and relatively inaccessible part*, they 

ean be readily (list LiTguished by tht' application Ol the EoUdWUlg melliod <atVt 
Wmm-rsley and Hale 

1. Clear in synthetic oil of wiiilerureen, L-B h0Ur& 

S. Pass through a«-ei ic acid. 

:;. Mount in gum chloral 

Should ;i moiv detailed examinal ion he necessary a specimen may he slanied 

whole in Magenta Bed and dissected in xylol-balaam. The procedure is as follows: 
The specimen is passed to absolute alcohol ; several drops of Magtfnta Red ifl 

tlbsOtute alcohol acidified With aeetiC add are added and lel'l lor 2-3 miMiile>. Kx- 

tsess of slain is washed mil with aleohol. Xylol (free of water i is then dropped 
into Urn last waleh-^lass of alenhol unlil no further milkiuess is ohlained. The 
spr<. mien is Ihen drie<l and transferred from I his glass to pure Xylol for 5-10 
minutes, and then disserted in 50-5D xylol-halsam. The Staiued monnls ohlained 

tend to fade a little in eptfrfte of time, but this disadvantage is slight in eousidara- 

lion of the sharp and clear delail which can he ohlaincd under the highest powers. 

The method litis an added advantage with crustacean ehitin in thai specipienH are 

not rendered hi'itlle or loii^'h. II lias heen used for I sopoda, Cumaeea, a ud Amphi- 

poda with equal success. 


Body depressed, dorsal ridge tuherculate. each segment forminir a rounded 
prominence, firsl segment Willi a pseudo-rostrum on the mid-dorsal line, projecting 



ctfwUlike over the he&ds The 1hs1 ptfraeftn, and fir**! pleoti segments arc 1 projecting 

backwards in prnlqinrat hitoer<HdeK, Remainder of pleon small and <-n rritM 1 well 
under the body. All segments developed. 



of a 

Z, n 

It 5- AL 

Wig. ■'>. A :i, Qui mod/tit, gew. im>\. A-J, ( ( k hmwanUi A, antenna i; B. antcuiui i' ; (J, 

:ll.-i I; 1), m."ixi!l;i 2; |fl m;<xilli|K'<l : If, | • 1 « ' < > j > " < I 'J; o, ptedpod 1; IT. umpnfl H : i i m I 1 1 • I m < > 1 1 : 
'tilt! '<r lengtn >•!' |ilcop..Hl 1; J. |.Ii-.>|h>,| .1 n t s.-;il.' I. K-Q. $. WOmmUjli; K, unhMimi I ; I;, 
iin,i 1': M, iii;ixilli|HMl ; \ I 1 , perlunctas oJ? plt'Opfllia I : v . with P showing imin i;nnus; < L ). 

I 3 aiul tel&un, R-a r Q~ eafrrieorui*; l?-, antenna I; £% "antenna 2j T,. a^cessnn fiagellnui 

iifeim.-i I; I',; V, m:mll;i 1; W, n>;i\illn 2; X, in;j\illipr.| ; V, K'lgOO and Ul*0]M(1 8; 

|'o|.hxIs I .'! .'lHfl M'lsnu ; :i, |>lr<i]n>.| :;. 

si< U 4 plri i * s as in lphiplo4ciu, Brauebae lead* J ike mul uniform. Fftde^plates 
")-7 tightly l)i!ol>od. very small. Eyfca moderately prominent, oval and slightly 
rained, Antenna 1. lirsi joint the 1-m'o.vs.i, dpr&al and ventral edges strongrly pro- 
duced forwards. ventral projection setosi\ dorsal terminal in*: in a spine Third 
jninl small: flatielliim one-join! oil. but ton-like, vci'y stronuly soloso. A ! 1 1 1 * n 1 1 ; i '_' 

like I plii/ihihia, bill with a single-jointed setose ttajrelluin. 

466 ReCORPS of the S.A. Museum 

.Mouth parts as Tor tphiplateibi, bul mandible with flattened rounded process 
representing molar tuherdule, maxillipeds, palp with joints long and slender; 
fourth long, tipped wiih short Imij-s; inner pla I o imnv rounded than in L white- 

/, outer wiili forward angles acute* 

Vov miathopods Mini peraeopqds see comparative figure (fig, 6, K-K )\ 

Peraeopod 5 with fourth joint only moderately expanded, this appendage I be 

Pleopod 1 wi! h peduncle 1 hrec times as long as broad, nearly cylindrical, inner 

ramps slightly the shorter. Plcopoda 2-3 as in Ipliiplatt fa, 

[Tropod l. peduncle spiucd on inner margins, as long as outer ramus, twice as 

long as hooked inner ramus. I'ropod 2, as long as peduncle of first ami nearly a< 
stout; subequal rami nearly as long ns peduncle. fJropod •> projecting beyond 
iclson, peduncle short and rounded ; single ramus, a slender cone I ipped with three 

spines. Twice as louj* as peduncle. Telson subtrian^ular, entire, smooth. 
Size, I mm. 
hoc. Smith Australia : Yorke Peninsula, Iuneston. Reef, below low tide I II. 

Womersley, Gntomologisl to the Sduth Australian Museum^ after whom the 
Kpeciea is mimed ; 1936). Type in South Australian Museum. Reg, No. C. 'JOTS. 


Body like Q. wonn /'ship, hui tuhercules nol so pronounced. First segment 
only sli^'hily produced forwards. Backward production or first pleon «egnuen1 not 
•n pronouneed. pleoa only moderate!} depressed, All segments distinct^ hut sixth 
very small. Side-plates with angles aquarer than tor Q, wuwa r$h >n. Byes moder- 
ately prominent. Antenna 1 . first and second joints expanded.; third about half an 
long as first, fiairellum tWO-jointed with an accessory setose scale arising fr<»m the 
inl'ero-disfal edge of the third joint of the peduncle. Antenna v 2 : fi&gelluiJQ three 
jointed. Mandible: cutting edge uuadri-denlate, secondary cutting edge iridmitate, 
s|»iiir-i'ii\v with weak, hair-like spines; molar, a rounded prominence. Maxilla 1 : 
a single plate only with six Spines. Maxilla 2* bilnbed. IVlaxilllped with inner 
plate small, outer reaching half-way up second joint of palp, which is short and 


Peraeopods normal for genitfl (see fig. 6 lid, i, 

Plcopods 1-2 normal. Pleopod 3 with inner ramus \^vy small, hut bearing 7 s 

I' in pi id 1 ; rami snbe<pial, outer equal to peduncle, no! hooked. 1 unci' margin of 
inner ramus indented. lil'Opod -:i"iiin siibe<pial. slightly hooked, outer ramus copra I 

SHEAKD AMPHirons 01- tiii- Phuantip CiROUP 


(o peduncle. Qropod •*> ; outer mums more than I hree i hues peduncle ; inner small, 
slightly longer limn peduncle, very diflkuH to separate Erom outer, with two small 

K. S, U 

Pig, ii. Qitmihiadid, p-n. nov. A-I), V- (<<in<<i<-<H; A. perae.opoti L] li D, peraeopoda 3 ."-. 
K l\. <',). ir>>in< rskyi ; 12 P, guatliopods 1—2; G K. i " ■ i ,-i. m|i.h|s 1-5. L-tR, 0. eapruwmi&i L-.M, 
guatliopcxla I -8 ; N-l-i, peracopods 1-5. 

Tolsoii 1ri(Ui'_riil;ir. cjiI ir<*. 

Size, 4 mm. 

Lac* South Ausirnlm : SI. Yineciil Unit". Sol lick's Reef, on rocks covered willi 
allele and sami; 1 I'm 111. ill. M. Hale. A|»l. 1936). Types in South Auslrnliaii 
Museum, Reg. Nd & 2075-2076. 

468 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Quasi ivioniA kaknakdi sp. nor. 

Body typical of genus, but appearing more massive owing- to the greater de- 
velopment of joints 2-4 of p(M-aeo])0(ls 3-5, First peraeon segment Like Q. wovwrs- 
leyi. Antenna 1 short, second joint of peduncle expanded only on inner edge; 
flageUum two jointed, second joinl very small. Anienna 2 slender; Hagellum with 
one joint, Mandibles and maxillae very small, but with the characters of ihc genus. 
Maxilliped with short plates and long slender palp, third joint as long as second, 
mm rounded on inner side with long setae : fourth joint slightly hooked. 

Peraeopods (see fig. 8, A-i)}. IVraeopods 1-2 like Q. WOMCrsleyt excepl that 
the fifth joint of peraeopod 1 is collar-shaped. Peraeopods 8-5 relatively massive, 
with the poslcro-distal margins of joints 2-4 strongly expanded. 

Pleopod 1 wilh peduncle not expanded, biramous, longer than pleopod 2, and 
more than one and one-half times as long as pleopod 3. Pleopod 2 with peduncle 
prolonged, inner ramus I he shorter. Pleopod 3 small with peduncle produced to a 
long process; inner ramus ovate, not segmented, as long as peduncle, bearing many 

Uropods 1-2 like A\ momersleyi bid not spmed. ITropod 3 consisting of 
peduncle and ramus, peduncle projecting beyond telson, sub-spherical, as wide aa 
long, ramus finger-like and equal to peduncle. 

Telson entire, rounded, twice as broad as loiur. 

Size 3 mm. Type female. 

Loc. South Australia; Yorke Peninsula., Inneston (II. Womersley, Aj)!. 
l!i:;(i). Type in South Australian Museum. Reg, No. <\ 207!). 

Males and females bearing ova were collected in company with Q% WQMCrdeyi 
at Inneston, Yorke Peninsula. 


By Keith Sheard, Hon. Assistant in Zoology, South Australian Museum 


Family Phreatoicidae 

Amphisopus Ambiguus sp. now 

Specific Diagnosis. Body moderately slender, surface smooth and free of hairs. Eyes 
moderately developed. Head not as long as first and second peraeon segments together ; 
first peraeon segment completely fused on pleural line ; first joint of first antenna long, 
first and second compressed. Right mandible with secondary cutting edge. Coxae of all 
legs fused. Sixth joint of the first peraeopod nearly circular (female and male) ; fourth 
peraeopod not differentiated ; pleural walls of peraeon just covering arthroidal 
membrance of basis. Telson large, convex, but flattened dorsally, slight posterio-dorsal 
ridge flanked by two stout spines on either side. Uropods stout, basis extending to end of 
telson. Inner ramus longer than basis. Pleopods with epipodites on 3-5. Last joint of 
exopodites of pleopods furnished with plumose setae, penial filaments sickle-shaped and 
non-setose. Pleura of pleon well developed, concealing pleopods. 



By KEITH SHEARD, Hon. Assistant in Zoology, South At m -kalian Museum. 

Pig. 1-18. 


Ami'imsoi'i s AMi;n,rrs sp. nov. 

Specific Diagnosis. Body moderately slender, surface smooth and free of 
hairs. Byes moderately developed. Head no1 as long ;is firsl and second peraeon 
segments together; firsl peraeog segment coir\pletely fused on pleural \me\ firs! 
joint of first antenna longer and stouter than second or third. Fifth joint of 
second antenna long, first and second compressed. Right mandible with secondary 
cutting edge. Coxae of all legs fused. Sixth joint of the first pcraeopod nearly 
circular ( female and male) ; fourth peraeopod aol differentiated; pleural walls of 
peraeon just covering arthroidal membrane of basis. Telson large, convex, bu< 
flattened dorsally-, slighl posterio-dorsal ridge flanked bytwostoul spines to either 
side. Uropods stout, basis extending io cml of telson. Inner ramus longer than 
basis, Pleopods with epipodites on •>-">. Last joim of exopodites of pleOpods i'ur- 
nished with plumose setae, penial filaments sickle-shaped and non-setose. Pleura 
of pleon well developed, concealing pleopods. 

Colour, slater -brown, with mottled markings. 

The following detailed description is taken from three specimens winch had 

been forwarded i\v\\ and were in consequence slightly damaged, 

( Pleon and T elson 60 -64 

The body is slender. Uatioi : , 

(Peraeon and OephaLon 100 

The three specimens fall within this range. In a specimen 24 mm. in length 

the following measurements obtain: 

Length. Width, Depth, 


5 in in. 

3 mm. 

'•\ mm 

Free peraeon 



2 -5 








2 • 5 

Head: Dee-sal surface convex. Anterior edge projects slightly over basal 
joints of antennae. Kyes small. No trace oi' line of fusion of first se^menl ; line 
of fusion of second se-anenl marked with a slight groovi. — this is more promineni 
on the side-plate. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Peraeon: Semi-cylindrical { pleura of segments 2-4 slightly developed, jusl 
covering the arthroidal membrane of the basaJ joint- (coxa! joints of the Brsi perae- 
ppods uncovered). 

K. S. del 

Fig'. 1-18. A (inibif/iiii.s; 1, ceplialon ; 2, first antenna ; 3, second anteniin; 4, ninxil- 

l'| H ' (| ; '"'• iii;iii(lil)l.' ; C, first maxilla; 7, second in;i \i I l;i ; S, on;it Impod (J) !), second pmnenpod ; 

10, fourth peraeopod ; II, seventh peraeopod; i-\ gnathopod, (<J) regenerated; 13, coxa, (?) 

iVwrlli poraenpud ; 14, ii i si pier. pod ; 1 5, sivoml pleopodj 16, third pleopod 5 17, fourth ploopod : 

1 B, telson and oropod. 


Pleura of segments 5, 6, 7 arc progressively deeper, and potfsess a terminal 

spine anteriorly ; :!. I, B enpial in lenfih. and twice Length of 2 ; 7 equal H - ( 1 mni. K 

ft si|be<pial. 

Pteou : Firsl ^'i-mu'iit sli^lu l\ narrpwfiE Hum last poraeon segjnenl ; free edges 

nva1<\ and frilled \n i 1 1 1 moderate spines, not notched. Sixth fused lo ttilSOtt, Ifoe 
of fnsinii markecl oWUfliely OH the tower half of the side wall. There nre im spines 
..,i this lino. I)iii I'mir stonl spines are carried on Hie interior ventral edge of SKlfr 

plate of tin (5gj ii 1 . 

TrU.nii : Large 1 •l..]-s;il line tlatly tfftnvaa in profile-. Iran-verse section horseshoe 
•diaped. with forward edge flattened. Pnsterio-dorsally a slight ridge occurs in the 
median line: I his is smooth and nol kipped by a spine, but is flanked on each side 
bj ;i ridge, whieli. originating from llie anterior r\\<\ of Hie median ridge, describes 
a semi [-Circle -"id. al'ler running parallel with the median ridge, meets the hase of 
the laroesi poslerio Interal spine. A shallow depression is thus formed on eaeh 
side of the medum ridge. The postorio dorsal aspeel hetWean the ventral edge of 
the lelson immedinlely ahtive tte anal opening, and the slight projection Of the 
median ndire is hollow e«], triangular in shape, with a curved base. The postero- 
lateral margins of the lelson on level with this base terminale on each side in a 
large spine; below this is a second, smaller, and below this a third, very small. 
rhere is no median terminal protuberance or spine. This seulpture of 'lie fcelson 
is typical of the speeies. 

First anlenna reaches lo the middle of the fourth joint of the peduncle of the 
srennd. l'ednnele: first joint stout seeond and third progressively shorter and 
more slender, non-setose. 

The srmiid antenna reaehes lo Ihe sixth peraeon segment. First join! Erf 
pednneh' eompressed and stout, second comparable, third longer and slenderer, 
fourth and fifth progressively longer and slenderer. Fifth e<pials twice third. The 
flagelhim iff twice as fagig as the peduncle, and consists of about 40 joints, the first 
foxing made up of several pari ially fused joints. 

The nnindihles agree in general shape with I hose of 1". uitsfralis (as figured by 
Chilian. Records Anst. Mns., 1SM1. and as noled in specimens kindly furnished by 
the Australian Museum > ? lap are less setose. NV ith no plumose selae evident. There 
is a rndimenniry eiiinng edge on the right mandihle. without leelh. and the spine 
raw has bmwie a spine nodule bearing ;i mft of hair-like spines. The palp, with 
the h'l't >1"iiirr and longer than right, is 1 hree-joiuted. seeond joint the longer. 
third ;i KtOrrt, lUlfVed finger; long Simple ^etae arise from the auteriOV maruins of 
Ihe joints. : In P. <msl rafts bolh palps appear lo he of equal development.! 

Tin- lirsi maxilla has its inner lobe arising from a swollen base, and bears t'OUr 
large simple seine and one small seta on its dislal edge; Ihe outer lobe, .me and one- 

472 Records of the S.A. Museum 

third as long as the inner, bears 25 curved, apine-lifee setae on its dista] edge, form 
fug a i-onil) -like $tru0tnre. 

The second maxilla is comparable with thai figured For r. 'tustntlis; the batfe 
is reduced, thtf three lobes are fringed on their inferior edges wiili serrulate setae. 
Palp one-jointed, inner tobe bearing an accessory row of stiff simple sefcae dose to 
fho inferior margin. \ T o plumose setae are visible on the maxillae, Fjbwer lip 

The maxslliped: First joini with large Bpipcfd, ow edge Of whieli normalij 
(its in a groove em in U\r second and third joints; second joint, the longest, bearing 

a plate* which reaches to the middle of the (ill h joint, is fringed With Long, simple 
setae; is nearly four times longer than broad, and which Ihnits six coupling hooks 
on its inner ed^e. The third joint is I he shortest, aboill 1 wo-t birds as long as broad. 
Tin- superior edge of the fourth joint is strongly produced forwards: I he fifth is 
snbeqnal 1o I he second; sixth and sevenlh snbennak and furnished with long tnfls 

of setae. The whole appendage is strong and well developed^ 

Gna1 hoped and peracopods : The coxae are Completely fused in both male and 
adult females i s«v Bg, l:} a, second joint), ^\' all legSi The gnathopod Ui strong 
and powerful iii i he male, that of the Female being very much more slender, and 

with the "hand 1 ' smaller limn that of tbe male, and bearing on the distal edge of 
the seventh joint a ihick tnfl of long hairs. The hand is snbeircnlar, tlie sixlh 

joint being two a-nd three-quarters the width of the fifth. Tlie palm bears blunted 
tubercles on its distal border. The Eleventh joini is stout, ajid terminates in a 
secondary unguis. 

The second and third peraeopods ate equal, with the fourth slightly shorter, 
and not differentiated in the male except thai the spines of tlie fifth joini are 
stouter and more numerous. Otherwise these appendages are similar to those of 

/\ <n<strttli;<. except that the Spinet?, although less numerous, are 1'elatively xrvy 

The fifth, sixth, and seventh peraeopods are dmilar to P. auttwtli&i the opines 

which occur on 1 he so-mid, I bird, and fourth joini being short nnd more curved. 

with a Few short scattered hairs among them. Bach of He- peraeopods bears a 
sjrtall Ihiid unguis. 

Pleopodtt: These are rionnaily just hidden by the pleural walls of the pleuii. 
nnd all bear plumose setae on the tcrmimil joints of the exopodite. The second 
pleopod closely resembles that of .1. Hntoni. The penial filament, hearing no Setae, 
is etpial in lenutii In the endopod : is sickle-shaped, amel appeara I" be freely 
jointed. The second joint (6vftte) Of the -exilpod bears plumose setae on its distnl 


Sheard— New PHREATOieiD from Victoria 473 

The nropod is very stout, basis extending to the end of the iclson. Outer 
raimift equal in length to basin •. inner longer, proportion 9 : 7. The rami are slightly 
hollow on their dorsal surfaces, and each edge 1 is stonily spined. The outer ramus 

is lipped with one spine, inner with four. The upper edge of the base is strongly 
concave, edges spined. The inner edge is produced posteriorly to a stout boss, 
lipped with three Spines; I lie ventral edge of the fused sixth segment bears four 
Stout spines. 

The penes is a paired organ arising from the base of the fused coxae near the 

posterior edge of the lasi thoracic segment. It is non-setose. 

hoc Victoria: The Grampians, Fish Falls (R. V. Southcott, Dec. 1935). 
Types in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. C. 2115, 2116, 

1 am indebted to the Directors of the Australian and National Museums for 
specimens of /'. austroHis and P. tarvwolth. A, (imhiguuti was found under stones 

in damp places al Fish Falls, and in structural details and general shape closely 

resembles Ampliixopas linloni (Nieholls) and .1. palmina (6-lauert). The lelson 
and (irepods are unlike those of P. i < rricohi. The new species may be readily 
separated from the other members of the genus by the uropods, which have the 
inner ramus longer than the outer. 

I have followed Nieholls (1926) in the naming of this genus, as ii antedates 
Shepherd*s excellent revision of fche family | 1927). 

Useful discussions of 1 his family are to be found in ihe following papers: 

Nieholls and Milner, Joufn. Roy. 8oC< W. Aitsf., x. No. (i, 1923, pi 23, 
Nieholls. lor. e/7.. x. No. 13, 1924, pp. 92404. 
Nieholls, loc. ril.. xii, 1926, p. 170. 

Barnard* Trans. Roy. 8o& 8. Africa, xiw J927 ? pp. 139461 (Biological study :. 
Shepherd, Piw, Zool Soc. London, 1027, pp, Rl-124, 

The reference lists in the above papers contain the full bibliography of the 


ByH. Womersley, F.R.E.S., A.L.S., Entomologist, 



Collembola-Arthropleona Bonier 1901. 

Genus Pseudachorutes Tullbg. 1871. 

Pseudachorutes evansi sp. n. 

Description: Length to 5.0 mm. Colour (in spirit) blue-black dorsally, creamy-white on 
venter between coxae, on ventral tube, and on the furea. Antennae about as long as head 
diagonal; ration of segments = 15 : 15 : 10 : 22, IV slightly clavate and wider than II and 
III, and without olfactory setae but with trilobed apical knob, sensory organ on III 
indeterminate. Ocelli 8 on each side on dark fields, equal. Postantennal organ slightly 
larger than a single ocellus, and with six peripheral lobes as figured. Legs, short and 
stout; claws with basal inner tooth and a pair of distal lateral teeth; empodial appendage 
wanting; clavate tibiotarsal setae absent; surface of claws strongly granulated. Furca well 
developed, mucro about one-fourth the length of dens with inner and outer lamellae, 
which terminate before the blunt apex, dens with six long ventral setae. Mandibles 
present with strongly-toothed head but no molar plate. Maxillae with two distinct serrated 
apical lamellae. Clothing of sparse short setae. Cuticle granular. 


By H. YVOMKKSUA', F.R.I..S., A.L.S., EntomolohisTj South Atstraman Mi m m 

Pig, 1-7. 

CoLLEMBoLA-Airniijoi'i.EONA Boroer 1901. 
Genus Psbudaohoeutes Tilllb<r. 1871. 

" l H DAilloKTTES EVANS] sp. II. 

Pig, 1 a-f. 

Dcsert'ittiov: Length to 5*0 mm. Colour (in spirit) blue-black dorsally. 
creamy-white on venter between coxae, on ventral tube, and on the furca. An- 
irini.ic about jis long as bead diagonal; ratio of segments = 15 1 15 1 10 : 22, I\ r 
slightly julavate and wider than II and III. and without olfactory setae but with 
trilobed apical knob, sensory organ on III indeterminate. Ocelli < s on each side 
On dark fields equal. Poatantennal organ slightly larger than a single ocellus, and 
willi six peripheral lobes as figured* Legs, short and stout ; daws with basal inner 
tooth and a pair of distal Lateral teeth • empodial appendage wanting; clavate tibio- 
tarsal setae absent ; surface of claws strongly granulated. Purea well developed, 

muero about one-fourth the length of dens with inner and outer lamellae, which 
terminate before the blunt apex, dens with six Long ventral setae. Mandibles pre 
senl with strongly-toothed head but no molar plate. Maxillae with two distinct 
serrated apical lamellae. Clothing of sparse short setae. Cuticle granular. 

Locality: About half a dozen specimens collected by Mr. J. W. Eyans on Mi. 
Wellington, Tasmania, September, 1935, 

Remarks: Very near to P. cUgidensin Carp,, 1925, from New Zealand, but 
differs in the number oi Lobes in the postantennal organ, in having a strong basal 
inner tooth tothedaw, aK well as a pair of strong distal teeth, and lastly in the form 
of I he muero. 

Psi:rnAriioKM'Ti;s tasma\ii:\sis sp. UOV. 
Fig. 1 g-1. 

Description: Length, 4-0 mm. Colour bluish dorsally. Lighter on venter. An- 
Lennae about the Length of head diagonal ratio of segments?^ ! : ?:10:15, IV 
without olfactory setae bin with trilobed apical knob, 111 with sensory organ as 


Records of thf S.A. Museum 

figured; the two sensory roda being curved and apically bifurcate, Mandibles 
without molar plate but with large bead having 6ewer bu1 stronger teeth than in 
preceding species ; maxillae with two long apical lamellae. Ocelli eight on each side 
on dark fields, equal Post-antenna] organ of the rhwticm type, elongate, twice as 
long as one ocellus, and with about 20 peripheral Lobes. Legs shorl and stoni. 

Fig. I. Pseudachorutea g van si sp.ii.; a, kwo anterior oeelli and p.a.o. ; ii. af maxilla; 
<i ni' mandible; d, daw and tip of Mbiot&psu&j e, mnerdnes Bad dentes from below; f, macro 
side. I'.st iHi<i<'h"ii(h .■■ iavmtmiensU sp.n,; g, (►.;«.<>. and iwn anterior ocelli; h, aoQaor.v organ 
on mo. ill; i. li.-.'ni of mandible; j. head of maxilla; k. ela.wj I, mnero war! dens Prom side. 

Without elavalo I ibiotarsal setae; claws witboul inner or lateral teeth, and not dis- 

lindly granular. Furea well developed, mucfcd about one-third the Length of deiis 

as figured, dens with six ventral setae* Clothing short and sparse. Ciitiele slightly 
ei'i m ilar. 

LOGCtUtyi 'Two speeimens from Ml. Wellington, Tasmania. ('(.Heeled by Mr. 
J. \V. Evans, September, 1935, 

lit HHtri{s: Close to /'. rh<i< ttfiis f (.arl ). bnl differs in the larger posl-anlenna] 
organ with its greater number of lobes, 1 he shape of the miioro, and the absenee of 
teeth to I he elaw. 


Eight species of this genus are now know n troin the Australasian region : one 
from Java, three from New Zealand, and four from Australia. Anions the Last, 


/'. rhartinis (Card, well-know n in Europe, may be ail introduction; /'. incertus 
Schott. from Queensland, is inadequately described, and fresh materia] is requited 
lor detailed study. The following key will help to separate 1 1 !<■ eighl species, 

1. Ocelli 5 on each side. P.a.o. with :>-4 lobes. Claws without teeth. Two 
clavalo 1 ibiotarsal hairs. Mnero with - teeth f :' ) . 

P. ux'rrivs Schott 1917. Queensland. 
Ocelli 8 on each side . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 

L'. P.a.o. elliplical with 10 or more lobes . . . . . . . . 3. 

P.a.o. circular with EftWer lobes .. .. .. .. ..4. 

M. P.m.o. twice as long as one ocellus, with 20 peripheral lobe.s. 

P. hrsniaiii* iisis $p, n.. Tasmania. 
P.a.o. only as long as oik 4 ocellus, with 10-15 lobes. 

P. r/iaeticvs (Carl), Australia, Europe. 
I. i *olour v< carinine'\ P.a.o. noi longer 1lian a single ocellus, and with .'3-4 lobes. 

P. jo runic us llandschin, Java. 
I 'olour not carinine . , . . . . . . . . f). 

5. P.a.o. with I lobes. Colour dark brown P. pari finis Worn.. New Zealand. 

P.a.o. wilh 5 lobes, ( 'laws without teeth, lateral ed^es with transverse rallies. 

P. alfjidcnsis Carp., New Zealand. 
P.a.o. with () lobes, (laws with basal inner and a pair of distal lateral teeth. 
lateral surface granulate . . . . . . /\ rrnvsi sp. n.. Tasmania. 

P.a.o. with 8 lobes, (laws with inner tooth in distal half, lateral surface not 
'-lanulale . . . . . . P. brunmux Carp., New Zealand. 

Genus Actiorwksj Tempi. 1834, Pbrner. 

AcrioRiTKs uiRTKhnrs v. \\ ellinotonia v. now 

Pig. 2 ad. 

Very close to the typical Australian form A. hirttUits x. cu'rulns Schbtt, but 
differs in thai the line serrations on 1 he stems of the dorsal setae are almosl obso 
b'le, in ilia I I he iim briar ions at the apex of these setae are broader, and in the loin. ; 
simple pointed Setae on the head, pleural arears, and anal segments* li is also 
somewhat larger, raiiging to 4*0 mm. in Length. 

Locdlihf: About half a dozen specimens from Ml. Wellington, Tasmania, 
rnllrd.'d by Mr. .J. W . Evans. September. 1935. 

Genus Acantmomi/ki s WoiUersley, 1934* 

A single spoeimen of this variety, as yel only known from Tasmania, was col 
lecled on Mt. Wellington, Tasmania, \>y Mr. J. W. Evans, in September, 1935. 

Records of the s.A. Museum 



! 71 PI . 

- | ;: " ,V; 

Fi^. 2, AcftorntW h'ii-lins \, it < lliin/hniin y.ti. ; :: inur. .,1,-,/, 
ul. IV; <1, i-K-nv. 

b neelli ; t\ I ip »f 

GfoUlUfl 1 SOTOMA -. sir. 1 >i *»j*i i* -r. 
IsOTuMA J'lcrTi H Alil»l S|>. nnv. 

svn. Imtomo uniiHiiiid TuilHjy. \V<an. (Cotlftmbalaii Fauna of Ww Zealand 

ill pl'rss;. 

Ki<J. 3 fl-cl. 

In I I m- ; 1 1 m > •.. , ■ ,►,-., •,,•!• ;il ijn.'sni! in iho ptf$»)$ I hfl V£ rrronb-d a number of tipeCl 
lih'tis rrf au Isotoiiid collected .by Mr. B. D. P'ritchartl, Oil tHeOOBRl u<*ar Auckland. 

as the European /. mw*itimu I'ulllig. The Kpe<$imerr3 agreed hi all dri nils with this 
species except tile number of the ocelli* These were iiiH-iTtain, and although I 
■ • . ' 1 1 N I be scire "i* seeing mily hjx ton each side I a&fttuietf, as m,\ pn-parat ionrf were 
itdt I'M* eleai*, that there waa the full number of eight, 

IvrrriiMy, however, Mr. il. AL Hale has collected some specimens 01.1 i he PPef 
at Schick's Uracil, S. A us| ral ia. Alarch ;-.. [ftJKj, whti-h an- ii lent ical witli Ihe New 

Zealand apaclmBns, and in whicfa the t? # tes arr definitely only ftix tai fcaeh aide, 

Such a close resemblance tfl the N'orl hern /. nan-it inui Ttlllbg, is paralleled in 
An-hisnhniKt bcSSeUt I'ack of the Northern Hemisphere With eigh( ayes, ailtl Ihe 


\ cry close A, h uteri Carp, from the Southern Orkneys and Xow Zealand, which 
differs principally in only having six eyes. The description of the now species is 
as I'd lows. 

Wig. .'I. Isoloimi prilcJianii xji.n.; ;i, ocelli ;iikI |>..'i.o.; h, foot ; <«, mucro ;ni<l ti|) of (lens; tlj ujte 
Of long seine of ;ipic;il ;i Ixloniiiinl segments. 

DescripUont Colour^ greenish-black. Length to 1 *8 huh. Antennae twice a.s 
long as head diagonal ; ratio of segments = 35 : 50 : 55 i 75 ; I y broader jnsi before 
apex than al base, III wit ) i sensory organ as figured. Eyes, six on each side, on 
dark fields, snbeqnal. l\a.o. broadly oval, double -walled, and about one and one- 
1 1 ; 1 1 1' limes as tong as an ocellus. Body slender of typical I&Ot.OMU build, abdomen 
III and IV equal. Legs slender, daws without Loner tooth, bill apparently with «> 
pair of older fine teeth reaching to the middle of outer edge; empodial appendage 
nil h broad Inner and enter lamellae. Korea slender, reaching venl ral tube ; mncro 
small, with three teeth as in /. muriiima; dens apically with two Long setae, one 

480 Records of the S.A. Museum 

over-reaching macro. Clothing of moderately short simple setae, bul on abdominal 
segments are some longer upstanding setae, which towards their apices are very 
finely ciliated. 

Locality: On edge of reef, Selliek's Beach, s. Australia, March 8, 1936 

(H.M.H.). Co-type material from Auckland, N.Z. 

Genua Entomohkya Kondani, 1861. 

Entomohkya yik<;ata v. nkjrella Worn., 19:54. 

Two specimens Prom Ml. Wellington, Tasmania, in September, UK}."), colled ed 
by Mr. -J. W. Evans. 

Genua Pseudosinella Schffr., 1897. 


A single specimen from Mt. Wellington, Tasmania, in September, 1985, col- 
lected by Mr. J. W. Evans. 

Genus Mkkika Borner, 1903, 


Pig. 4 a c. 

Description! Length to 3*0 mm. Colour: head entirely blue-black, rhoracic 
and first three abdominal segmenls yellowish, with slight mottling and dark* lateral 
edges; abdomen IV usually with a few dark markings, sometimes almost entirely 
black, Legs and Eurca light with a little mottling. Antennae about half the body 
Length; ratio of segments — 16 : 25 ■: 18 : 37, IV annulated and with apical knob* 
Byes eight on each side Oil dark fields. Ratio of body segments = head : Hi. II: 
III :abd. I : II ; 111 : IV: V: VI = 32 : 22 : 15:7: 10 : 10 : 57 : 10 : 4 ; mesonol mil not 
overlapping head. Legs long; claws with Ollter basal teeth, a pair of inner basal 
teeth at one-third, and Iwo distal inner teeth. Korea reaching ventral tube, mnero 
bidentate with basal spine. Clothing of dens of dark brown scales, with numerous 
short st rial ions, and rounded apex; hairs on body normal. 

Locality; A number of specimens from Ivorait. Victoria, collected by Mr, 
\l. T. M. IVseoit, on August 12, 1935. 

Wqmersj iv -Further Records or Australian Collemrola 481 

Genus Pericrypta Ritter, 1910. 
PERICRYPTA tasmamai; sp. n. 

Figs. -1 d-e, ') a-c. 

Description: Length to 3*0 mm. Antennae longer thai] the body; ratio pf 
segments =- 45 .- 57 : 55 : 70, IV indistinctly annitlated. Eyes, eight on each side on 
elongate black fields. Ratio of head = th. 11:111 :aM. I : 1 1 : III j I V : V : V 1 — 

Fig. i. Mcsira ftigrovephula Bj).iu; a, entire lateral vit*w; b, Pool | <-, mucro ami lip of •l< , n>. 

I>< rici-;//.il<t ta.siiKiuiar sp.n. ; <1, fc'OAt ; i>, mucin. 

35 : 20: 10: 8 : 10: 8 : 60 : * : t. Legs long and slender, libiotarsns with plica, eiaws 

■■\ it li ;i pair of outer basal teei h, a pair of basal inner teeth a1 one-third, and two 
line distal teeth; empodial a ppendage slender, reaching first distal inner tooth. 
Korea long, reaching pasl ventral tnbe; ratio of manubrium to mocrndens = 
17 : 60; mucro normal, with two blunt teeth. Clothing of normal setae. 

Iii marks: OF this interesting- species there are three \evy distinct colonr forms 
in the collection, two warranting varietal names. The colour descriptions are: 


Generally deep bluish on yellow ground, the blue pigment extending alt over 
except for some Light longitudinal striations. Legs heavily ringed with bine. 
Antennae light, except Eor a bluish ring at base of segments. Korea light. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Var. MAITLATA VMT. 1|0\\ 

Ground colour yellow, head with -<\ fin$ dark line betwem antennae, and 
brown on Lateral e<k< j s ; meso ;nn! ineta-thoraa with brownish pigment laterally; 
meso- and meta-fchorax and abdomen 1 and flwitha pair of broken brownish medial 

Fig. '">. T'riicri/phi taxui'ihut- s|i.n.; :i. fo,,,ni principalis, unt'U'U tlorSttl view; l>, ' 

maculnta now, entity dorsal vii-w; <-. fornw faacMta imv., entire dorsal piewi 

longitudinal streaks, Abdomen IV anteriorly with an irregular transverse wnvy 
line which in centre is brownish and [at**ralty bluish black; posteriorly fcherp are 
i wo longitudinal streaks Formed from iwn dark patches, Hie sides laterally Hlightly 
pigmented. Abdomen If I Kublaforally with broad brownish patches; V with pos- 
terolateral brtrwn patches. Legs Lightly banded ; antennae blue at extreme base of 

v;ir iAsiiata var. imv 

Head entirely blaek except For a median light patch. Mejso thorax only pig- 
mented on lateral margins. Meta*thorax and abdomen I -1 1 1 entirely black. Abdo- 
men IV slightly pigmented laterally, this pigment darkening ni about one-fifth 

Womersley — Further Records of Australian Collembola 483 

from apex, and here extending Inwards bxit nor meeting. Abdomen V with postero- 
lateral dart patches. Legs fairly strongly banded. Antennae without the basal 
segmental bands, but here with a small touch oi bl in* ventrally. 

Locality, About Ave specimens of the typical form and one each of the vari- 
eties from Mt. Wellington, Tasmania, in September, 1935, collected by Mr. -I. W. 

( 1 < HA.K M I K>] ,\ S V MPHYPLE* I \ A . 

I mita SMINTHURIDAE Lubbock, 1876. 

Genus Katiaxna Borner. 
Katiaxna atjstealis Worn., 1932. 
Dimally. Tasmania, September, 1935, Mr. J. \V. Evans. 

< .'cniis I'akakatianna Worn., 1932. 

1\\i;akatian\a Montana sp. n. 
Text Fig. 6a. 

Description: Dtogth* 1*06 nun. Colour. greenish-black, wiib a longitudinal 

stripe of yellow inside of the eyes, and joined posteriorly by a transverse si ripe of 
Same colour; body with a thin median longitudinal stripe and four or five irans- 
verse, bill fc'orwardly inclined stripes all of yellow; anal segments with a pair of 

\ i'IIow dots. Antennae nearly twice as long as head ; ratio of segments -= 15 : 30 : 
45:110; IV with 15 subdivisions. V 1 1 with peg like organ. Eyes eight on each 
side on dark patches. Legs long and thin; claws slender without teeth; empodial 
appendage with narrow inner and outer lamellae, apparently without apical bristle 
on all legs; tibiotarsi with 2-3 clttV&tc hairs. Furca long and normal ; muero one 
third as long as dens, with slightly upturned apes and edges of lamellae smooth. 
Clothing rather sparse, of line simple curved setae* those on antennae norma) for 
ilir genus; hot hriotriehia, three on abdomen on eaeh side, and one Oil genital 

Locality: Three specimens collected by Master M. Trigg on Mi. Buffalo, Vic- 
toria, Au-ust, 1935. 

Remarks; This species is very different from any other of the genus in its 



Records of the S.A. Museum 


Fig, 6 b-d. 

Description- Length to 1-0 nun. Colour, mottiey orange, with the apical an- 
rennal segments dark, and the eye-patehes black; legs and Eurea tight. Antennae 

Fig. 6. ParaJeatianna montcaw ap.n.j ;i. entire doi'sal view. Pcwakatiamw swrata apai. 

I), ant. Ill and IV; .-. I . , , > I ; <1, mucni and lip of dens. 

twice as Lang as bead; ratio of segments = 13 : 20: 35: 70; IV with 8-10 subdivi- 
sions, last, somewhat tapering; III with peg-like organ. Eyes eighl on each side. 
Legs normal. Claws with fine inner tooth ; eiapodial appendage with angular inner 

lamella and narrow outer lamella ending in a long fine-pointed bristle Peaching 
1 1 1 > of Haw ; two to three elavate fcibiotarsal hairs. Furea, mucro : dens = 13 : 45 ; 
mucro with seven Strong teeth as figured, I he second and third from apex fused. 
Clothing of tine simple curved setae rather more numerous than in preceding 
species; hot hriotriehia three on abdomen, one on genital segments. 

Locality: Three specimens from Ml . Buffalo, Victoria, collected by Master 
M. Trigg in August, L935, 

Remarks: Differs from all other species of the genus in the peculiar teeth to the 
macro, and in its colour. 


Parakatianna OBSCURA S|>. U. 
Fig. 7 a-e. 

l)<scni'li'-rit: Length tO 1*25 nun. Colour, ground dirty yellow ish-grey, with 
(i. Longitudinal yelhw\ patch medially between the eyes; two yellow spots before 

ajjex of dorsum, and one or iwo on ana] segments cLorsally; otherwise with bla<& 
markingu aw indicated in text figures) some specimens have a lighter patch before 

apex of dorsum; anlcimao yellowish-grey, darker on apical segments; legs, I'nrca 

iMg. 7. For-; m njui. ; a, dorsal view Of dark 1'onn ; l>, dorsal view oi' light Eonn 

e, lateral i lew 1 ] (L clawafid tip Of t ihini ,j i-sus ; e, muero from aide. 

and venter lighter. Antennae twiee as Long as head diagonal ; ratio of segments = 
3j9:11:28; Ml without peg-like Organ, IV With aboni 1(> subdivisions. Claws 
Strong, with a basal inner tooth and two distal teeth, older sheath absent ; pjnpodial 

appendage long and pointed with narrow inner and oniei- tamellae, peaching middle 

inner tooth of ci&W; inner lamella with short basal spine at angle, apus with short 
subapical hristle, alike on nil Tret ; I ihmt.irsns wilh l-o fong clavale lenent setae, 

Kiutm long, ratio dens ; xowro =*=* 100 : 20, tmiero with broad outer Lamella and 

narrow inner lamella, apex blunt ; teeth only slightly indicated by faint crenuhi- 
tinns. Clothing of sparse bid Strong setae, especially on bead and anal segments. 
although not stronger Ihan in mosl species ot Pumktlt HI una. Xeiwu-y setae three 
on body on eaeh side, and one Oil anal segmenls. 

Locaf'hi: A large number of specimens from Keelon. X.S.W.. eolleeted bj 
Air. K. ('. AlcKeown. .June 22, 1927. 

timiurhs: 'Phis is a second abnormal speeds of the genua agreeing wilh I'ura- 
Iculicmnu anonutla Worn, in the abaenue of the peg-lib^ organ on antennae 111. 

From this species it differs in the dentition of Ihe claws, elntluntr, and rorrn of the 
inie-tn. as well as in eolo.ural ion. 


By Norman B. Tindale, B.Sc, Ethnologist, and 
C. P. Mountford, Hon. Assistant in Ethnology 


During March, 1934, the opportunity occurred for a small party including Messrs. F. J. 
Hall (Hon. Assistant in Ethnology) and H. T. Condon (Assistant in Zoology) to excavate 
at Kongarati Cave, Hundred of Yankalilla. On March 20, 1934, stores were taken to the 
site by motor launch from Second Valley. Work continued at the cave until April 10. 
Several members of the Anthropological Society of South Australia, including Dr. T. D. 
Campbell and Rev. N. H. Louwyck, visited the site during the Easter vacation, and 
assisted in the work of excavation. 


By NORMAN B. TINDALE, B.Sc, Ethnologist, and 
C. P. MOUNTFORD, Hon. Assistant in Ethnology. 

Fig. 1-6. 

During March, 1934, the opportunity occurred for a small party including Messrs. 
P. J. Hall (Hon. Assistant in Ethnology) and IT. T. Condon (Assistant in Zoology) 
to excavate at Kongarati Cave, Hundred of Yankalilla. On March 20, 1934, stores 
were taken to the site by motor launch from Second Valley. Work continued at 
the cave until April 10. Several members of the Anthropological Society of South 
Australia, including Dr. T. D. Campbell and Rev. N. II. Louwyck, visited the site 
during the Easter vacation, and assisted in the work of excavation. 

Kongarati Cave is situated on the seaward margin of Section 1589, 3-7 kilo- 
metres north of the mouth of Congeratinga Creek (Native name [ 'Korjarati'nank ] ) . 
The cave has been eroded in the north-facing wall of the cliff, at a height of some 1 
eight metres above sea-level. By aneroid barometer reading the cliff immediately 
above the cave is 420 feet in height. 

Kongarati cave has been known and visited since the earliest days of the white 
sell lenient in South Australia. A superficial layer of sheep dung over much of the 
surface 1 indicated that at some time it had been used as a sheep fold. 


A poinl at the inner extremity of the cave was selected and arbitrarily deter- 
mined as 10 metres above a base line situated somewhere below low water outermost 
spring tides. 

Tide data are available for Port Willuiiga, Port Noarlunga, and Cape Wil- 
longhby. A temporary tide gauge was established near the mouth of the cave, and 
by means of Tide Tables( 1 ) the level of L.W.O.S.T. proved to be (average of six 
readings) at 2-f) ± *5 metres on an arbitrary scale. 

In order to read an approximation to true sea-level it is thus necessary to sub- 
l tact 2-5 metres from all contour heights shown in the diagrams of the cave in this 

(i) South Australia: Harbours Board, Tide Tables, 1934. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

The cave whs mapped and a contoured plan prepared (fig. 1 ). Upon it have 
been indicated a trial trench, the main excavation, in which detailed stratigraphieal 
observations were made; later subsidiary trenches dug directly down to a sterile 
pebble beach layer revealed by the main excavation. Minor holes and trenches 
made by previous visitors to the cave are shown within dotted lines on the plan. 


5i/aj/0/Af>Y T»£ttCH£J. fo' :: , ?-ft 

Fig. 1. Contour plan of Kongarati Cave. 

Fig. 2 shows a section of the cave. It indicates that the basal bed is a shingle 
beach about 0*5 metre in thickness resting on the slate rock of the cave. This 
shingle bed is composed largely of slate and other pebbles, which are of the average 
size of 6 X 3 X 1*5 cm., and extends upwards and towards the back of the cave to 
our 8-2 metres, where its surface is almost horizontal. 

The shingle beach indicates a definite phase of the history of the cave. Its 
origin (bites back either to the time when the cave was first eroded by the sea or, 
alternatively, to a subsequent period when the sea reached a sufficint level to have 
removed all traces of earlier debris. No evidence of human occupation was obtained 
in the shingle bed, but occupational horizons appeared immediately above it, and 
continued to within about 5 cm. of the surface. A layer of post-European debris 
(averaging about 5 cm. in thickness, and including sheep manure) and flakes of 
slate which had weathered from the roof, lay immediately on top. A trial trench 
(fig. 1) 1 metre wide and 3 metres long was dug transversely across the cave be- 


tween \\\<> 9<o and Rv2 metre cantdnrs, The debris waa removed frtmi Ibis in 
LI riu. layers. 

o 15 cm. yielded much charcoal, fragments of slate which had scaled from the 
L'oof, shell fragments (including Ncriki melanoimgia$^ Muctra rwfeseem and Sew- 
hii'imtt pl(w*l) crab's elaws, a few fragmentary fish hones, a small pieee of chewed 
fibre, and a lire heart h; also fragments of Sjjiitif<;r irurmis, and ehewed masses of 

fibre, probably from the same material. 


Y\%. _. Flection of £ong#rati Chvu. 

lo-MO cm. Further quantities of ash, a hearth and a hand of seaweed were 
noted, Species of shell present were Bembwium me1<mo$tom(tf Moetru rufe$& 

and Ctmus miannnf ; plant, Spiiiifr.r imrnris, L< i)i<lns)>arwa f/Judiat n in , C((Q$tia- 
nihf (sp.) ; strintr fragment probably made from Diane/In revofutw; animal re* 
mains. Reltongiti, Isorn/in. MiiritL 

30-45 rm. At the eastern end of the trial trench ami immediately under the 
sciwred layer, ilal slabs of slate-stone. roughly rectangular in shape and about 30 
em. in diameter, were encountered. The lifting of two of the slabs exposed a layer 

of marine sponges, evidently plac-d /// <tln by nalives. under which was a pad of 
grass. Several tuftx in ii were lied into knots. Beneath ihis irr;is< pad, at a depth 
of \'> em., was a kanuaron-skin eloak. The removal of this revealed the dessieated 
body of an elderly female aborigine, lyinp in a flexed position with its right side 
directed Inward the north (fig. 3). 

The body lav on a somewhat crumpled kangaroo skin, with strips of partly- 
decayed fishing nels draped around the shoulders and back. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

A mass of granular material approximately TOO gm, in wetgfol was found at 
the foot of the individual. If tin- material had been buried in a contaifctei", all siuus 

of I lie l.-il In- had disappeared. 

The tamb cavil v., which had Keen excavated to bod rock through the white ash 
' r .-i large hearth, vfcas in i he form of ;» rec.ian«rie. i he walls and floor being composed 

of slabs of slate about the same size and shape as those already removed From the 
fcdp of I in- trrave. The stones used in the const niel ion were similar to many Lying "ii 
ihe terrace at the month of the cave. 


::. SitH mi showing method m* burial hi Kongarafj CVivfc. 

Tin- stratification of the debris indicated that the grave had been excavated 
w hen Ihe cave floor was some 20 CtfL, lower f han al present, i.e. below the hearth al 
15 cm. and above the seaweed layer ;if 30 cm. 

r Phe undisturbed hearth materia! in Ihe Irial trench, between .'!() cifl. <tnd rock 
bottom, was L'emOY'ed and round to contain chewed fibre, a few shells ;md ;« frau 1 - 

meut of itetthigr. The floor of t\\v Gave was a i racist horizontal shell.-, m this layer 

were Coinis niummu, \ r <riht mnht tint nit/us. /hilialns v<Krnsit, and ft(r;nc<LVri 
h't/is (which borrs into lim.-ston.' i ; hones of Afrfor, p/uthts el'. flavifcf'W* 'Hid a 
com 1 tif Cnsutlrina strx'hi also occurred. 

Nothing further of importance bavill# been discovered iii the t rial trench, an 
I'.vc.-ivalioii was commeimed ;it riirhl aiurles to tiiG first: hereafter this is called flip 
•'main excavation". The principal details discovered by means of this 1 rench are 
summarized in the general section (fig. 2 I . The part between !)•()() ami S-00 form 
lijies. whore most of ihe ini .'rest i rig specimens were nncarl lied, is show n in greater 
detail in fter, I. 

TlNHALR AND MorNTKORD-Ext AVAlluN 01 l\"Xi,\RATI CAVfc 491 

The lowed strniiim of occupation (G) (MMisi-is of u well preserved layer of 

•jTriss. whieh in the section shows as a lenlienlo 10-15 < - 1 1 1 . in thiekness, renting irpnn 
.! ir'n-s of old flal slates I B) ? whir]) a p pent to i, (( \ .> been washed into their prefcenl 
situation aboul kite end of the period when the main shingle heatsh ( A I was heinu 





l^lg. I. Si'i't ion Of | in i t inn of flnnv 'if' l\...i _■;. I' |1 i r.-ivi 

The shell fauna of I his shingle bench is represented by specimens of Lhe follow- 
ing species: linnhwiwm mrltrtiOstomti, Cassis hicttrinitUt, Miwtrn rufrsr, ns 3 TuHm 

sluun'/nns. T. uiu/ufdl", \'< f >tlt<iis t (,cfilios<t, Contts iMMMWIM, \<rit,! ntrhhtolntt/tts. 
Aiislntcftrlih if tulrla itlttr , COMmeltO Hnfioldtti, IJaMotis scuhiris, Troph&ri flhuhrsi, 

(UijyuJiis eonivm, Mitra fflabra, Tum'tdln irfdalsd. 

rilurrniii|M>s,N| S|H»li«i'OS hl> heloW SOUK' of tlm slmie sl.'ih-; |i . M ;i UN of the 
pollhlos ill lhe >llillL'lo I A I \\e1Veollieiit''d tOgOtheV Witll 'Trials of salt . Tile dehriS 

of the grass layer (C) w as mIso 1 liickly impregnated wiili crystals ami granules of 
sail. It may be remarked thai sail crystals occurred in all Fmbtfequent layers, and 
are herea 1*t <o- noi particuharisscd. Many of them ha<! Formed on the roof of the 
eaves as small stalacl ites, ami had afterwards fallen down on to i he fUjor of I lie cave. 
'I no utmss layer (0) yielded a sharpened slick, portion of £ speaks ,-iml ,i boue 

awl or point. ThC sheik found in 1 his layer worn Turhn undulatus. JfoHoWs »'" - 

voMi Mac^Td rn[i tid us, Vuvbo Bltt/miMus* Bvmbicmm mehifiostama, Niothoin i< <- 

hliosu, J'iifrllit luuhatu. Conns a itruiour. 

Section of 1 lie next layer ( D.) also appears as a lontimile of hearth material 

awl asliv debris. I Is uieah-^l Ihiekness, 1 S em., oeenrred jnsl helow t he !) • 01) form 

492 Records of i ni s.a. Mtsm v 

1 1 r i - * . and thinned ttywartfe the seaward end of the trench. The prijj^ipdl shells 
present in ii were Mactra mfcuwiUt, Turhq sfcwUrttHt^ V-critu m^lmtnfratfns, and 
/!<tii(.'irii<iit tin Uvnostama. Ii underlaid n still larger hearth (E), Emm which it 
waa separated by a thin bill constant layer of fnttas. The hearth ( K: continued 
Upwards lo Hie surface of the 8-25 contour, Its seaward face had been eroded 
g,way by wave action, such a# may have been responsible for transporting some of 
the Upper layers of lieaeli shingle and seaweed Mo the cave, as revealed in the 
Irench a1 the 8*00 contour, The shell fauna of these upper layers of beach shingle 
includes the following species: <'<>r>iif<i mi ssit'ti-Jaht , NeakhQW Hxttiiom* '/'■■ 

uuduhilu, T. slumiurus, M < sm!< sum (truccisti, Coitus a urnmu, . JZtfi{ ifhhim as iiifrmis. 
l/uh'oh's scdluris. II . imri'osii. II. ul hica us, Mucfru ru[<s<< us, 1/ miodnnhi ac/rh/iilar. 
Troplw ii flmderst, hyrfti mitrtHsfonnis, BvmMtmtm larhnmsfmint, nnd X< riiu 
mi hum! riniKs. 

The area eu1 away from the hearth by the sea whs subsequently filled with 
grass I F) : the nether stick of a Ave drill was found here. The shells in ihis layer 

Were Maetra rufrsct as, B&mhieium an hluosloum, ('onus um umin , \lnn,/mit<> 
litirfm. Turbo shiiufm us, Merit ft uirlaimi nif/as, liaJ'mlis scufaris. II, u! him us, Bllll 
ulus arnicas. There was nnieh se.iwecd tying on tl>p 0:1! Hie hindw;ird side of 1 he 

he;irtli Mi'e.i. In the higher parts of the enve thin seaweed layer rented afoove mu) 
i.rir.w other smaller hearths. Fx>t convenience of excavation the dehrifc Enorn the 
nuiin excavation wij-k removed in three layern (1-3, respectively 0-15 em., 1Q-3Q cm., 
ruid 30-4.1 em. below the fuirfaOe). The preserved specimens are labelled therefore 

in i lie form lk Layer x. between y ;unl / metres", metre being Hie seaward wall of 

trial Ireneh. 

M;i)iiin;il remains round in I lie main e^eavatiOti were: Trichusurus el*, rnl- 
jufitlu, H<!l<)it<i'm sp.. Isnntlnu. Mm-nipus rf. <ii<iaulus, A rriuc •■■filial us !cf. dori- 
frrusr Tnii'ln/saurus, Post/ urns ffi-f, ri rrrri u us ) . Isomhiu sp. (cjf, nh< su( u <) . 
i Three Mnrid>; probably RattUS ffPt '/> and /■'. hit r > fla were collected licre in ]J)81,) 

The u>w feather and bone frairmenis of birds were loo fragmentary for iden- 

t ideation. 

Miss 0. M. Bardley has kindly commented on the plant debritf dug from the 

Moor nf I he cive. She writes : 

"The remains consisted ma i 1 1 1 \ of the succulent Ptgface, Ctlt'ftO'bvokiii (teijld 

hihrafi \ M <■ s< mhriuut h < >u u in twqwhU < ml '< ) . <»ficn merely shrivelled; c-oucs and 

WOOdy $hoo1 Of '< Cusuurliiu ; cinedike creeping sjeins el" Sfiiuif, .r nn rials I SI. Jiir 

suius), iniiciher with leaves and HbroiiM rfiaterial remaining frnm ihem; parts of 
stemH or Leavosof the Sword Ru«h [Lepitfmperma ylatliahwi) ; Diwncllv revolnUt, 
and -a small piece of cord obviously matle from fl s (ihrons leaves : part (ri n Hew ering 
Stalk of Xauthorrlmra sp. (Blaekboy) ; odd lenves of Scacvolo rrassifnfta. Acarai 


<]). and Ujjopornm sp. ; pods of an Acacia »p. without seeds. Besides this there were 
fragments of roots and woody stems, and a grass with creeping stems, and part of 
fi grass inflorescence, prf»l>aM\ of Piw sp. All these arc common sandhill plants." 


The rwks of flic cliff are slates and metamorptric rocks of Pre-Cflmbrian ape. 
They have been described by several gologicfll writers l '.'■ 

Mel ween foilT aild seven metres fthove present low tide marl; occiir-> evidence 
of H UOtch or terrace in I he cliffs, together with cemenled shingle forming a basal 
eon glomerate. In places this shingle is wedged into crevices on the old piarinc 

The principal exposure of the terrace is at a place half a kilometre north of 
the Cave on the boundary of Section 21 7 and 1596, where (he cliffs stand back some 
fifty metres Erom the beach. Rounded I each shingle is a1 present ai a bright of 
six metres, and is overlaid by scree boulders and debris from the cliffs. 

The second place where the terrace may be noted is at Pool Pla1 ( Section 1588 

Here I lie cement e. I L;ise of I he conglomerate is pro.-ni al three metres above low 
water level, and the deposit tills the noleh in Ihe cliff, which stands baok i'rom 1 he 

coastline. The conglomerate continues upwards to a m&ximiufi of ahoul seven 
metres above aea level, wjiere it gives place to cemented calcareous beach sand over- 
laid by boulders and clay fi*om the adjoining old cliff dope. 

The subfosail species of this recenl marine 1 errace include the following shells, 

;i II of which are living species ! 

Section lfigfl (Hundred of STankalilla). Section 1588. 

Phaamnelta variftjaia A$tre,a mirea 

. I ustrovochlea sp< .1 ugt-row>nMca *p. 

itharidus e#inmw CfflMharidus cuwicw 

\fitm "I'shvfis Balimior fr&gUis 

/'i/mir (icinniihihi OalHostoma nibiginoMffln 

The general physiographic evidence is thai RTongarati Cave was excavated 
(primarily by marine erosion) at the level of the raised beach described ah 
Piirther slighl enlargement baa proceeded partly l»y the weathering from the roof 
of flakes of date, This weathering lias been assisted by the formation of sail crys- 
tals on the roof. The occupational debris in the cave has collected Mince the final 
retreal of the sea ; ii rests directly on the marine shingle and, even in the lowest 
layers, is formed of iindecnmposed material*. 

(-) Matligun, 0. T.. Tnois. Roy. Bo6. S. Auni., 4!>, 1925, pj>. 198 212. 

Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fire-making AppamtUft. Eighteen aplil pieces of V;mt;i flower stem {Xvn- 

thiifrhthit sp. i were fouiKl. Their dimensions v;il'ied from (I lo 18 cm. in left gift 

iiinl 14 io 'J.") cm. in width, ; 1 1 u 1 all bear the holers made by drilling with a round tfl icls 

l-'i^r. ,1. [ r 1 1 p I .: - 1 m i - 1 1 r s Itoiii KnngS i :i I i OftTfl! a— b, portions oi SfeoOfl sleins U80fl ill ffrO-fllflfe i ng : 

ir, |»unp point; (1 g, woodwi points; !i, portion of minrleii s|.r,-ir. 

it) i he process of making Are, Tin- majority bfcd been itsed more than once, while 
one example (flg« 5b) shows nine such holes. In eighl of Hie ratHnplen the aofi 
central pith of the STdeefl flower stem had been removed, and the edges of ihe si irk 
worn as though eft cried abotil for some time. Several of fchetn had been used 

mi r»;ich end (fig. 5a), while in iwo of them oj nd tends to taper to a bluntly 

Tindai i \\n Men NTFORD Excavation OF KoNGARAii CAVE 495 

ronndcH npox. The other eight have the central pith intact and sharp edges, «ug- 
gesting ilini they were made by Splitting the ¥acea stem jusi before mating fire. 
The diameter of the drilled holes varies Erom 8 to 12 mm., -with an average? of 10 mm. 

A concise description of Bre-making isgivfri by Meyer i :; ) under the heading 
ngktiyi ! ulartji I apparatus Eor obtaining fire, consisting of two pieces oil the flower 
stalk of the grass tree. A semi-cylindrical piece is placed with Hi'' ftal side npper- 
''|m.i. and the end of another piece of fehe same pressed upon ii and made to turn 
rapidly backwards and forwards by nibbing between the palms of the hand*. The 
friction produces fire in the course of a Eew minuter Thru* differs from u personal 
observation of one of ua (N.B.T,) in one particular. Milenini. s rmtive of the 
Tanganekald (or Tangane tribe) of the Coorong, in South Australia, in demon- 
strating, utteri a piece of hard wood for the twirling stick. 

Nine specimen* identified as probably twirling sticks Wei*e obtahied in the 
cave. Ail are of moderately hard wood, tin* Longest being $tt em. and Uie aborted 
20evi.;a£id both of these have been burnt a1 each extremity. TkeU 1 diameters vary 
from (i 14 nun. 

Art( fads. Twelve quartz shippings with cutting edges were obtained from 
the excavation; only one of these showed signs of secondary work. Tut. rather 
poor hammer atone* werealso picked out, one of quart?, and the other of glate. The 
former had been broken, while the latter showed sign* f abrasion on t»ne of (he ttal 

sin- faces. 

\f /////(/. A Carge number of string and tie! fragments were recovered from 
allpartsDf the occupational layers, Stany of the pieces pf net were badly decayed, 

hnl eight \ver<> sufficiently well preserve,! h. he measured. The dimensions were 
as follows : 

si/r of Frjigmwitj 
BO x 15 '-in. 

il: x ;{o<-m. 

24 X I'Ocin. 

;n X in <-m. 

" a i L-h-h^i i ectanglea uaeli a 
_4 nn. Long wiili ;•; knots, 

tf) ,< 1." (ii'<| ;i! niir end. 

Tangled rin.l |m«i fragHi! to mirnvel. 

Sl rips vvi-;i])|mm! u])OH\ \u U \\ |»f nniiijiii 

\50 OIL 1(M)^. 

Measured along one siilc of Hie scjuhw 

Meyer ( 4 ) describes a Earing-ceous WK>1 called IFfmt/wj which utows at En- 
counter Ray, the nutrition*! pari of which is eaten, ;nul the tougher pari used in 

S)7.r {if 

1 h'liiK'hnr 


ttl 1 





(() 1IMII, 

L5 nun. 
15 mm. 









1 !> mm. 

tU mm. 

• in nun. 

20 nra. 





« • 


Il'l' mm. 




:_o in in. 

2 • .", 



• • 

Wnyor, II. A. I-:. Vocabulary of langnagi sqmki n Ij.v He alnmgines of Khe &cmtlii«ni nn(\ 

Kn.-tmn |,<.iiinn> of Ilic si-Uli'i) ilistrids of S.miHi AuAt.ralitt. . . . A.l<l:ii<!.% 1843 

( I i m Kyer, tt, V. 13, Tliq mitive (xibi 1 ** yJ! Suictli A ub1 raUu* IH70. p. 

496 Kk( ords OF i iih S A. \h'M cm 

making si ring nets. The same writer Purifier states.: "li (the s1 ring ) is composed 
by roasl tog the Leaves and afterwards chewing t hem ; the leaf 1 ben divided longitu- 
dinally into tour, I wo of these are iw [sted together by being rolled upon the I high, 
and are then twisted together by being rolled in the contrary way; other Lengths 
are added uirl ii a« rrnteh line i« made -is is required* 

'In the operation of netting, the twine is wound n round a short stick which 
answers the fUD'pcuse of a needle, and the tneshes ar-e formed, and tbeknol tied bj 
passing 1 he si ring Over and beneath the lingers. ,- 

The method, of knotting is the same an thai used by European!*, and L&- figured 
by Davidson ("' otf bin map oil distribution of knotted netting in Australia. In 
the more detailed drawing given in fig. 1 () the knol ia difterenl l.\ drat* n. dud is not 
;i type presen! in any of the tiel frugtnenta Eound« 

Aliens ; (i i deplete natives plaiting string al Encounter Hay some rniititi south 
ui Kougarati Cave. On aeeottnl of Lite large number of nel Fj-agnients and string 

i d, it is reasonable to suppoae thai I he eave would b* a camping place \'<>\- nal ive 

lishin<j; |-ari irs. AllgaH, pi. wi.showsa group of natives fishing wit h nelsal Second 
Valley, some I wo uiiiea south of 1 he ear> e. Associated with thi> place is mi excellent 
description of the method employed in Batching the lish. Lie writes : "Thej use a 
s<-imc ,-jln.iii twenty i 4 1 thirty feel iu Length, stretched on sticks placed erosswi»e a1 
intervals. A couple of men will drag the neta among the rockaaud shallows where 
the lish are most abundant, and gradually getting closer as they reach the shore, 

the lish are secured in the folds of the met," 

/'*''" TfJH(/s. Among Mm objects taken I!r0ni the grass bands i Layer 2) \\;i> a 

pair of gtiefos each approximately 58 cm. in Length and 1 cm. in diameter. Tlie^e 

are bum! at i In- ends, AI iha-nm. ai) old native pet'erred to elsewhere in this paper, 
recognnsied them as the wuniupi] of the Tanganekald native*?* i.e. paired sticks 
l"or piekuig iish, etc nrt' the fire. They were hold in the Fashion of uhop^ticks*. 
Win-simp ( 7 ) has the following reference to such sticks t" In removing I he enl r.-i i Is 

or any small food cooked in the embers, I hey would use two small Sticks 10 in. or 
12 in. long, and about as thick as one's finger ... as w v shdlltd use a pair of tongs. ' 

lie does not, boweVer, mention I he locality where stieh sticks were used. 

A Ijone-poinl ( lie;. Jc >. which was !) <-m. Long and R mm. wide at the base, was 
Iniind in La \ er -*!, U-- metres. \Vya11 (&), in his vorabn lary , i/ives I hr word ivmiini. 

a hone tor stabbing: while Teichehntfnii and Schurniaim f ,J ) used the word 

("•) PavidBon, D. B., Journ. Polyru s. 8oc, i.\\ L&J3, p. 2if»8, Jig. I (Jmi ojul i>. l'Tc, fig, LO). 

(<?) ADgHli, <-. I\. Soutll Anst I'.-ili;, ! Ilusr r:iO'-l. [datti llV, 1^47. 

i 1 1 '\ N '' o- o. 1 1 .. IVchistorie arts . . of the- aborigines of 4u»tL*alia v Adolaidi*, 1897, p. 88. 
. I Wynif, M: ■• rmd RuiHM'vUIJlonf ui! /\dolaiclo twi(l Bincuuntcu 1 liai A-hoHfitunl ThIm'-, 

" i '!'. i. iiHiu.'ihii ;uh| Sriiiicii.;iiMi. V'oeaD, Uiwiiginttl Inuguagea -r s...\., 1840, p. 

| mnnrt iriljt>\. a pointed bone for sewiim. \wuur\v\ a kuQg&l'Oa I "''0" I the filial 

i,Mi,r .,r the him! leg of a kangaroo used as an awl or dagger. 

The poittl of the bone was smoothly polished, ami find probably been used an 

;iii aw I. 

A pointed piece Of urortd 105 mm. Long and Itt mm. diameter I fig. 3(.l I was taken 
i nun Layer 2* 0-6 metres. It had Iktu roughly .split from a circular rod, -and raighl 
h,i\ e I miii a crude form Of fig. 5e. Several! other wooden poinis were found. Tlial 

shown at fig, 5e w^ .">(> mm. in Lenglh and S mm. diameter ; another ( li«r. 3f) Was 

ISU mm, longand In mm. diameter, ami \\ third (ftg. 5g) was a limeli beul painl 

158 mm. I1111- ;ind 8 mm. diameter. The samples illustrated in ftgH. 5f and g were 

art I localised, but fig. •'><• came from Layer -. 'I'ho three latter fcptjcimtfrtf! hear « 

strong resemblance id the points Of light thrdWUlg spears. 

Km'. 51] shows a spear ,junciion 27 cm. Long, the largtfr portion biiiiig _! cm. 
,hmI I],.- shorter 8 em. ill Length. Tlie greater and lesser diameters were !> and t;j 

mum. respectively, A fragment of wood 2Q em, long, ami resembling a portion of 

Mm- handle of a 1 hrowin<r st ick, was also found. 

Chewed Missis of Fibre. A number of of fibrous material, obviously 

ehewed hy the natives, w err found in almost all parts uf Ihe oeeiipafmuai layers, 
Knngarw S&W2 (Vfltffr. The skin covering the burial was of parlicular i n teres! . 
The skin had heel) C1l1 to an irrregular shape, and j&dgd pierced with holes about 
I loo mm. in diameter. The skill had been repaired hi several places with COrd, 
similar to thai used in the nets; I lie other portions of >kin MUriWunding the body 

were much crumpled and decayed, bu1 1 bene also showed signs of holea a1 I he edge*;. 
The various Eragnienta were no1 joined together even when first examined, although 

pieces ol" Hiring in several of Ihe pierced holes surest ed thai the whole formed a 
skill C-loak, such as wa.S used b\ Ihe natives in inch-meM weather. 


The body as shewn in fig. \\ was Lying in a flexed position. It had evidently 

heen smoke-dried by a similar method |o thai described by several early writers, 
notably Taplin ( ,M 

After removal of <i crumpled bundle of skin tfrOlH between the knees and m 
front of the face, ii was apparent that the body was moderately well preserved. 
The face was dislort cd in dryine'. 

The greater pari of the skin has been preserved in a shrunken condition. The 
dried, flattened breasts could be plain!; s«rn : the va-innl oriiice is visible, bill not 
not ensilv owing to the posit, imi of tin- I li'iirhs. The hands and feel were in place 

10) l':i|.liu, (;.. \:ii ; v«. |rii,,-s Mi' SmuII, A list r:i I i:i 


Records at hie s.a. Museum 

when Found, hut, being partly decomposed a1 the- wrists aiul ;mkles. becfltttti df^ 

iuehod when the body was dial ur'hod. 

The skin is of ;m I nil brow n colour. I mi ili,> t rue bofljg is musked to some l»;tteii1 
b\ the all-pin* vAflmg traces of Kali 

• ic*>i tc?c"l fiwiji . KVuigai 01 ; I 

The iinsi' showed hair within the r-ttiiw, arid Hi ore \wi.-.;i stiuill umumii .0' . I .< .. t 1 
I i 1 1 < • Imir Upon 1 h<- upper lip Tile ey.-limws wore distim-1. moder.ii e in (lltaililtv- 

and a duller bro\s ja than the Jmir. 

Llaif is present on 1 In- |p±'j parietal, riulit posterior temporu! uud occipital 

:-eu , ion> of ili, bead. Some of the Im-sI preserved | >n r i< •! ri I portion--, ure y pfjri. n> 

7 I'm. lojiLT. A I I lie oeeipul il is 2 em, Uolnn. [ODg, aitfl • m the pov|«.i'ior 1 enipor.-d 

•■■in it is ubont the same length. Oil the Ief1 oyebrow are well preserved hmrs. 

The skill of 1 he back, especially along the midline cret*j of 1 he \ ertebivj] tsoluitin 

und 1 he eresis o!" t he ilium. ure slightly hut dotiuitely elnirre. I. ;nid u <*crtHl|1 HHXOtlUl 

ol' l'utl\ m;M ler Irns r.rme mm ! In- v.|;iu aild on I he si irl'iiee. mostly on the ri^rliT side. 
rillfi fully mutter ;ilsu &ppeara in UlC n-iiion .-mumd J In- uniis. making the 


softer and inoiater than in other parts, so that decomposition Ims taken plaee. On 
the right or lower siik, as the body was lyings the skin had decompose and Mien 
iiwjiy iroiu the rite. This would suggesl thai the position of drying whs one in 
which the body vpaa 1\ inu on the right side in the fti^xeii position a« found, but 
w h ii Hi.' head higher than the pelvis. 

The tshcHl appears somewhat distorted. The sternum anil earl ihminnns pai'tfe 

ui ihe riliH ;nv depressed backwards, especially on the inghl aide, kg thai the ril)« al 

the junction of (lie bony p;irl point forward. Tliis indicates a crushing together 
of the lateral walls of the thorax. 

l'liliMiniMii I Reuben Walker I, one of the oldest Of the half-caste native of the 
Murray Mouth, who died in 1JKJ5, told writers thai members of the Liamindjerj 
tribe poimcetl on a d\ in u -person, I'oreiim .mil the last breath. They 1 1 1< ■ 1 1 folded t he 
limbs. irn>srd ilir body in a Bfefcgcl position, and after keeping l1 Ear fibme time 
"smoked h u> bi w kIom (ire. 

hi the present instaUCf il m'ohs likely lhal I Ik 1 forcing mil of the last * ► r < • : i i I 

was [responsible for Ihe itisiprttcta of the thorax. 

There are no fractures of Hmb-bontiK, or dislocations of joints. A scries of 

X ray lilms was taken. One of the sk ull shows fl possible injury in 1 hi' frontal bone. 
Through an Opening in the hack, the internal organs eonld be seen, moderately 
well preset' vod, 

Dr. T, U. Campbell has reported lhal the r;u I io^rn ]>hs "aiv no! siil'iieienl U 

definite to give any \er\ clear idea of the dentition. M would appear that almost, 
if not all, the full complement of teeth is there. Tim amount of wear dlseernahle 
indicates thai attrition was fairly marked. Several teeth seem to have a cunsider- 

ahle portion of their crowns worn away, almost down to gum level, it is difftenll 
lo say whether any of the teeth were affected by caries; rtiOMl of those seeu elearty 
in the pictures seem to have the remaining portion of tm- crown quite intact." 

( areftd measurements of the various parts of I he body gave i\ height of 1.55 CIU, 

(o i'eei 1 inehi. The average height of Central Australian women over 30 years 
mi age is 155*5 cm* The teeth and bones as revealed by the radiographs indicate 
that the age is 50 years on older* 

The association of fishing nets With burials wan noticed at Princess ('harloMe 
Bay, m North Queensland, by Halo ami Tindaig ( Z 11 }. In this locality, old fishing 
nets are wors by men during mourning ceremonies. 

The dedicated remains of an aboriginal child Eoiiod oil the banks of the 
Murray ( l2 ) was packed in wallaby skin and <rrass. the whole being contained in a 
m-t bag, which had a mesh similar to thai found in Kongarati Cavi 

(ii) Qajo, II, M. rnnl I'mUulp, \. P., Record* of 8, Ans. Museum Y, |t>33, p. 95 ;iii. I Kg. 7::. 

I Ui) SI,,/;. r.:l. M. P.,'Mnl, 0. I'., ll;.H % <-tl, C. .)., Trim*. (Joy. Soc,, Aug, I I, lOi^T, ' 
p. L73j pi, xii. 

500 Records of the S.A. Ml 

The story Qf Tjbrbuki. which is published in a somewhat anglicised form b;) 
Kainsay Smith ( 1:: ). was obtained hy one of us i NJi.T. > I'mm Karloan. an did 

native of the Jariidikald (of Li$ke A K-x.-i n< I ri n.i i, hi- quoted here because of its 
reference t<> the use erf cavea as burial grounds, aiul its senium vvithin the district 
under discussion. 



Tjjivhuki WAb borii (started) at |\Va.'tbrai]i!ijgul| i ultsg known as [Watara- 

!)*|laf)|, Which is in 'ar Mounl 1 (ayfield, and abOUl five miles soul h w e*1 'if Hi.' Uald 

JlilK, on Sections IW0416, Hundred of Yattkalillai In the winter tijne lie lived 
in the-serub land ai |Watin?atjeijgul] (.literally Hiis means the "Two Jlills*\ and 

is ctei'lYftl from Ihe stOl'J of f.WG men. Lepuldawi arid Waliriorn, whose ramp il 
was), and in llir summer In- \vn( dowu tO Kapid Hay near | 'Wila'wateij | ( Rapid 
J load;, where his "track" : i.e. his hunting territory) extended in ihccnasi. 

One day he heard a rumour lhat his sister's snn | nanjuri I . I'&cipro&d I wau:u , 
known as | Kulidluw i |. had been killed at | Wan pari | i the Stttrl Orefck a I Marion i. 

| T.i'nrbuki | thereupon travelled t<» War:pari| to discover the truth, lie found 
thai iii>. |iia:i»ari| had been struck down, and thai the <\i'<:<\ had ben donejiuil as 
the boy was raking the head of an emu from a Sre (the si cam gaming frotti its bill 

liujieated Unit 11 was conked :. The youth had broken a prohibition whirli forbade 
Liuj to kill emus. The body of the boy had been taken to a place near UrightOfl to 

be "smoked ,? and driei I 

When [TjiirbuMJ arrived he look Hie body back m a BpriUg on ihe be&Cll a1 
Marino (the spring 01] 1 he Kingston Park Reserve foreshore :>. and I here completed 
the Smoking process. Many people assembled for I he rituals. I Iere he lea rued Ihe 
names of the 1 wo men who had killed his | ac://<7/7 | . When the body had been 
.flunked |Tji:rbukii said, "I gq back now". 

I Carrying his |naajari| he w alked along I lie coasi nniil he came lo a place near 

jlalleii V Cove, where he rested with his burden. As he declined he began to think 

aliout his nephew, and burst out crying Ika reib/un| ( * : » > . The tears ran down 

| l: .i \Y. K','H'i>.'i> Smith. \|vH,s M«rJ k^Ontla of llu- Au>l en IJcill Almii-iiiir. |>. 'AST. 

('-') Also [> f-i j n - - 1 1 1 1 ■ - • ■■ I Tjilluukr. T M'lin iii-ic, Tju'erbruke, These wonle and all native worths 
in Mir |i.tsi'hi paper •■W^.v th.-ni those quoted Prom miYly Uutliors sire &pel1 nvcurrlinji to w iyi cm 

ilBlf] nl (he riiivcr.sin i>f Adelaide. Set! Tind.-ih'. I.Vronls S. Awsl. .M u -.. V, W>Hfl, [>p, 2l>2 2l 

(K») Tin indeterminate rawal mrvaxi\ j ainl tin- >■< ...•-..,,. ml d hnve noi hitherto bepn insect iii our 

l i ;i nsrrijil io.ns. The hilh-r is ;i <l sound [jrillii mured u'Mli tin Inutile placed in ;i position liHweni 

uotli ami indicated in imi notation hy an itnlicisccil d. I] tvas Rral iitytircrl bj Prof. J, A. 

In iIhii oiul 'Hie i»f tin' prmwiit winters (X.Ii.'rY) during Hie nnnuMlSn^ irf some 'Jnrilri 'U;ihl 

legemln. The t-orreBponding I smunl bi n*jn*e«entec1 to the place name Pottirtain, rworrtcnl in fhe 

irr-.rni paper. 

TftfDALE AND M-OIWTFOR] o A V.\ I I ( >\ '»!• KONttAR-ATJ I tVli IOJ 

his Pace, and inhere they foil to the ground a spi'mg n| " water welled up; the iiativeN 
li'd there to camp because ol the spring. Me them journeyed to | r r.* i n i>.» in nj | 
i Port \ T (wjrJiiML'-;-i i, where he bursl into Eresli teat's, lie went on to [Potartaaj] 
; lied Ochre QoVi\ Seclion :;i)L!, Hundred Of Witlunga), whore ho cried agailL; 
auplrher spring of wHta? came up. Be then walked to fRUJ^arurj] (4 rVu hundred 
yarda south of Porl WUIunga jetty ). The I icle was? out. Ho sat down on ihe heaeh 
and i-nrd onee mtine. The [TwM] ("tears] dropped on the sand, causing a ftpriug 
to appear. At High tide the sea covered it, but \vbeu the nea wenl down again water 
could be obtained by Keratebing in the s.-md, n remains so to-day. The old man 
Mn-ii carried ins nephew's bodj to the beach at Sellixik*H Hill, where he noticed h 
line bay, suitable tor catching Ken Kalnioxi mi nigbt-1 ime. Life tears bronghl a spring 
into being there. From Qeliiek's Hill he went along the coaat, passing | 'Maitpa'jja I 
(Mypouga) on Ins left, and came to |Kartkailii)'ga| [Section 101s Hundred ol' 
Jfaukalilla) just south of the place known to European as Gamekalinga Head. 

Hon- (Ihto is ,u little swmiip tl;i1. whore f^wtn] urow s. vor\ • ^reen like a reed ''' 

Then he vveni to fKoijaraliVjga]; where ihcre is a jperld] (i.e. a c;ivc or hole in 

the hill i. About half a mile south Ihcre is a small creek, which is also a camp 

-Insf before Tjlirbuka reached the |pe*ki] I KoqaratJ iqga |. he -sat down and cried: 

;i small spring flowed there. He did nol go into I ho euvfe bu1 walked sonlh. passing 

ihe month of the ereek, ami travelled ahum- tfie coanta] cliffy all the way to Cape 

Jervifl | 'I'.'ii.-ewiiJ- a:i)k ;. Krom Cape dervis he relurned northwards along 1 Ik* 

foreshore below the oliiTs, and came to another I perki | or t$Ve called |Ja uarwin , 

(aecpt'dmg to another inlormanl ), He h-l'i tbe body of hus | uan|ari| otltskle, and 

walking into the darkness found a place where there w&a a Ktiitable Ledge of rock. 

He |)iit clicks up, just ;is was done when tin- body waa being smoked, carried ihe 

body in. placed l1 on the platform, and left ir. He did uoi emerge b*o»i the cave 

hut went on into Ihe depths of Ihe hill For a Long \\;iy. He eventually came onl on 
Ihe Top of ihe hills near a s\\;mip Ulgaon. lie eon Id see I he sun shining thl'OUgll a 
bdg]) crevice. He climhed up, and as he looked ahoul. he said : " Well, there itf 110 
use in m\ Irving Lilc« a man any more." 

H'' therefore Irausl'ormed himself into a bird, ended \tjji;rhnU\ la species <d 
il>isj,aml spenl his I ime <-;<1 clu ttg fish in i he tagflOll. 

Although only ;< eommoi] man |Tji:rhuki| was « Wonderful person. He 
nol so powerful as | \ii riimhiri | . ImiI nevertheless had power to UltiucJlCO 


• l'"»h;jiav Tvplin). h i-,!,. i, i ||, ilk,- i'^fta |k;oi<li| Of the I'fcwJ -.Inn- of ilus jilunl 

• i 'i.l iua, <-a Mi.- Mm- mi v Rivot nutivos scinjettmuH imuJc them of \ j/n ■. ri |. 

502 Records of THE S.A. Mismm 


The few implements are reminiscenl of the Mnrandian horizons as defined by 
Hale and Tindale |17 j for their rock shelter a1 Devon Downs. 

There are traces of a bone implement eiillure. bill Only 0110 stone showing 
secondary work was discovered* The abundance of firesl ieks suggests thai Hie cave 
3(*rved as a refuge daring inclement weal her. or, alternately, as a camping place 
tor fishing parties. 

The absence of any form Of haskelware is remarkable. Aimas ( 1S ) shows a 
rial ive encampment at Rapid Hay, some fottr or five miles south, in which a number 
d£ mats and baskets of tin* type used by the Lower Murray tribe*) ean be seen hang- 
rug on their shelters. \o sat isfaelory reason ean he given for the absence Of Ihese 

Since the publication of this paper, Vail i 1<J i has described the methods n etl 
bj i lie Buang people of Mapos, New Guinea, when preparing their dead Eor burial. 

These methods have several points of resemblance with I hose of Hie natives who 
lived in the Lower Murray and Second Valley districts. 

According to Vail, the body, after death, was flexed, covered wilh lapa cloth 
ami grass, and securely roped. Drying was carried oui by placing the corpse in an 
underground, grass-packed chamber for a period of from one to five months. At 
ihe c]\(\ of 1 hat time the then dried body was taken Ottt, and. after further wrap 

ping, was placed on a ledge or in a cave not accessible to the larger animals, such 
as dogs or pigs* 

In conclusion, the writers desire to thank Ihe many who have assisted in the 
work of excavation and in the preparation of this paper: Miss Eardley, for the 
identification Of botanical specimens; Dr. K. Couper Black, for assistance in the 
preparation of notes on the burial; Mr. 11. 11. Finlayson and Mr. B. Cotton Eor 
the identification of the mammals and the shells respectively; and Last, but by no 
means least, the Rev. Lowyck, for his unstinted help and hospitality during the 
whole time the excavation was in progress. 

(17) Bale, 11. M. :oid Tindale, X. B. Rue. s. Ausir. Mua„ iv, 1930, pp. 177-183 aiwl 203, 
i i s ) Aitgaa, <J. i*\, Booth Australia [l tost rated, pi. xxxlsr, 

( »'.>} V:iil. OcrniMM, \ il. 1936, pp, 63-08, pi. A. 


By Bernard C. Cotton, Conchologist, South Australian Museum 


The remarkable occurrence of fossil Chitons in South Australia has been recorded in this 
publication ( x ). Amongst the same material taken from the Torrensville Bore by Mr. W. J. 
Kimber are ten specimens of a Venerid bivalve hitherto undescribed. The generic 
location has presented some difficulty, but it is here placed in a new genus, and a 
previously described recent species is cited as Genotype. 

Glycydonta gen. nov. 

Shell solid, transversely ovate, equivalve, subequilateral ventral margin convex through 
its entire length; hinge of three cardinal teeth in each valve, and a series of valid 
crenulations, strongly resembling taxodont "teeth" of the Glycymerid variety, arising 
apparently from the crenulation of the antero and postero-dorsal margin by the external 
radial sculpture of the outer surface; sculpture of concentric lamellae and numerous 
radials which fimbriate the lamellae; internal ventral margin coarsely denticulate, anterior 
and posterior much more finely denticulate. 



By BERNARD C. COTTON, Cow holooist, Soi tii ►Vwtraijan Musbum. 

Pig. 1. 

Tin: reTuarkahle Occurrence of fossil Chitons in South Australia has been recorded 
in this publication (V). Amongst the same material taken ItOIU the Torrensville 
I We by Mr. W. ■). Kimber are ten specimens of a Venerid bivalve hitherto un- 
deSCi'ibed. The generic Locution has presented some diffici illy, bill it is here placed 

in a new get) I IK, ;md ;i previously deserihed recent species is ciled ;is (iciiotype. 

Gl/YOYDONTA geil. now 

Shell solid, I ransversely o\\-ite. e<piivalve, snboqnilateral ventral margin i'ihiwn 
through iis entire Length; binge of three cardinal teeth in each valve, and a series 
of valid erennlai ion-, strongly resembling taxodont "teeth" of the Glycymend 

variety, arising apparently from the ercmilalion of (he antcro and postern dorsal 

Fig, 1. ''lin\iiii"ni,i priito'inariea: a, titteftial ricw; I), external vhw ( x 5) 

margin by the external radial sculpture of the outer surface* sculpture <>f eoueen 
trie lamellae and numerous radials which fimbriate the lamellae; internal venlral 
margin coarsely denticulate, anterior and ponterior much more finely denticulate. 

Type V< nu& marica Linn. 

Vhiond marica is recorded from the Philippine Islands, Queensland, New 

(1 ) A&hbv mhI (Tottim, R*t% 8, Ausi. Mas., v, I'.riii, n, 509, fig. 1 

504 Records of the S.A. Museum 

South Wales, and Geraidton, Western Australia ( Verco, one valve). There is also 
;i perfect living specimen,, from the Verco collection in the S.A. Museum, D. 12 
length, 18 mm.; height, 12-5 mm.: section, 9 mm., labelled lf Chiom {Qhipfatlth 
ciiithniiii) mwricu Linn., Victoria'*. 

The species is widely distributed in the tndo Pacific, and ii is possible that 
more thriii one species ts represented under this name. 

VereiHolpa Lredale, 15)30 (Genotype V. ethiea tredale), which is regarded as 
.-. section of Chiom by Thiele I - ) 3 is allied to GRjjeydonict, but whereas Fevoniolpa 
has only very weal marginal crenulations on either side of the cardinals. Glyry- 
< inn la has a disi inei series of taxodont-lilce u teeth' 3 &n either side. 

dwomatocwftK'a Schumacher, L817 — - Cryptognxmrna Morch, 18.53 (Genotype 
4 t flcxtwsa Linn. Erom China) is probably the most nearly allied iivnus. Rnl in 
thai genus the shell is triangular, unequal ami prolonged Hexuous, and attenuated 

I llA<V!>uNTA !'i;OTO.\IAi;ir\. 
Shell solid, 1 1'M nsversely Ovate, hinge as in the suberenerie description, with 

twelve (I'ltffi/iu /•/<-/ l ik<' "teeth." on either side of the three cardinals; sculpture of 

about twelve eoneentrie bimellac. with numerous, regular, subordinate radial ribs 
which fimbriate the concentric lamellae; lunule uol well defined, escutcheon obso- 
lete; ventral margin coarsely grenniate iniermdly. crenutations in tto way re- 
sembling i he lateral r, teeth" of the hinge, Umbos small, slightly prominent. 

ilolotypc: Length 9 mm., height 7-s mm., section 5'4 mm. 

Toi-i-ensville Bore, South Australia, depth -!-!»• n iVei. Upper Pliocene (Beg. 
No, 1). 12888, S.A. Museum). Differs from Cliiom nwicti in being much smaller, 
and in not having tin 4 lamellae foliaeeoiis on the posterior dorso-ventral angle. 

Another species which could possibly be placed with Ghiunc marica is Chione 

sr.inJiflnris Iledley. from Queensland, though this species has mueh more numerous 
and (iner rrenulation on the autero and poster O-dorsa] border of the hinge. 

lu concluding, I have to ihauk Mr. r. J, Gabriel, Honorary OqncholOgisf of 
the Na1 kma! Museum. Melbourne, and Miss I. Crespin, ( tonunonwealth Palaeonto^ 
logist, for comparing this species with others iu their collections. 

(2j fredale, Rec, Ansi. \ius.. X \ii, 1930, p, ;;ii7. 


By Bernard C. Cotton, Conchologist, South Australian Museum 


In 1878 Angas (*) recorded the Southern Australian Baler Shell under the name Melo 
miltonis Gray (type locality Swan River, Western Australia) from "Fowler's Bay, to the 
westward of Port Lincoln". Verco ( 2 ) recorded three specimens, all dead, taken by the 
Federal Trawler "Endeavour" in 90 fathoms, off Eucla. 

Mr. Elver T. Wheare, of Ardrossan, South Australia, recently took eight living specimens 
of this rare Baler Shell at Cape Thevenard in lV 2 fathoms, and presented two of the 
specimens to this Museum. A typical example is described below. 


l'\ lil'KNARI) C. COTTON, luSril m ,, Sm. ni AUSTRALIAN M I ■.. i , •„, 

Fig. 1-2. 

In* 1878 Alibis ( 1 ) recorded the Southern Australia*! Raler Shell tinder the name 
of J/llto miltoniz Gray (type locality Swan River, Western A.u*tedid) From 
•• Fowler's Bay* ft, the westward of Porl Lincoln". Ver-co - recorded three 
p ■■ rim em, all dead, laken toy the Federal Trawler "Ejideavoiir" in 90 fathoms 
off fcuela. 

Mr, BlvwT. Wilkin*, of Ardrossan, South Australia, recently tools eighl living 
|M,-ihi ( -i,;.i,|' (his r;<iT 15,-ih'i- Shrl! ;if ra pr Thevona rd in H f al horns, a 1 1. 1 presented 
fwo o\' ihc s|M'i-im<-iis in i his M unci i m. A typical example is describee] below. 

Shell large, solid, cylindrical ; colour ehertmii brawn, decorated with trian- 
gular white blotches the acuti' aisles of which foe fche doramti ) point toward* Hie 
margin of the outer lip: aperture yellowish-white., columella and internal margin 
of the onier lip orange coloured ; outer surface of the shell, opposite the outer lip, 
eroded; whorls three, protocoled large* and prominent, hf Four whorls, rapidly 
increasing, and differentiated from the real of the shell by a simple rad'inl Lip? 
growth striae close, with penodfeal coarse social ^stations corresponding and a rift- 
ing from I lie base of i.he ->pirios ; spines incurved, and present almosl to the finish- 
ing tip Of the projnenneli ; oilier 111* ihmk. COUCftVe medially w lien viewed pOSteiiorlj 

Mud laterally columella slightly concave, tfitb four plaits, the anterior three .strong:, 
the posterior one weak bui well defined. Length 228 mm.., breadth 126 mm.. beighl 
of protoconcb 10 mm., breadfh 16*5 mm. Thickness of outer lip near margin, R*3 
mm. Cape Thevenard. alive, 1.1 fathom.-. February 1.1. 1935, S.A. Museum, Beg. 
Xo. I). 11 132, Colfeeted by Mr. Elver T. Wheare. 

The species may be distinguished from others hy the eoncfrve outer lip, large 

prninincnl pro! OCOnch, snlidily, nm l slrona periodic nx'm) grOwth COftta lions*. 

Large adult specimens are so mtie.1i eroded that the body whorl is transliiehi. 
S fet the initial ihi<-knoss of the shell is appamil a I and near I he margin of 1 he omm 
lip, w hmv a large specimen is 8 mm. thick to juveirile speeimtas where there has 
been little or no erosion, the protoeonch is axially criukied subsifturally, and finely 

nhsnlrtely spirally ribbed. The posterior columella plait is always less de\ eloped 

1 Angn«, l\ /•. &., () . 867), 1S7S. 
I - ) Vvxuo t Timi - . Roy. Sue. s. Ausi .. kxxvI, p, lii'D, W2&. 


Records oi the s.a. Museum 

than the other three. In one specimen fl is apparently absent, though there are 
indieal ioiva I hat this us an abnormality, as l here is an accumulation of callus dftpo&il 
Oyer the area whevetlie plait should he. In aitother the Fourth ot top plail is bh- 
mivI\ absent. One gpeeim-exi said t<> co tanni Streaky Bay has the remains of a 

Htjgi I. W- ''- w ■'•''■'". vw<3 raj : vioil ml feud Ixtterrtl virw i ■ i > ■ ♦ > ■ . 

• Kirsp light rbvown period racitm, bid all other apeciroena, living and deild, kyv. 

v. itliiun it veal igc? of it. 

Mr. Whe&re deaeribea I hn aiiimal as lame Iot the slu-il, ehocolate^brotVUi with 

• i rtfl-iikBiffliitd nifiikiiin's. He sayn I bushel] bvmtuflted with tlie outer [lpvru'tieally 
above vfhen ike Sidmal w <n rest op feeding, when in motion the lip is situated 

laterally, well hrlow the cputre line. I iifortunateiy n<> spiM-jiMi'ii with the animal 

intacl has beau received al the s.a. bid it is hoped to obtain one shortly. 

I'l-iim the a<M-onii>aii\ tug rhart it will l" 1 seen thai Me/fl rlhilffr'Hh L^ilge* faQVO 

Cotton — Southern AUSTRALIAN Baler Shell 


Cape Tlicvi'iiiinl to King Gtonfftc Smiiid, living in l.j fathoms, and deatf oti the 

beach, and al 90 falhoms. Our Lat*gesl adull measures 305 mill. lon«r. LhOUgll some 

of the specimens taken by Mr. Whearc wen* said to be -"> per e-eut. bigger thai! this. 

Fig. & -l/'/'t tinlluitis \',vu\ : ilfij'Rftj find Hpipfll V'i*«V n-iil. 

The average {1iitt@n#iofJK of specimens pxtfininecl are; feiijrfh isbl nun., width 
102*8 nun., keighl <»r prtitneoueh 1Q*3 mm., width ol! pi'otflttoiiob 15*7 mm. This is 

• ■asily the lariresl (i;isl ropOd found in South Australia. 

Other records of this, species are as follnws: Mi*. (J, Spry, of Cedunu. found 
ihrce Living specimens at I >ecres. Bay, south of Thrvenard, in 1!''2!L one of which 
was presented t«» Key. Stanley Harper, Ucv. I». A. Weeding, of Ilallcll. found one 
dead and broken shell at Smoky Bay, 

The paintings e-f Mcfo nuHoiiis <irav hero reproduced were prepared by Mr. 
Cu B. Uix. 

5 OS 

Records of the S.A. Museum 

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